« ForrigeFortsett »
Sg. miles. Population. Sierra Leone
30,000 1,680.000 Solomon islands
8.357 150,000 Somaliland protectorate
68,000 300,000 Southern Nigeria
77,260 4,444,393 Straits Settlements
1,600 572,249 Tonga islands
390 21,103 Transvaal
117,732 1,399,528 Trinidad and Tobago
1,868 331,609 Turks and Caicos Islands.
223,500 4,000,000 Weihaiwei
285 131.000 Windward islands
672 372,631 Zanzibar protectorate
GERMANY. Bismarck archipelago.,
20,000 188,000 Caroline and Pelew islands.
560 50,000 German East Africa...
384,180 7,010,000 German Southwest Africa
322,450 200,000 Kaiser Wilhelm Land
70,000 110,000 Kamerun
191,130 3,500,000 Kiauchau Bay.
200 33,000 Marianne islands..
2,000 Marshall islands, etc..
15.000 Samoan islands..
1,000 33,000 Solomon islands..
4,200 45,000 Togoland
ITALY. Eritrea, etc..
88,500 450,000 Somali coast
13,458 2,899,586 Pescadores
85 55,222 Sakhalin
NETHERLANDS. Bali and Lombok..
4,065 1,041, 696 Banca
4,446 106,315 Billiton
1,863 43.386 Borneo
212,737 1,087,597 Celebes
Sq. miles. Population. Curacao
53,456 Dutch Guiana..
46,060 74,578 Java and Madura.
50,554 28,746,688 Molucca islands.
43,864 410,190 New Guinea...
151,789 200,000 Riau Linnga archipelago
16,301 86,186 Sumatra
161,812 3,052,699 Timor archipelago.
484,800 4,119,000 Cape Verde islands.
1,480 147,424 Damao, Diu...
169 56,285 East Africa.
293,400 3,120,000 Goa
1,469 475,513 Guinea
13,940 820,000 Macao, etc..
63,991 Prince's and St. Thomas.
360 42,103 Timor
80,000 1,250,000 Khiva
21,946 Rio de Oro and Odrar.
70,000 130,000 Rio Muni, etc...
38,080 4,028,239 Crete
3,365 310,185 Cyprus
237 000 Samos
400.000 9,734,405 Sudan
599, 446 63,592 Guam
6,449 154,001 Porto Rico.
3,606 953,243 Philippines
119,542 7,635,426 Samoan islands..
COLONIES AND MOTHER COUNTRIES COMPARED.
Colonies. Total. country.
240.952 19,702 260.654 45,405,267 1,568.092 46,973,359 Belgium..
11.373 900,000 911,373 6,985,219 30,000,000 36,985,219 China..
1,532.420 2,744,750 4,277,170407.253.030 26.300,000 433,553,030 Denmark.
86,634 102,226 2.605,268 120,890 2,726,158 France..
207.054 4,227,826 4,434,880 39,252,267 56,117,740 95,370.007 Germany
208.780 1,027.820 1,236,600 60.641.278 12.686,000 73.327,278 Great Britain
121.390 11,311,893 11,433,283 43,659,121 | 349,187,714 392.8 16,835 Italy...
110.550 188,500 299,050 33,733,198 850,000 31.583, 198 Japan
147.655 28,212 175.867 46,732,138 2.968,808 49.700,946 Netherlands.
12.648 782.863 795,511
5.591.701 36,128,064 41.719,765 Portugal
35,490 802,952 838,442 5,423.132 9.144,316 14.567,148 Russia..
8,660.395 102.320 8,762,715 | 129,194,297 2,050,000 131,244.297 Spain
194,783 80,580 275.363 18.618,086 291.946 18,910,032 Turkey
1,157,860 464,220 1.622.080 24,028,900 15.758,740 39,787,610 United States.
3,025,600 729,272 3,754,872 83,941,510*1 8.821.062 92,762,572 *In 1906. \Includes protectorates and dependencies of all kinds. According to latest available census figures and estimates.
c.లలు నిండులునిరసరణ -
WAR IN CENTRAL AMERICA.
