Of Confederation and perpetual Union between the States of New-Hampshire, Maj£

f sachusetts-Bay> Rhode-Island and Providence Plantations; Connecticut^ New<-Yvrkj New* yersey, Pennsylvania^ Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North-Carolina, South-Cfrrolshil and Georgia. -;n,?

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Article I. HT^ H E stile of this confederacy shall be u. The United1 Stileo'fthc

- 1 "States of America;*' ,::n Confederacy

- Art. II. Each state retains its sovereignty, freedotn and mifependeace, f^Y'd2'1^ and every power, jurisdiction and right, wh^ch is not by .this confederation dence^f the" expresly delegated to the United States, in Congress assembled,..' . . .. respective


Art. III. The said states hereby severally, enter into, a firm league osv B*sigri<jf th* friendship with each other, for their common defence, the security os their, Confederatiliberties, and their mutual and general welfare, binding themselves to assist on» as •* reeach other, aeainst all force offered to, or attacks made upon them, or any. Eards c°mof them, on account of religion, sovereignty, trade, or any other pretence •whatever/-.."'. .• -.if"-' o .; :,-| K. s,

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. Art. IV. The better to secure and perpetuate mutual friendship and Socjaj md intercourse among the people of the different .states in.this union, the free mutual inter* inhabitants of each of these states, paupers, vagabonds, and fugitives from course among justice excepted, shall be entitled to all privileges and fmrnunities of free t*M St8tes* Citizens in the several states j and the people of each stare" shall have free ingress and regress to and from any other state, and shall enjoy therein all the privileges of trade and commerce, subject to the same duties, impositU ons and restrictions as the inhabitants ,thereof respectively, provided that such restriction shall not extend so far as to prevent the removal of property imported into any state, to any other state of which the owner is an inhabit tant; provided also that no imposition, duties or restriction {half be laid by; any state, on the property of the united states, or either of them.

If any person guilty of, or charged with t-eason* felony, or other high' misdemeanor in any state, shall flee from justice, and be found in any of the united states, he shall upon demand of the Governor, or executive power, of the state from which he fled, be delivered up and removed to thej state having jurisdiction of his offence.

Full faith and credit shall be given in each of these states to the records; aQs and judicial proceedings of the courts and magistrates of every other

Art. V. For the more convenient management of the general inte- Manner cf .rests of the United States, delegates shall be annually appointed in .such SeCongreft manner as the legislature of each state shall direct, to meet in Congress on 0f the States, the first Monday in November, in every year, with a power reserved to with the quaeach state, to recal its delegates, or any of them, at any time within the Jjfications & year, and to fend others in their stead, for the remainder of the year. Eekgatea

No state shall be represented in congress by left than two, nor by more than seven members; arid no "person shall be capable of being a delegate for more thah three years, in any term of fix years; nor shall any person being a delegate, be capable of holding any office under the united states* for which he, or another for his benefit receives any salary, fees or emolument of any .kind. (! I

ilAcA state shah maintain its dfch dete&ates in* meeting of the states, and while they act as members of the committee of tfk states.

ttf detSrftfiriirJg questions in theWtfcd states in congrese assembled, each state shall have one vote.

Freedom of speech and debate in congress shall not be ifftpeached or Questioned in any court, or place out of congress, and the members of congress shall be protected in theirpersons from arrests and imprisonments, duv ring the time of their going to and from, and attendance on congress, except for treason, felony, or breach of the peace.

Ar*. VI. No state without the consent of the united stares ih congress dflfcmbledi shall send any ertibafly to* or receive any embassy from, or enter into any conference, agreement, alliance or treaty With ant Icing, prince Restraint! or state; nor sliall any person holding any office of profit or trust under the itpoti the ses ufiited states er 'any of thernj accept of ariy present, emolument, office or narate statw. t^e 0f any ^jsid whatever from any king, prince Ot foreign state ; nor shalt trie united states in congress assembled, or any of them, ■grant any title of DObiHty.

No two or rhore states shall enter into any treaty, confederation or alliance whatever between them, without the consent of the united states in r• congress assembled, specifying accurately the purposes for which the fame is to be entered intto, and how long it shall continue.

No state shall lay any imposts or duties j which may interfere with any stipulations in treaties* entered into by the united states ih congress assem^ bled, with arty king, .prince or state, in pursuance of any treaties already proposed by congress, to the courts of France and Spain.

No vessels 'of wafihall be kept up in time of 'peace any'state, except such number only, as mall be deemed tteceflary by the united states in con. grets alftmbled, for the defence, of such state, or its trade; hor matt any Sddy of fortes bfe kept tip by any state, in time of peace, except such number only, as Snthejudgmefit'Ofthe Crn'ited states, in cohgrefs assembled, shall be deemed requisite to garrison the forts necessary for the defence of such state •, but every state shall always keep Up a well regulated ahd disciplined militia, sufficiently armed and accoutred, and shaft provide and cohftandy have ready for use, in public stores, a due number of field pieces ahd tents, and a proper quantity of arals, ammun ition and camp equipage.

No state shall engage in any war without the consent of the united states ih congrefe assembled, unless such state be actually invaded by enemies, or Ihall have received certain advice of a resolution toing formed by some nation of Indians to invade such state, and the danger it so imminent as not to admit of a delay, till the united states in congress assembled can be consulted: nor shall any state grant commissions to any ships or vessels of war.-nor testers of marque or reprisal, except it be after a declaration of war by the «hited states in congress assembled, and then only against the kingdom or state and the subjects thereof, against which war has been so declared, and "under such regulations as shall be established by the united states in Con«.; gress afiembled, unless such state be infested by pira**&, in which cafe vessels of war may be fitted out for that occasion, and kept so long as the danger


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shall continue, or until the united states in congress assembled shall deter* mine otherwise.

Art. VII. When land-forces are raised by any state for the common L: ,* defence, all officers of or under the rank of colonel, (hall be appointed by ScongS the legislature of each state respectively, by whom such forces (hall be raised, and the sepat>r in such manner as such state shall direct, and all vacancies shall be ratc States, filled up by the state which first made the appointment.

Art. VIII. Axt charges of war, and all other expences that shall tac incurred for the common defence or general welfare, and allowed by the united states in congress assembled, shall be defrayed out of a common treasury, which shall be supplied by the several states, in proportion to the value of all land within each state, granted to or surveyed for any person, as such land and the buildings and improvements thereoB shall be estimated according to such mode as the united states iri congress assembled; lhall from time to time direct and appoint. The taxes for paying that proportion shall be laid and levied by the authority and direction, of the legis-. latures of the several states within the lime agreed upon by the united states in congress assembled.

Art. IX. The united states in congress assembled, mall have the sole and exclusive right and power of determining on peace and war, except in ?c#*ii($ the cases mentioned in the sixth article—offending and receiving ambassa,- tfeqfirefi dors—entering into treaties and alliances, provided that no treaty ef commerce shall be made whereby the legislative power of the respective states shall be restrained from imposing such imposts and duties on foreigners, as; their own people arc subjected to, or from prohibiting the exportation pj importation of any species of goods or commodities whatsoever—»of esta* Wishing rules for deciding in all cafes, what captures on land or Water fh.aH be legal, and in what manner prizes taken by lane} or naval forces, in the fer* Vice of the united states shall be divided or appropriatedr-of granting leu ters of marque and reprisal in times of peace—appointing courts tor the, trial of piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, and es$ courts for receiving and determining finally appeals in all cafes of captures,, provided that no member of congress shall he appointed, a j u,4ge of auy ot; the said courts,

The united states in congress assembled shall also be. the fast resort orf appeal in all disputes and differences now subsisting, pr that hereafter ma£ ^rise between two or more states concerning boundary, jurisdiction, or any other cause whatever j which authority shall always be exercised in she manBer following:—Whenever the legislative or executive authority or lawful agent of any state in controversy with another shall present a petition to con* gress stating the matter in question, and praying for a hearing, notice there* of 1 be given, by order of congress, to the legislative or executive author rity of the other state in controversyr and a day assigned for the appearanc^ of the parties by their lawful agents, who shall then be directed to apppintr by joiat consent, commissioners or judges to constitute a court for hearing and determining the matter in question ; but if they cannot agree, congress. iba41 name three persons out ot each of the united states, and from the. hit of such persons each pirty shall alternately strikeout orie,the petitioners berginning, until the number shall be reduced to thirteen; and from that number not kss than seven, nor more than nine names, as congress shall direct* shall, in the presence of congress, be drawn out by lot $ and the persona whose names shall be so drawn, or any five of them, shall be commissioners! or judges, to hear and finally determine the controversy, so always as a mar jor part of the judges who shall hear the cause shall agree in the determination: And if either party shalt neglect to attend at the day appointed, without shewing reasons, which congress shall judge sufficient, or being present shall refuse to strike, the congress shall proceed to nominate three persons

Minner of defraying public Ex J peaces.'

bat of each state, arid thesecretary of congress shall strike in behalf of such party abient or refusing; and .the judgment and sentence of the court to be appointed, in the manner before prescribed, shall be finsl and conclusive ; and if any of the. .parties shall refuse to submit to the authority of such court, or to appear or defend their claim or cause, the court shall nevertheless proceed to pronounce sentence, or judgment, which shall in like manner be final and decisive, the judgment or sentence and other proceedings being iri either cafe transmitted to congress, and lodged among the acts of congress for the security of the parties concerned: provided that every commissioner, before he sits in judgment, shall take an oath, to be administred by one of the judges of the supreme or superior court of the state, where the cause shall be tried," well and truly to hear and determine the matter in question, according to the best of his judgment, without favour, affection or hope of reward :" provided also that no state siiall be deprived of territory for the benefit of the united states.

All controversies' concerning the private right-of foil claimed under different grants of two or more states, whose jurisdictions as they may respect such lands, and the states which passed such grants are adjusted, the said grants or either of them being at the same time claimed to have originated antecedent to such settlement of jurisdiction, shall on the petition of either party to the congress of the united states, be finally determined is near as may be in the same manner as is before prescribed for deciding disputes respecting territorial jurildiction between different states.

Ttiit united states in congress assembled shall also have the sole and exclusive right and power of regulating the alloy and value of coin struck by their own authority, of by that of the respective states—sixing the standard of weights and measures throughout the united states—regulating the trade and managing all affairs with the Indians, not members of any of the states, provided that the legiflative right of any state within its own limits be not infringed or violated-—establishing and regulating post-offices from one state to anothef, throughout all the united states, and exacting such postage on the papers pasting through the same as mav be requisite to defray the expences of the said office—appointing all officers of the land forces, in the service of the united states, excepting regimental officers—appointing all the officers of the naval forces, and commissioning all officers whatever in the service of the united states—making rules for the government and regulation of the said land and naval forces, and, directing their operations.

Tki united states in congress assembled shall have* authority to appoint a committee, to sit in the recess of congress, to be denominated * A Committee of the States" and to consist of one delegate from each state: and to appoint such other committees and civil officers as may be necessary for managing the general affairs of the united states under their directinn-^-to appoint one of their number to preside, proTided that no person be allowed to serve in the office of president more than one year in any term of three years; to ascertain the necessary sums of money to be raised for the service of the united states, and to appropriate and apply the same for defraying the public expences—to borrow money, or emit bills on the credit of the united states, transmitting every half year to the respective states an account of the sums of money so borrowed of emitted-^-to build and equip a navy—to agree upon the rtumber of land forces, and tornake requisitions from each state f^r its quota, in proportion to the number of white inhabitants in such state; which requisition shall be binding, and thereupon the legiflature of each state shall appoint the regimental officers, raise the men, and cloath, arm. and equip them in a soldier like manner, at the expence of the united states,

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and the officers and men so cloathed, armed and equipped Jhalt march trj the place appointed, and within the time agreed on by the united states ih congress assembled : But if the united states in congress assembled shall; on consideration of circumstances judge proper that any state should not raise men, or should raise a smaller number than its quofa, and that any other state should raise a greater number of men than the quota thereof, such extra number shall be raised, officered, cloathed, armed and equipped in the same manner as the quota of such state, unless the legiflature of such Hate shall judge that such extra number cafsnOt be safely spared put s>f the fame, in which case they shall raise, officer, cloath, arm and equip as many of such extra number as they judge can be safely .spared. And the officers and men lo cloathed, armed and equipped, shall march to the place appointed, and within the time agreed on by the united states in congress assembled.

The united states in congress assembled mail never engage in a war, nor grant letters of marque and reprisal, in, time of peace, nor enter into any treaties at alliances, nof coih money,. nor regulate the value thereof, nor ascertain the sums and expences necessary for the defence and welfare of the united states, or any of them, nor emit bills, nor borrow money on the credit of the united states, nor appropriate money, nor agree upon the; number of vessels of war, to be built or purchased, Ot the number of land or sea forces to be raised, nor appoint a commander in chief of the army or navy, unless nine states assent to the same: nor shall a question on any other point, except for adjourning from day to day be determined, unless by the votes of a majority of the united states in congress assembled.

The congress of the united states shall have power to adjourn to any time within the year, and to any place within the united states, so that no period of adjournment be for a longer duration than the space of six months, and shall publish the journal of their proceedings monthly, except such parts thereof relating to treaties', alliances or military operations, as in their judgment require fecresy; and the yeas and nays of the delegates of each state on any question shalt be entered on the journal, when it is desired by any delegate j and the delegates of a state, or any of them, at his or their request shall be furnished with a transcript of the said journal, except such parts as are above excepted, to lay before the legiflatures of the several states.

Art. X. The committee of the states, or any nine of them, shall be authorised to execute, in the recess of congress, such of the powers of congress as the united states in congress assembled, by the consent of nine states, shall from time to time think expedient to vest them with; provided that no power be delegated to the said committee, for the exercise of which, by the articles of confederation, the voice of nine states in the congress of the united states assembled is requisite.

Art. XI. Canada acceeding to this confederation, and joining in the measures of the united states, shall be admitted into, and entitled to all the advantages of this union: but-no other colony shall be admitted into the lame, unless such admission be agreed to by nine states.

Art. XII. All biHs of credit emitted, monies borrowed and debts contracted by, or under the authority of congress, before the assembling of the united states, in pursuance of the present confederation, shall be deemed and considered as a charge against the united states, for payment and satisfaction whereof the laid united states, and the public feith are hereby solemnly pledged.


Committee of the States & its powers.'

Admission of; Canada, and: other States to the Union.'

Public faith pledged for past engage^ ments of Congrese.

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