The first column gives the Arabic or common arithmetical figures; the second, the Roman numerals, which consist of seven letters, viz., I, one; V, five; X, ten; L, fifty; C, one hundred; D, five hundred; and M, one thousand. NUMERATION TABLE. In this Table are embodied the first principles of arithmetic. Every three figures have different powers and names. The first three are units, tens, and hundreds; the second three are thousands; and the third division, millions. The largest number in the preceding Table (987,654,321) would be thus written in words :-Nine hundred and eightyseven millions, six hundred and fifty-four thousands, three hundred and twenty-one. B { ARITHMETICAL SIGNS. The sign of Addition; as 6+2 = 8, shows that 6 added to 2 is equal to 8. The sign of Subtraction; as 12 - 57, shows that 5 subtracted from 12 leaves 7 remaining. The sign of Multiplication; as 7 x 963; that is, 7 multiplied by 9 is equal to 63. = The sign of Division; as 28 ÷ 7 4, expresses that 28 divided by 7 gives 4 the quotient. The sign of Equality; for example, 2 + 3 = 5, which shows that 2 added to 3 is equal to 5. between two quantities denotes their difference. denotes that the figures under the line must be multiplied together, thus 13 - 4 x 8 1, that is, 13 less 4 multiplied by 3 is equal to 1. = S denotes that the upper number is to be divided by the lower. The sign placed before a number shows that its square root is to be taken. Thus 9 denotes the square root of 9. Other roots are denoted by small figures placed within the angle. Thus, is the sign of the third or cube root; the sign of the fourth or biquadrate root. { Proportion. 9:3 : 18 6, signifies As 9 is to 3, so is 18 to 6. Quadrantes, or Farthings. Denarii, or Pence. Solidi, or Shillings. Farthing, or quarter of anything. Halfpenny, or half of anything. Three Farthings, or three-quarters of anything. is |