War between Honduras and Nicaragua began Choluteca. April 12 they captured the seaport Feb. 19, 1907, the former country being the ag. Amalpa, in which the Honduran president, Manuel gressor. The cause of the hostilities was a dis- Bonilla, had taken refuge. The latter escaped to pute over some territory which had been awarded the American cruiser Chicago. The Americans had to Nicaragua and also the political ambitions of landed marines to protect the property of Amerthe presidents of Salvador and Honduras. In the ican citizens and by direction of the government encounters that followed the Nicaraguan troops at Washington intervened to put an end to the were uniformly successful. March 26 they cap- war. April 24 a treaty of peace was signed by tured Tegucigalpa after winning a victory over the envoys of Nicaragua and Salvador and a prothe combined forces of Honduras and Salvador at visional government was established in Honduras.
RESTRICTING POWER OF HOUSE OF LORDS.
The following resolution introduced by Premier Campbell-Bannerman was passed by the house of commons June 26, 1907, by a vote of 432 to 147:
"That in order to give effect to the will of the people, as expressed by their elected representa
tives, it is necessary that the power of the other house to alter or reject bills passed by this house should be so restricted by law as to secure that, within the limits of a single parliament, the final decision of the house of commons shall prevail." NEW RUSSO-JAPANESE CONVENTION.
The government of his majesty the emperor of Japan and the government of his majesty the emperor of all the Russias, desirous of consolidating the peaceful and friendly relations which have been so happily re-established between Japan and Russia, and wishing to avert for the future all cause of misunderstanding in the relations of the two empires, have agreed on the following conditions:
Article I.-Each of the high contracting parties pledges itself to respect the present territorial integrity of the other and all the rights accruing to either party from the treaties, conventions and contracts in force between them and China, copies of which have been exchanged between the contracting parties (in so far as these rights are not incompatible with the principle of equal opportunity) and from the treaty signed at Portsmouth on Sept. 5 (23d of August, old style), 1905, as well
as the special conventions concluded between Japan and Russia.
Article II.---The two high contracting parties recognize the independence and territorial integrity of the empire of China and the principle of equal opportunity in that which concerns the commerce and industry of all the nations in that empire, and pledge themselves to sustain and defend the maintenance of the status quo and respect for this principle by all pacific means in their power.
În witness thereof the undersigned, being, authorized by their respective governments, have signed this convention and have affixed thereto their seals.
Done at St. Petersburg the 30th day of the seventh month of the 40th year of Meiji, corresponding to the 17th (30th) of July, 1907. (L. S.)
I. MOTONO. (L. S.)
IRISH ADMINISTRATION BILL.
May 7, 1907, the liberal government introduced in the house of commons an Irish measure designed, according to its sponsors, to lead to ultimate home rule. The bill provided for the following changes in the administration of Ireland.
1. The head of the administration will be the lord lieutenant, as now, but all religious disability will be removed.
2. The administration will be in the hands of a council of 106 members, 82 elected and 24 nomi. nated by the crown. In the election women and peers will have the right to vote.
3. The council will have control of finances, pub
lic works, education and local government works and agriculture.
4. The imperial government retains full power over the Supreme court, constabulary, land commission and prisons.
5. The lord lieutenant has the veto power over measures passed by the council.
6. The sum of $20,000,000 annually will be paid into the Irish treasury from the imperial treasury to be expended under the direction of the councii.
7. The Irish treasury is to be created by the council, with an Irish treasurer at its head. The council has no power to levy taxes.
THE JAPAN-KOREA AGREEMENT.
The following agreement between Japan and Korea was signed by Resident-General Ito and Premier Yi at Seoul July 24, 1907:
The governments of Japan and Korea, animated by the desire to promptly develop the wealth and strength of Korea and increase the welfare of the Korean people, agree as follows:
Article 1. The government of Korea shall follow the guidance of the resident-general in administrative improvements.
