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The first column gives the Arabic or common arithmetical figures; the second, the Roman numerals, which consist of seven letters, viz., I, one; V, five; X, ten; L, fifty; C, one hundred; D, five hundred; and M, one thousand.
In this Table are embodied the first principles of arithmetic. Every three figures have different powers and names. The first three are units, tens, and hundreds; the second three are thousands; and the third division, millions. The largest number in the preceding Table (987,654,321) would be thus written in words :-Nine hundred and eightyseven millions, six hundred and fifty-four thousands, three hundred and twenty-one.
The sign of Addition; as 6+2 = 8, shows that 6 added to 2 is equal to 8.
The sign of Subtraction; as 12 - 57, shows that 5 subtracted from 12 leaves 7 remaining.
The sign of Multiplication; as 7 x 963; that is, 7 multiplied by 9 is equal to 63.
The sign of Division; as 28 ÷ 7 4, expresses that 28 divided by 7 gives 4 the quotient.
The sign of Equality; for example, 2 + 3 = 5, which shows that 2 added to 3 is equal to 5. between two quantities denotes their difference. denotes that the figures under the line must be multiplied together, thus 13 - 4 x 8 1, that is, 13 less 4 multiplied by 3 is equal to 1.
S denotes that the upper number is to be divided by the lower.
The sign placed before a number shows that its square root is to be taken. Thus 9 denotes the square root of 9. Other roots are denoted by small figures placed within the angle. Thus, is the sign of the third or cube root; the sign of the fourth or biquadrate root.
9:3 : 18 6, signifies As 9 is to 3, so is 18 to 6.
Quadrantes, or Farthings.
Denarii, or Pence.
Solidi, or Shillings.
Farthing, or quarter of anything.
Halfpenny, or half of anything.
Three Farthings, or three-quarters of anything.