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A READY-REFERENCE CALENDAR.
For ascertaining any day of the week for any given time within two hundred years from the introduction of
1761 1767 1778 1789
1830 1841 1847
YEARS 1753 TO 1952.
1835 1846 1857 1863 1874 1885 1891 4 7 7 3 5 1 3 6 247 2
Monday 1 Tuesday..... 1 Wednesday. 1
1 Saturday... 1 SUNDAY
Thursday 1 Friday.
There will be three eclipses in 1908, and all of the sun, as follows:
1. Total, Jan. 3. Visible only as a small partial eclipse near sunset in the southern and southwestern part of the United States. Invisible north of Omaha and east of a line from Omaha through Chattanooga to St. Augustine. West of this line and to one from Omaha through Salina, Kas., to Eagle Pass, Tex., the sun will set more or less eclipsed on its southern limb, and west of this line to one from Omaha to Phoenix, Ariz., the eclipse will end just before sunset. The path of the total phase extends from San Jose, Costa Rica, across the Pacific through the Gilbert and Marshall groups of islands.
2. Annular, June 28. Visible as a partial eclipse on the southern limb throughout the United States except in Florida. The path of the annular or ring phase crosses the peninsula of
Salt Lake City. 7:02 a. m. Guthrie, Okla.. 7:45 a. m. St. Paul....... Minneapolis..
Figure A shows the size and appearance of this eclipse as it will appear at New Orleans, southern Mississippi, central Alabama, Georgia and South Carolina (Charleston). Figure B as at Chicago, Massachusetts, New York, northern Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Nebraska, southern Wisconsin, Minnesota, Colorado, Utah and southern
California. C as in a belt ninety miles wide from Titusville to Tampa, Fla.
3. Annular, Dec. 23. Invisible in North America.
THE MONROE DOCTRINE.
The famous "Monroe doctrine" was enunciated by President Monroe in his message to congress Dec. 2, 1823. Referring to steps taken to arrange the respective rights of Russia, Great Britain and the United States on the northwest coast of this continent, the president went on to say:
"In the discussions to which this interest has given rise, and in the arrangements by which they may terminate, the occasion has been deemed proper for asserting, as a principle in which the rights and interests of the United States are involved, that the American continents, by the free and independent condition which they have assumed and maintain, are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European power. We owe it, therefore, to candor and to the amicable relations existing
* * *
between the United States and those powers to declare that we should consider any attempt on their part to extend their system to any portion of this hemisphere as dangerous to our peace and safety. With the existing colonies or dependencies of any European power we have not interfered and shall not interfere. But with the governments who have declared their independence and maintain it, and whose independence we have, on great consideration and on just principles, acknowledged, we could not view any interposition for the purpose of oppressing them or controlling in any other manner their destiny by any European power in any other light than as the manifestation of an unfriendly disposition toward the United States.'
PLANETARY CONJUNCTIONS AND OTHER EVENTS FOR 1908.
Jan. 2 Earth nearest sun... 3 Total eclipse sun..
Central time, h. m.
apart. Mo. D. deg.min.