Art. 2. Legislative enactment as well as important administrative measures by the government of Korea shall be forthwith approved by the resident-general.
Art. 3. Judicial affairs in Korea shall be distinguished from ordinary administrative affairs.
Art. 4. The appointment and dismissal of high Korean officials shall be made subject to the consent of the resident-general.
Art. 5. The government of Korea shall engage as Korean officials Japanese subjects recommended by the resident-general.
Art. 6. The government of Korea shall not engage foreigners without consent of the residentgeneral.
Art. 7. The first clause of the Japan-Korea agreement, signed on Aug. 22, 1904, shall be abrogated.
June 9, 1907, the_representatives of Japan and France signed in Paris an agreement the main clause of which was as follows:
"The governments of France and Japan being in agreement to respect the independence and integrity of China as well as the principle of equality in the treatment of that country for the commerce and subjects of all nations, and having special interest in seeing order and peace guaran
teed, particularly in the regions of the Chinese empire in the vicinity of the territories over which they have sovereign rights or protection or oc cupation, engage mutually to support each other to assure the peace and security of these regions with the view of the maintenance of the situation held by each and the territorial rights of the two contracting parties on the Asiatic continent."
JAPAN'S WEALTH AND DEBT,
REICHSTAG ELECTIONS IN GERMANY.
[From consular report.) The latest government figures give the wealth of Japan at the end of 1904 as $145.22 per capita, as follows: Land
$3,011,885,500 | Merchandise 144,927,500 Railroads 141,563,500 Metals
29, 289,000 Buildings 981,181,500 Various 1,713,406,500 Household effects
488,650,000 Total .$6,510,403,500 The national debt is given at $991,000,000, which, it is stated, does not include the cost of removing the army from Manchuria and other special disarming costs yet to be met. so the final debt will be brought up to about a billion and an eighth at least, or one-sixth of the value of all Japan.
Chancellor Bulow dissolved the German reichstag Dec.
13, 1906, for failing to carry out the government's
colonial policy. The election of members of the new reichstag took place Jan. 25 and Feb. 5, 1907, and resulted in a victory for the government, the social democrats, upon whom the fight was chiefly directed, losing almost half their representatives. The comparative strength of the leading parties in the new and the old reichstag is shown by the following: Parties. 1907.1903. Parties.
1907.19C3. Conservatives 81 74 Social democrats. 43 79 Centrum ..108 104 | Poles
20 16 National liberals 56 51 Anti-Semites .... 26 21 Progressives 48 36
PROGRESS OF THE REVOLUTION IN RUSSIA.
THE SECOND PARLIAMENT. The second Russian parliament or douma, as it is generally called from the name of the lower house, opened March 5, 1907, the date fixed by the manifesto of the czar dissolving the first douma, July 21, 1906. The elections under new regulations took place in January and February and again a large number of radicals and socialists were chosen. Fewer constitutional democrats were elected, but by combining with the Polish nationalists and others they succeeded in organizing the douma by electing Feodor Golovin president, or speaker, and Ivan Chelnikov secretary. The reactionists and Octoberists numbered 100 and the Polish nationalists and constitutional democrats 170. The remainder of the members, numbering approximately 250,
were divided between social revolutionists, social democrats and the party of toil.
The session proved almost as short and barren of results as that of 1906. In spite of the efforts of the social democrats to adopt a conservative and conciliatory policy, most of the time was taken up with attacks on the measures taken by the government to suppress disorder. One bill was passed to abolish trial by drumhead court-martial, but this was rejected by the upper house and failed to become law. The torture of prisoners and scandals in connection with the distribution of famine relief funds formed the subjects of reports and discussions displeasing to the authorities and socialistic attacks on the army led to threats of dissolution as early as April 30. Interpellations were numerous and the cabinet ministers were called upon to explain acts which the members denounced in vigorous terms. The budget and other government bills were referred to committees which considered them but failed to take any action.
May 20 it was announced that a conspiracy to kill the czar had been discovered and that a number of social democrats had been concerned in June 14 Premier Stolypin demanded that the douma should exclude from its sittings all the meinbers of the social democratic faction, numbering fifty-five, and sanction the arrest of M. Alexinsky, Prince Tzereteli and MM. Dzha pardize, Gerus, Ozul, Annikin, Annisimoff, Kirienko, Lomtaschidze. Lopatkin, Mitroff, Komar, Syeroff, Salmikoff and Vinogradoff. The prosecutor of the St. Petersburg courts read an indictment charging that fifty-five social democrats, as members of the lower house of parliament, had organized themselves into a criminal secret organization known as the central committee of the social democratic party, which was acting in concert with other criminal organizations, particularly the military revolutionary societies throughout Russia, to produce armed uprisings among the peasantry, soldiers and workmen and overthrow the monarchy and the government. He therefore demanded the immediate suspension of the members in order to try them for high treason,
DOUMA DISSOLVED. The premier's demand was referred to a committee, and as this was looked upon as equivalent to a refusal, the czar early Sunday morning, June 16, affixed his signature to an imperial ukase dissolying the douma and at the same time ordering an election, beginning Sept. 17, under new laws, and the assembling of the third douma Nov. 14. Accompanying the ukase was the following manifesto:
“We, Nicholas II., by the grace of God emperor of all the Russias, czar of Poland, grand duke of Finland, etc.. declare to all our faithful subjects that, in conformity with our order and instructions since the dissolution of the first douma, our government has adopted a series of successive measures to pacify the country and establish the affairs of state in regular course.
"The second douma convoked by us was summoned to contribute, according to our sovereign will, to the pacification of Russia, principally by the work of legislation, without which the life of a state and the perfection of its administration is impossible; next by an examination of the budget of revenue and expenditure. which insures regularity in national finance, and, finally, by the national use of the right of addressing interpella
tions to the government with a view to establish ing every where truth and justice.
*Intrusting these tasks to th: elected representatives, the nation placed upon them by that trust a heavy responsibility, and it was their sa. cred duty to use their rights in wise labor for the welfare and
the strengthening of the Russian state. Such were our ideas and desires when we gave to the nation new principles for the life of the state.
"To our sorrow a considerable section of the second uma failed to justify our expectations. It was not with the will or desire to strengthen Russia and perfect her new administration that many of the delegates of the nation set to work, but with a manifest tendency to augment her troubles and assist in the disruption of the state.
“As a consequence of this activity during these periods of the douma, which constituted an insurmountable obstacle to fruitful labor, a hostile spirit was introduced into the douma itself which prevented the union of a sufficient number of its members desirous of working for the interests of the country. For this reason the douma either failed to discuss important measures that were drawn up by the government or delayed their discussion, or else rejected them, not even recoiling from the rejection of laws which punished the open support of crimes, and particularly the disseminators of trouble, having evaded condemnation for assassinations and acts of violence.
"The douma did not lend its moral support to the government in the restoration of order, and Russia continues to suffer the shame of an epoch of crimes and disasters.
“The examination of the budget created an obstacle to the timely satisfaction of many of the vital needs of the people. The right of interpellation was transformed by a considerable party in the douma into a means of fighting against the government and exciting distrust toward it among large classes of the people.
Lastly, an act was committed unheard of in the annals of history. The judicial authorities discovered a plot by å section of the douma against the state and power of the czar, but when our government demanded the exclusion, until judg. inent had been passed, of fifty-five members of the douma implicated in the crime, and the arrest of those among them most compromised, the douma failed to carry out immediately the lawful demand of the authorities, which admitted of no delay.
"All this compelled us by ukase to the senate to dissolve the second douma, fixing Nov. 14 as the date of the convocation of the new douma, believing, however, in the patriotism and national spirit of our people.
"We find the cause of failure on two occasions of activity in the douma in the fact that owing to the work and imperfection of the electoral law the legislative institution was composed of members who were not truly representatives of the needs and desires of the people; consequently, while leaving in force all the rights granted to our subjects by the manifesto of Oct. 30. 1905, and the fundamental laws, we have decided to modify the procedure in choosing elective representatives of the people to the douma in order that each section of the people may have its own representatives.
"The douma was summoned to strengthen the Russian state and ought to be Russian in spirit. Other nationalities forming part of our empire ought to have representatives of their needs in the douma, but they ought not to appear, and shall not appear, in such number as will make it possible for them to be arbiters on questions which are purely Russian.
"Within the confines of the state, where the people have not attained sufficient civic development, the elections to the douma must be temporarily suspended.
"All these electoral modifications could not have been introduced in the customary legislative way by the douma, whose composition is recognized by us to be unsatisfactory, by reason of the imperfection of the procedure for the election of the mem
bers of the douma. It is only to the power which gave the first electoral law-the historic power of the czar-that the right of abrogating that law and replacing it by a new law belongs.
"God has given us the power of the czar over or people. It is before His throne we shall answer for the destinies of the Russian state. Believing this, we have made a firm resolution to carry on to ihe end the great work begun by us of the reformation of Russia.
"We give Russia a new electoral law and order its promulgation in the senate. From our faithful subjects we look for united and vigorous service in the direction indicated by us for the country whose sons have been in all times the firm support of its strength, its greatness, and its glory. "Given at Peterhof.
NICHOLAS." NEW ELECTORAL LAW. The new electoral law arbitrarily reduced the deputations from the four eastern provinces, Vyatka, Perm, Ufa and Orenburg, ani the Siberian provinces Tobolsk, Tomsky, Ukutsk and Yeniseisk, which returned radical deputies to the preceding doumas, from fifty-four to forty. It decreased the Polish contingent from thirty-six to twelve, the Caucasians from twenty-nine to ten, and completely disenfranchised until further orders the radical population of several districts in Central Asia. On the other hand, it selected Pskov, Kiev city and other constituencies returning conservatives in the last elections for an increase and provided for special representation for the conservative Russian population of Vilna and Kovna provinces on the Polish frontier. As a result of these various changes the new douma had 412 members instead of 524. Of twenty-four towns formerly electing representatives directly to the douma only seven, St. Petersburg, Moscow, Warsaw, Kiev, Lodz, Odessa and Riga, retained their direct representation. To increase the representation of the conservative land owners the election of one land owner was made arbitrary. It is specifically provided that peasant deputies must be house owners, personally engaged in agriculture,
STATISTICS OF REVOLUTION. The St. Petersburg Slovo published statistics Sept. 12, 1907, regarding the revolutionary movement, prepared by the noted Russian statistician, Dr. Zhdankoff, whereby the total number of victims of the "dramatic epidemic'' was placed at 47,020, of whom 19,144 were killed. It was further shown that 2,381 sentences of death were carried out, that 1.350 prisoners committed suicide, and that 21,403 persons were wounded. The largest loss of life, 12,933, resulted from encounters with the soldiers or police. The anti-Jewish riots numbered 7,962 and there were 4,510 anti-Armenian riots and 2,193 mutinies. The agrarian disorders were comparatively insignificant, only 533. The revolutionists assassinated 83 generals or governors, 61 prefects and 8,079 officials of various ranks. The geographical distribution of the victims was as follows: European Russia... 20,611 | Poland
7,394 | Southwest Poland.. 7,433 Finland and Bal
2,268 tic provinces... 4,929
RECORD OF EVENTS. Following is a record, chronologically arranged, of the chief events, other than those relating to the douma, occurring in Russia from December, 1906, to December, 1907:
Dec. 22, 1906–Count Alexis Ignatieff assassinated
at Tver. Jan. 3, 1907-Maj.-Gen. von der Launitz, prefect
of police in St. Petersburg, shot and killed. Jan. 9-Lieut.-Gen. Vladimir Pavloff, military proc.
