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CHAPTER

PAGE
328-337

XXI.

XXII.

THE INTERREGNUM TO THE SIEGE OF COPENHAGEN
THE CHURCH'S DOWNFALL AND LOSS OF NATIONAL

INDEPENDENCE.

338-353

355-357
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APPENDIX 1.-"BIGEFRIDUS NORWEGENSIS EPISCOPUS
APPENDIX II.--THE NORWEGIAN stavkirker AND THEIR ORIGIN
APPENDIX III.-LIST OF BISHOPS AND ARCHBISHOPS OF

NIDAROS.

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LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL AUTHORITIES.

In the following list will be found the principal authorities, both medieval and modern, used in this history. The list is not, however, by any means an exhaustive one. The Heimskringla of Snorre Sturlassøn (b. 1178, d. 1241). From the

earliest times down to the battle of Re, 1177. The Sverre's Saga, Haakon's, Guthorm's and Inge's Saga, Haakon

Haakonsson's Saga, by Karl Jonssøn, Sturla Thordssøn and others.

From 1177 to 1263. Fagrskinna. A history from Halfdan the Black to Sverre. Agrip. A fragment of great value, probably from 1190. From Halfdan

to Sigurd Jorsalfarer. Flateyarbok. A MS, from the island of Flatey (Iceland): a collection of

various Sagas to 1395. Saga of Olaf Trygvesson, by Odd, a monk of Thingøre, in Iceland. Olaf den helliges Saga, edited by Munch and Unger (Christiania), 1853. Bishop Arne's Saga, and Bishop Laurentius's Saga. 13th century. Danorum Historie, by Saxo-Grammaticus. Historia de Antiquitate regum Norwegiensium, by Theodoricus Monachus :

in Langebek's Scriptores rerum Danicarum, Vol. V. Gesta Hammaburgensis Ecclesice Pontificum, by Adam of Bremen.

The following Chronicles in places referring to Norway
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle : Florence of Worcester, William of Malmesbury,

Simeon of Durham, Roger de Hoveden, Matthew Paris, William of
Jumièges.

Norges Gamle Love (The Old Laws of Norway), Vols. I.–V.(Christiania),

1846–95. A collection of the ancient ecclesiastical and civil

legislation, and other documents, from the earliest times to 1387. Diplomatarium Norvegicum. A collection of documents relating to Norway ; first volume issued in 1849, and the remainder at

'
intervals since that date.

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LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL AUTHORITIES.

Det Norske Folks istorie, by P. A. Munch, in eight vols. (Christiania),

the two last relating to the union period.
Norges Historie to 1387, by Rudolf Keyser, two vols. (Christiania).
Udsigt over det Norske Folks

Historie, four vols.
Illustreret Norges Historie, by 0. A. Øverland (Christiania).
De første Konger af den Olden-
borgske Slægt

By C. Paludan-Müller (Copenhagen). Grevens Feide

} By J. E. Sars (Christiania).

Det Norske Kërkes. Historie under } By Rudolf Keyser (Christiania).

}

}

} By A. D. Jørgensen (Copenhagen). Den Angelsaksiske Kirkes Inflydelse } By Absalon Taranger (Christiania).

} By L. Helveg (Copenhagen).

, Die Bekehrung des Norwegischen Stammes) By Dr. Konrad Maurer zum Christenthume, two vols.

(München). Udsigt over den Norske Kirkes Historie | By Bishop Dr. A. Chr. Bang under Katholicismen

(Christiania). De Nordiske Kirkers Historie, by R. T. Nissen (Christiania). Den Nordiske Kirkes Grundlæggelse

og første Udvikling

paa De Norske Klostres Historie, by C. C. A. Lange (Christiania). Den Danske Kirkes Historie

før Reformationen Norges Helgener, by Prof. Ludvig Daae (Christiania). Passio et miracula beati Olaui, edited by F. Metcalfe, M.A. (Oxford,

Clarendon Press).
Throndhjem i Fortid og Nutid (997-1897). Various authors.
Bergen fra de Ældste Tider

indtil Nutiden. Den Sorte Død i det 14de Aarhundrede, by Dr. A. L. Faye (Christiania). The introduction to Laing's translation of the “ Heimskringla," by

Rasmus B. Anderson, in four vols. (London), 1889.

} By Professor Dr. Yngvar Nielsen.

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The Coming of the Northmen—Their Religion-Temples Festivals

- Geographical Divisions - Local Government.

The Norwegians are a branch of the great stream of Teutonic migration, which flowed from its original home in Asia over the northern part of Europe. At what time these invaders displaced the aboriginal inhabitants of the Scandinavian peninsula, we have no certain means of ascertaining, though some have affirmed that Odin was an historical personage who, some three centuries before the Christian era, led his victorious hosts across Europe. We may take it, however, that about that time these Teutonic tribes crossed the narrow seas between the Scandinavian and North German lands, and established themselves on the great peninsula. Gradually they drove back the primitive peoples they found thinly scattered over the country, men most probably of Mongolian origin, and whose descendants still survive in the wandering Finns and Lapps of the far north of Norway and Sweden.

The entire Scandinavian peninsula was at that time largely covered with dense forests, and in these the invaders established themselves, and gradually clearing open spaces, in time proceeded to cultivate the land. Eventually they worked their way down to the western and north-western coasts, and quickly became expert in seamanship, and in reaping the rich harvest which the well-stocked waters of the North Sea afforded them. The acquaintance thus gained with the ocean, and especially the tempestuous

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