400 p.m. Invis. 4 49 p.m. 8 030 S 700 a.m. Invis. 11 00 p.m. v 180E orW 2 20 p.m. 045 N 7 20 a.m. b 257 N 4 07 p.m. 5 08 N 500 a.m. Superi'r 3 10 a.m. 044 S 856 a.m. 2 133 S 700 a.m. 300 p.m. 2180E or W 649 a.m. 8 020 S 0 27 a.m. 227 N 10 10 a.m. 348 N 902 p.m. b 302 N 1121 a.m.5 49 N 200 p.m. 118 N 758 a.m. v 042 S 800 a.m. 18 09 E 500 a.m. 817 a.m. 112 S 600 a.m. 647 p.m. 007 S 700 p.m. 1000 p.m. Inferior 109 p.m. b 304 N 729 a.m.95 48 N 851 a.m. 5 26 N
3 Uranus conjunction moon. 4 Uranus conjunction sun.... 4 Neptune opposition sun.. 5 Venus conjunction moon... 8 Saturn conjunction moon 8 Mars conjunction moon........ 14 Mercury conjunction sun... 17 Neptune conjunction moon 19 Jupiter conjunction moon.. 27 Mars in ascending node..... 29 Jupiter opposition to sun. 31 Uranus conjunction moon. Feb. 3 Mercury conjunction moon 4 Venus conjunction moon... 4 Saturn conjunction moon.. 6 Mars conjunction moon.. 10 Venus conjunction Saturn. 13 Neptune conjunction moon 13 Mercury gr. elong. E. of sun 14 Mercury in perihelion............ 15 Jupiter conjunction moon. 19 Mercury stationary. 27 Uranus conjunction moon. 27 Venus in ascending node... 28 Mercury conjunction sun.. Mar. 3 Saturn conjunction moon.. 5 Venus conjunction moon... 6 Mars conjunction moon........ 13 Jupiter conjunction moon.. 10 06 a.m. 2 107 S 20 Sun enters spring begins. 600 p.m. 20 Saturn conjunction sun...11 00 p.m. Invis. 26 Uranus conjunction moon. 319 a.m. 27 Mercury gr. elong. W. of O 29 Mercury in aphelion.. 29 Mercury conjunction moon 30 Jupiter stationary.
31 Saturn conjunction moon.. Apr. 1 Venus in perihelion...
500 a.m. 824 p.m. 800 a.m.
011 N 27 49 W 248 N 504 a.m. b 307 N 600 a.m. 1200 p.m.
9000 E 5 52 N
4 15 N
137 N 90 00W 120 S 028 S
723 a.m.9 728 a.m. 900 a.m. 700 p.m. & 454 p.m.2 300 p.m. 700 a.m. 9 12 a.m. 8 027 N 11 00 p.m. 2 90 00 E 100 p.m.9 4537 E 650 p.m. b 312 N 2 14 p.m. 338 N 552 a m. 240 N 359 a.m.
2 Quadrature Neptune sun.. 4 Venus conjunction moon. 4 Mars conjunction moon... 4 Venus conjunction Mars.. 6 Quadature Uranus sun.... 9 Jupiter conjunction moon.. 14 Mercury conj. Saturn...... 21 Uranus stationary. 22 Uranus conjunction moon. 24 Jupiter quadrature sun... 26 Venus gr. elong. from sun.. 27 Saturn conjunction moon.. 29 Mercury conjunction moon May 3 Mars conjunction moon... 4 Venus conjunction moon... 5 Neptune conjunction moon 650 a.m. v 7 Jupiter conjunction moon.. 4 42 a.m. 2 7 Mercury conjunction sun.. 12 00 a.m. Invis. 12 Mercury in perihelion.... 19 Uranusconjunction moon.
21 Venus conj. Neptune... 25 Saturn conjunction moon.. 29 Venus greatest brilliancy.. 400 p.m. 31 Mercury conjunction moon 752 p.m. June 1 Mars conjunction moon.... 306 a.m.
July 1 Jupiter conjunction moon. 1 Saturn quadrature sun... 2 Earth farthest from sun... 4 Venus conj. Neptune.. 4 Mercury conjunction sun.. 5 Venus conjunction sun.... 7 Uranus opposition sun.. 15 Mercury conjunction Venus 18 Saturn conjunction moon.. 25 Venus conjunction moon... 25 Mercury gr. elong. from sun 27 Venus stationary...
28 Mars conjunction moon... 29 Jupiter conjunction moon. Aug. 9 Uranus conjunction moon.. 11 Venus greatest brilliancy.. 13 Mars conjunction Jupiter.. 15 Saturn conjunction moon.. 17 Jupiter conjunction sun.... 19 Mercury conj. Jupiter. 20 Mercury conjunction sun... 20 Mercury conjunction Mars 21 Mars conjunction sun...... 22 Venus conjunction moon... 22 Neptune conjunction moon 23 Venus conj. Neptune.. 26 Jupiter conjunction moon.. 26 Mars conjunction moon.. Sept. 3 Mars in aphelion...