urator, shot and killed in St. Petersburg, Jan. 10-Col. Patko Andrieff, chief of gendarmes,
shot and killed at Lodz. Jan. 12-In a fight between terrorists and police
in St. Petersburg two inspectors and two police
men are killed. Jan. 17-M. Krollau, chief of the rural adminis
tration at Smolensk, killed by schoolboy. Jan. 30–M. Guidema, governor of a political prison
in St. Petersburg, shot and killed. Feb. 8--S. Alexandrovsky, governor of Penza, shot
and killed by terrorist. Feb. 23–Col. von Gesseberg, chief of police in
Odessa, injured by bomb. March 4-Prison Inspector Kolbe shot and killed
by revolutionists at Ufa. March 7- The University of Moscow robbed of $20,
000 by armed men; a sergeant of police killed. March 7-Gen. Neplueff, commandant of the fort
ress at Sebastopol, injured by bomb explosion. March 7-Bomb thrown at Prince Argutynski in
Warsaw. March 9-Local revenue officials at Kutais robbed of $7,000 by bandits; two policemen, a driver and
an official killed by bomb thrown by robbers. May 17-Forty-five officials and workmen in spin
ning mills at Lodz shot by Cossacks. May 20-Superintendent of police of Odessa and
two detectives killed and seven persons injured
by explosion of infernal machine. June 17— Torpedo fired at Rear-Admiral Wiren in
Black sea near Sebastopol. June 17-Seventy men killed or wounded in mu
tiny of sappers at Kiev. June 26–Resignation of Charles von Schwanen
bach, controller of the empire, accepted. June 26–Treasury wagon at Titlis blown to pieces
with bomb and $125,000 stolen; two Cossack guards killed. June 29-Incendiary movement among peasants in revenge for dissolution of the douma reported
from Tula; many estates devastated. July 16-Gen. Alikhanoff, former governor-general of Tiflis, and two others killed at Alexandropol
by explosion of bomb. July 27-Five men given prison sentences for com. plicity in the anti-Jewish attacks at Bialystok
in June, 1906. Aug. 1-Thirty men killed or wounded in strike
riots at Lodz. Aug. 5--Gen. Karakozoff, ex-governor-general of
Odessa, shot and killed at Piatigorsk. Aug. 26–Col. Ivanhoff, governor of the Wiborg
military prison, assassinated in St. Petersburg. Aug. 29-Three persons sentenced to death and
others to imprisonment for alleged conspiracy to
kill the czar. Aug. 29-Matsushenko, leader of Kniaz Potemkin
mutiny, hanged at Sebastopol. Sept. 2-Three Jews killed and hundreds wounded
by "black hundred" in Odessa. Oct. 1-Prince Peter A. Kropotkin, socialist leader,
arrested at Luga. Oct. 29-The conservatives win in election for the
third douma. Oct. 30-Several persons killed in a fight with
mutinous sailors in the harbor of Vladivostok.
CHINESE BOXER INDEMNITY SURRENDERED.
June 17. 1907, President Roosevelt notified the agreed to pay this country in satisfaction thereof. Chinese minister that, with the approval of con- The difference was officially fixed at $27,000,000. gress, the United States would voluntarily relin- The Chinese emperor cabled his thanks to Presiquish the difference between the total expenses dent Roosevelt June 24 for having taken the lead and claims incurred in the suppression of the in a matter of international justice. Boxer revolt of 1900 and the amount which China
EARTHQUAKE IN MEXICO. Several cities in Mexico suffered severely from tepec, Tiapa, Guerrero and Acapulco. In Chilpan. earthquake shocks April 14 and 15, 1907. More than cingo, a town of 8,000 inhabitants, thirty-eight per100 lives were lost and the damage to property sons were killed and only the city hall and twenty was very great. The towns most seriously affected houses were left standing. Damage amounting to were Chilpancingo, Chilapa, Tixtla, Ayutla, Ome- $2.000.000 was done at Chilapa.