5 Urnaus conjunction moon.. 11 Saturn conjunction moon.. 14 Venus gr. elong. from sun.. 19 Neptune conjunction moon 21 Venus conjunction moon... 22 Uranus stationary 22 Jupiter conjunction moon. 23 Sun enters autumn begins 24 Mars conjunction moon.... 27 Mercury conjunction moon 30 Saturn opposition sun... 3 Uranus conjunction moon. 4 Mercury gr.elong. from sun 6 Uranus quadrature sun.... 1000 a.m. 8 Saturn conjunction moon.. 907 p.m. b 9 Venus in ascending node... 12 00 a.m. 10 Neptune quadrature sun... 100 p.m. 13 Venus conjunction Jupiter. 1000 p.m. 16 Neptune conjunction moon 836 a.m. 20 Jupiter conjunction moon. 11 40 a.m. 2 21 Venus conjunction moon... 144 a.m. 23 Mars conjunction moon.... 048 a.m. 28 Mercury conjunction sun.. 30 Uranus conjunction moon. Nov. 4 Mercury in perihelion..... 5 Saturn conjunction moon.. 6 Mercury stationary.... 12 Venus in perihelion... 12 Neptune conjunction moon 13 Mercury gr. elong. from sun 17 Jupiter conjunction moon.. 20 Venus conjunction moon... 942 a.m. 20 Mars conjunction moon.... 948 p.m. 22 Mercury conjunction moon 5 16 a.m. 26 Uranus conjunction moon. 806 p.m. & 30 Venus conjunction Mars... 500 p.m. Dec. 2 Saturn conjunction moon.. 811a.m. b 4 Venus greatest hel. lat. N.. 12 00 a m. 5 Jupiter quadrature sun..... 7 Saturn stationary..
1000 a.m. Inferior. 022 p.m. 8 103 N 300 a.m.
310a.m. b 242 N 200 a.m.
500 a.m. 458 p.m. 100 p.m.
342 a.m. 2
4 20 S
NOTE-The above positions are as seen from the center of the earth, but are sufficiently exact for all places on its surface.
MERCURY will be brightest:
1. As an evening star east of the sun, Feb. 8-12 and Oct. 10-15, setting about 1h. 15m. after the sun, being farthest east of the sun Feb. 13, 18°, and Oct. 4, 25°.
2. As a morning star west of the sun, March 18-24 and Nov. 8-15, rising about 1h. 15m. before the sun, being farthest west of the sun March 27, 28°, and Nov. 13, 19°.
Mercury will appear and disappear on the horizon not very far from the sunrise or sunset points and the observer will be quite apt to be right in locating him when the reddest body in the vicinity where Mercury ought to be is selected. The steady red light of this planet is not mistakable for that of another planet or the twinkling light of a star.
VENUS will be brightest as an evening star May 29 and as a morning star Aug. 11. At the beginning of the year she will be an evening star and so remain until July 5, after which she will be a morning star the remainder of the year. On the 5th of July Venus will be in conjunction with the sun (inferior); that is, she will pass directly between the earth and the sun. Venus in the course of her orbit about the sun presents all the phases of the moon to us of the earth. These phases are easily seen by the aid of a small telescope or good field glass, as in the annexed figures:
As seen in the Morn
As seen in the Eve. A-Fifteen days after superior conjunction, or May 5, 1909.
B-At greatest elongation west, Sept. 14, 1908. C-When brightest as a morning star, Aug. 11, 1908.
D-Just after inferior conjunction, or July 15, 1908. E-Fifteen days before superior conjunction, April 20, 1909.
F-At greatest elongation east, April 26, 1908. G-When brightest as an evening star, May 29, 1908.
H-Just before inferior conjunction, June 25, 1908.
increases about sixfold under these changed conditions.
VENUS' PATH AMONG THE STARS-At the beginning of the year she will be in the first part of the constellation Capricornus and by Feb. 15 she will have advanced eastward through two signs, Capricornus and Aquarius. On March 10 she will pass from Pisces to Aries. On April 4 she will be in that most beautiful group, the Pleiades, or seven stars, or seven sisters, and only 1° 35' south of the lucida of the groupAlcyone. She moves on past and north of the Hyades, through Taurus, and when at her brightest. May 29, she will be two-thirds through Gemini and only 4° south of the brilliant star Pollux, the companion of Castor, when she will appear as in G. From May 29 the rate of her movement past the stars decreases rapidly until on June 13. when she becomes stationary for a time and then retrogrades or moves westward past the stars back to near the western margin of Gemini and then on July 27 becomes stationary again. On Sept. 5 she enters Cancer. On Oct. 6 she will be only about three-fourths of one degree south of the brilliant star Regulus, in the end of the handle of the sickle in Leo. On Nov. 1 she crosses the equinoctial colure and enters the constellation Virgo. On Nov. 20 she will be only 3° to the north of the brilliant star Spica. She will enter Libra Nov. 15 and Scorpio Dec. 20. During the closing days of the year she will de a close companion to the red star Antares. She will then have completed the circuit of the zoSee diac lacking about one and one-half signs. table of planets for time of rising and setting. MARS does not reach his greatest brilliancy in 1908. He will not again be near enough to be conspicuous until the latter part of 1909, when he will be a little nearer than in 1907, after which he becomes dimmer and dimmer at each succeeding opposition for fifteen years. He is an evening star until Aug. 22 and after that a morning star. See the following table for his place in the zodiac each month and the planetary table for his rising and setting.
JUPITER will be brightest Jan. 29. This is the time when all superior planets are brigutest. Then they are directly opposite the sun (opposition"), rising at sunset, setting at sunrise and passing the meridian at midnight. Jupiter retrogrades or moves backard (westward) until March 29, then advances the remainder of the year, Deing in Cancer until Sept. 10, and after that in Leo On Sept. 5 he will be very close to the brilliant Regulus, being only one-third of one degree north of that star. See table of planets for rising and setting. Jupiter will be an evening star until Aug. 17, then a morning star to Dec. 5, and then again an evening star the balance of the year.
SATURN will be brightest Sept. 30 as an evening star. He begins the year as an evening star and so continues until March 20; then a morning star until July 1, then an evening star the remainder of the year. He is in an uninteresting quarter of the heavens among the stars of Aquarius and Pisces.
The great difference in the apparent size or diameter of the Venus in A and E as compared with D and H is because of the vastly greater distance she is from us at her superior conjunction. When seen as a crescent as D or H she will be nearer to us by nearly the diameter of the earth's orbit than when appearing as A or E. When she appears like D or H she will be only about 25,000,000 miles from us and when like A or E she will be 160,000,000 miles distant or about six times as far. Her apparent diameter SITUATION OF THE PLANETS FOR THE SUNDAYS:
URANUS will be brightest July 7. being only barely visible to the naked eye when brig t st. NEPTUNE will be brightest Jan. 5 and then invisible except with the aid of a good telescope. ALSO THE MOON'S POSITION FOR THE YEAR. March April. May. June. July. Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov.
THE BRIGHTEST STARS.
THE BRIGHTEST STARS: HOW AND WHERE TO FIND THEM.
Compar- Right Declina
meridian rising and
Explanation-To ascertain when any star or constellation will be on the upper meridian add the numbers opposite in the column "For meridian passage to the figures in the column "Sidereal noon" in the calendar pages. Note whether the figures be "morn" or "eve."* If "morn" and the sum be more than twelve hours the result will be evening of the same day. If "eve" and the sum be more than twelve hours the result will be morning of the next day. Having found the time of meridian passage, for the rising subtract and for the setting add the numbers opposite the name of the star in the column headed "For rising and setting," observing the directions to "morn" and "eve" as given above. Those Sidereal noon, November 5, 9 00 p. m. Antares in "meridian" col. add 16 20
Istars marked in the last column are circumpolar and neither rise nor set in the latitude of Chicago.
To tell how high up from the nearest point of the horizon a star will be at its meridian passage subtract the declination of the star from 90. If the result is less than the latitude of the place of the observer that star will neither rise nor set, but is circumpolar, and the difference between that result and the latitude shows the star's altitude above the north point of the horizon or below the southern horizon. Thus, (90° - dec) lat. alt. or elevation of the star above the nearest point of the horizon at meridian passage, for stars of a south declination. Examples: