Session began Dec. 3, 1906; ended March 4, 1907. Total appropriations, $919,948,679.63.

has reached the age of 62 years or over, shall be Age disability pension bill passed by senate Jan. entitled to receive a pension as follows: In case 11, 1907; by house Jeb. 5, 1907; approved Feb. such person has reached the age of 62 years, $12 6, 1907.

per month; 70 years, $15; 75 years or over, $20. Christopher Columbus meniorial hill passed by sen- Rank in service will not be considered in applica

ete March 3, 1907; by house same date; ap- tions filed under this act. Persons now receiving proved March 4, 1907.

pensions and who are eligible may apply under the Denatured alcohol bill passed by house Feb 7, new law, but no person receiving a greater pen

1907; by senate March 1, 1907; approved March sion under any other law than he would be enti2,

tled to under this act shall be pensionable under Expatriation bill passed by house Jan. 21, 1907; its provisions. Double pensions are prohibited.

by senate March 1. 1907; approved March 2, 1907. (See Citizenship in the United States.'')

PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURAL BANK. Foundation for promotion of industrial peace bill

For the purpose of aiding in the establishment passed by senate Feb. 27, 1907; by house March

and operation of an agriculiural bank in the Phili, 1907; approved March 2, 1907.

ippines, the Fhilippine commission is empowered Immigration bill passed (at first session) by senate May 23, 1906; by house June 25, 1906; agreed

to guarantee ar income of not exceeding: 4 per cent

The to in conference at second session and approved

per anrum upon cash capital invested in it.

guaranty shall be made to a company organized Feb. 20, 1907.

under the laws of the Philippine islands, with its Philippine agricultural bank bill passed by senate

principal otices in Manila. The bank shall not Feb. 25, 1907; by house March 3, 1907; approved

grant loans except to those engaged in agriculture March 4, 1907.

and for the sole purpose of assisting agriculture in Political contributions by corporations bill passed

the islands. No loan exceeding $5,000 shall be made by senate June 9, 1908 (first session); by house

except upon the written authority of the secretary Jan. 21, 1907; approved Jan. 26, 1907.

of finance and justice of the islands. Interest on Kailway employes' sixteen-hours bill passed by loans shall not exceed 10 per cent per annum.

senate Jan. 10, 1907; by house Feb. 23, 1907; approved March 4, 1907.

POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS BY CORPORASpecial delivery stamp bill passed by_house Feb.

TIONS. 18, 1907; by senate March 1, 1907; approved March 2, 1907.

It shall be unlawful for any national bank, or Writs of error in criminal cases bill passed by

any corporation organized by authority of any laws senate Feb. 13. 1907; by house on same date.

of congress, to make money contribution in con(For work ot first session of 59th congress, see

nection with any election to any political office. The Daily News Almanac and Year-Book for 1907,

It shall also be unlawful for any corporation whatpage 167.)

ever to make a miney contribution in connection

with any election at which presidential and viceSALARIES OF CONGRESSMEN.

presidential electors or a representative in con

gress is to be voted for or any election by, any On and after Merch 4, 1907, the compensation of state legislature of a United States senator. Every the speaker of the house of representatives, the corporation violating this law shall be subject to a vice-president of the United States and the heads fine not exceeding $5,000, and any director or ofof executive departments who are members of the ficer of any corporation who shall consent to such president's cabinet shall be at the rate of $12,000 contribution shall upon conviction be fined not per annum each, and the compensation of senators, more than $1,000 nor less than $250, or by impris. representatives in congress, delegates from terri

onment for not more than one year, or by both fine tories and resident commissioner from Porto Rico and imprisonment. shall be at the rate of $7,500 per annum each. (Sec. 4 of the legislative, executive and judicial

DENATURED ALCOHOL. appropriation bill, approved Feb. 26, 1907.)

Notwithstanding anything contained in the act

entitled "An act for the withdrawal from bond SPECIAL DELIVERY STAMPS.

tax free of domestic alcohol when rendered unfit After July 1, 1907, when in addition to the for beverage or liquid medicinal uses by mixture stamps required to transmit any letter or package with suitable denaturing materials, approved June of mail matter through the mails there shall be 7, 1906, domestic alcohol when suitably denatured attached to the envelope or covering 10 cents' worth may be withdrawn from bond without the payment of ordinary stamps of any denomination, with the of internal-revenue tax and used in the manufacwords “special delivery" or their equivalent writ- ture of ether and chloroform and other definite ten or printed on the envelope or covering, the chemical substances where the alcohol is changed said letter or package shall be delivered in all re- into some other chemical substance and does not spects as though it bore a regulation “special de- appear in the finished product as alcohol. Rum of livery'' stamp.

not less than 150 degrees proof may be withdrawn

for denaturation only in accordance with the provi. CHRISTOPITER COLUMBUS MEMORIAL. sions of the art of June 7, 1906, and of this act. There shall be erected in the city of Washing

The act provides for the establishment under the ton, D. C., a suitable memorial to Christopher Co

supervision of the commissioner of internal revlumbus, for wl:ich $100,000 is appropriated. For

enue of central denaturing bonded warehouses. the purpose of carrying out the provisions of the act a commission, consisting of the chairman of WRITS OF ERROR IN CRIMINAL CASES. the senate committee on library of the 59th con- A writ of error may be taken by the United gress, the chairman of the committee on library of States from the District or Circuit courts direct to the house of representatives of the 59th congress, the Supreme court of the United States in all crimthe secretary of state, the secretary of war and

inal cases in the following instances: the supreme knight of the Order of the Knights of From a decision or judgment quashing. setting Columbus, shall be created with full authority to aside or sustaining a demurrer to any indictment select a site and design and superintend the con- or to any count thereof, where such decision or struction of the memorial.

judgment is based upon the invalidity or construc

tion of the statute upon which the indictment is. AGE DISABILITY PENSIONS.

founded. Any person who served ninety days or more in From a decision arresting a judgment of convic. the army or navy of the United States in the civil tion for insufficiency of the indictment, where such war or sixty days in the war with Mexico, who decision is based upon the invalidity or coustruc

tion of the statute upon which the indictment is founded.

From the decision or judgment sustaining a special plea in bar, when the defendant has not been put in jeopardy.

The writ of error in all such cases shall be taken within thirty days and shall have precedence over all other cases. No such writ of error shall be allowed the United States where there has been a verdict in favor of the defendant.


It shall be unlawful for any common carrier in any territory or the District of Columbia, or engaged in interstate commerce, to require or permit 'any employe to remain on duty longer than sixteen consecutive Lours, and whenever he shall have been on duty for that length of time he shall be relieved and not be permitted to resume work until he has had at least ten consecutive hours off duty; and no such employe who has been on duty sixteen lours in the aggregate in any twenty-four-hour period shall be allowed again to go on duty without having had at least eight consecutive hours off duty. No operator, train dispatcher or other employe who by the use of the telegraph dispatches, reports, transmits, receives or delivers orders pertaining to the movements of trains shall be permitted to remain on duty more than nine hours in any twenty-four-hour period in towers, offices and stations operated nigiit and day, nor more than thirteen hours in places operated only in the daytime, except that in cases of emergency employes may remain on duty for four additional hours in the twenty-foui on not exceeding three days in any week. The provisions in the act shall not apply in any

case of unavoidable accident nor to the crews of wrecking or relief trains. The penalty for each violation of the law is a fine of not exceeding $500.


DUSTRIAL PEACE. Trustees-Chief Justice Melville W. Fuller, president; Seth Low of New York, representing the general public, treasurer; John Mitchell of the United Nine Werkers of America, representing labor, Secretary; Thomas G. Bush of Birmingham, Ala., representing general public; Marvin A. Hughitt, representing capital, and Secretaries

James Wilson and Oscar Solomon Straus. Industrial Peace Committee-Archbishop John Ire

land, Marcus M. Marks of New York, Ralph M. Easley of New York, Elbert H. Gary, chairman finance committee United States Steel Corporation; Lucius Tuttle, president of Boston & Maine railroad; J. Gunby Jordan of Columbus, Ga.; Samuel Gompers, president of the American Federation of Labor: Daniel Keefe, president of the Longshoremen's association, and Warren S. Stone, president International Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers.

Whereas, the president desiring that this award shall form the nucleus of a fund the income of which shall be ex;ended for bringing together in conference at the city of Washington, especially during the sessions of congress, representatives of lavor and capital for the purpose of discussing industrial prcblems, with the view of arriving at a better understanding between employers and employes, and thus promoting industrial peace; therefore,

Be it enacted, etc., That the chief justice of the United States, the secretary of agriculture, and the secretary of commerce and labor, and their successors in office, together with a representative of labor and a representative of capital and two persons to represent the gereral public, to be appointed by the president of the United States, are hereby created trustees of an establishment by the name of the Foundation for the Promotion of Industrial Peace, with authority to receive the Nobel peace prize awarded to the president and by him devoted to this foundation, and to administer it in accordance with the purposes herein defined. Any Vacancies occurring in the number of trustees shall be filled in like manner by appointment by the president of the United States.

Sec. 2. That it sliall be the duty of the trustees herein mentioned to invest and reinvest the principal of this foundation, to receive any additions wbich may come to it by gift, bequest, or devise, and to invest and reinvest the same; and to pay over the income from the foundation and its additions, or such part thereof as they may from time to time apportion, to a committee of nine persons, to be known as “the industrial peace committee, to be selected by the trustees, three members of which committee shall serve for the period of one year, three members for the period of two years, and three members for the period of three years; three members of this committee to be representa tives of labor, three to be representatives of capi. tal, each chosen for distinguished services in the industrial world in promoting righteous industrial peace, and three members to represent the general public. Any vacancies which may occur in this committee shall be filled by selection and appointment in the manner prescribed for the original appointment of the committee, and when the committee has first been fully selected and appointed each member thereafter appointed shall serve for a period of three years or the unexpired portion of such term.

Sec. 3. That the industrial peace committee herein constituted shall arrange for an annual conference in the city of Washington, D. C., of representatives of labor and capital for the purpose of discussing industrial problems, with the view of arriving at a better understanding between employers and employes; it shall call special conferences in case of great industrial crises and at such other times as may be deemed advisable, and take such other steps as in its discretion will promote the general purposes of the foundation; subject, however, to such rules and regulations as may be prescribed by the trustees. The committee shall receive suggestions for the subjects to be discussed at the annual or other conferences and be charged with the conduct of the proceedings at such conferences. The committee shill also arrange for the publication of the results of the annual and special conferences.

Sec. 4. That all expenditures authorized by the trustees shall be paid exclusively from the accrued income and not from the principal of the foundation.

Sec. 5. That the trustees herein named are authorized to hold real and personal estate in the District of Columbia to an amount not exceeding $3,000,000, and to use, and dispose of the same for the purposes of this foundation.

Sec. 6. That the principal office of the foundation shall be located in the District of Columbia, but offices may be maintained and meetings of the trustees and committees may be held in other places, to be provided for in by-laws to be adopted from time to time by the trustees, for the proper execuiion of the purposes of the foundation.

Sec. 7. That the Foundation for the Promotion of Industrial Peace is hereby authorized and empowered, at its discretion, to co-operate with any

The origin and purpose of the "Foundation for the Promotion of Industrial Peace'' are fully shown in the following bill passed by congress March 2, 1907:

Whereas, Alfred Bernard Nohel of the city of Stockholm, in the kingdom of Sweden, having by his last will and testament provided that the residue of his estate shall constitute a fund the income from which shall be annually awarded in prizes to those persons who have during the year contributed most materially to benefit mankind, and having further provided that one share of said income shall be awarded to the person who shall have most or best promoted the fraternity of nations and the abolishment or diminution of standing armies and the formation and increase of peace congresses; and,

Whereas, the Norwegian parliament having, under the terms of said foundation, elected a committee for the distribution of the peace prize, and this committee having in the year 1906 awarded the aforesaid prize to Thecdore Roosevelt, president of the United States, for his services in behalf of the peace of the world; and,

entering the United States in violation of law and such as become public charges from causes existing prior to their landing, shall be deported at any time within three years after their arrival.

institutions or societies having similar or like purposes.

Sec. 8. That this act shall take effect immediately on its passage. IMMIGRATION LAW OF THE UNITED STATES.

The immigration law as revised by the 59th congress provides for a poll tax of $t for every alien entering the United States. This tax is not levied upon aliens who shall enter the United States after an uninterrupted residence of at least one year, inmeriiately preceding such entrance, in Canada, Newfoundland, Cuha or Mexico, nor upon aliens in transit through the United States, nor upon aliens arriving in Guam, Porto Rico or Hawaii. The money collected from poll taxes is to go into the treasury and constitute a permanent appropriation for defraying the expenses of regulating immigration.

Wherever the president 'shall be satisfied that passports issued by aay foreign government to its citizens to go to any country other than the United States or to ally insular possession of the United States, or to tie canal zone, are being used for the purpose of enabling the holders to come to the continental territory of the United States to the detriment of labor conditions therein, the president may refuse to permit such citizens of the country issuing such passports to enter the continental territory of the United States from such other country or from such insular possessions or from the can Zune. [This paragraph was designed to prevent the landing of Japanese laborers on the Pacific coast from the Hawaiian islands.]

CLASSES EXCLUDED. The following classes are excluded from admission into the United States: All idiots, imbeciles, feeble-minded persons, epileptics, insane persons and persons who have been insane within tive years; persons who have had two or more attacks of insanity at any time previously; paupers; persons likely to become a public charge; professional beggars; persons afflicted with tuberculosis or with a loathsome or dangerous contagious disease; persons who have committed a felony or other crime involving moral turpitude; polygamists or persons who believe in the practice of polygamy; anarchists or persons who be. lieve in or advocate the overthrow by force or violence of the government of the United States, or of all governments, or of all forms of law, or the assassination of public officials; prostitutes, or women and girls coming into the United States for any immoral purpose; contract laborers who have been induced to migrate to this country by offers of employment or in consequence of agreements of any kind, verbal or written, express or implied, to perform lahor in this country of any kind, skilled or unskilled; any person whose ticket or passage is paid for with the money of another, or who is assisted by others to come, unless it is satisfactorily shown that such person does not belong to one of the foregoing excluded classes and that said ticket or passage was not paid for by any corporation, society, municipality or foreign government, directly or indirectly; all children under 16 years of age unaccompanied by one or both of their parents, at the discretion of the secretary of commerce and labor. Nothing in the act shall exclude, if otherwise admissible, persons convicted of an offense purely political, not involving moral turpitude. Skilled labor may

be imported if labor of like kind unemployed cannot be found in this country. The provisions of the law applicable to contract labor shall not be held to exclude professional actors, artists, lecturers, singers, clergymen, professors for colleges or seminaries, persons belonging to any recognized learned profession or persons employed strictly as personal or domestic servants.

It is unlawful to assist or encourage the importation or migration of any alien by promise of employment through advertisements printed in any foreign country. This, however, does not apply to states or territories advertising the inducements they offer to immigration thereto. All aliens

to this country in violation of law shall be immediately sent back to the owners of the vessels bringing them. Any alien

ANARCHISTS NOT. ADMITTED. No person who disbelieves in or who is opposed to all organized government, or who is a member of or atliliated with any organization entertaining and teaching such belief in or opposition to all organized government, or who advocates or teaches the duty, necessity or propriety of the unlawful assaulting or killing of any officer or officers, either of specific individuals or of officers generally, of the government of the United States, or of any other organized government, because of his or their official character, shall be permitted to enter the United States or any territory or place subject to the jurisdiction thereof.

COMMISSION OF INVESTIGATION. Section 39 of the act creates a commission consisting of three senators, three members of the house of representatives and three persons to be appointed by the president of the United States. This commission is to make full inquiry by subcommittee or otherwise into the subject of immigration. It is authorized to send for persons or papers, travel in the United States or in foreign countries, examine witnesses and to employ the necessary clerical help. It shall report to congress the conclusions reached by it and make such recommendations as it may deem proper,

The president is also authorized in the name of the United States to call, in his discretion, an international conference, to assemble at such point as may be agreed upon, or to send special commissioners to any foreign country, for the purpose of regulating by international agreement, subject to the advice and consent of the senate of the United States, the immigration of aliens to the United States; of providing for the mental, moral and physical examination of such aliens by American consuls or other officers of the government at the ports of embarkation or else. where; of securing the assistance of foreign gov. ernments in their own territories to prevent the evasion of the laws of the United States governing immigration to the United States; of entering into such international agreements as may be proper to prevent the immigration of aliens who, under the laws of the United States, are or may be excluded, and of regulating any matters pertaining to such immigration.

[Under this section the following commissioners were appointed in March, 1907: Senators William P. Dillingham of Vermont, Henry Cabot Lodge of Massachusetts and Asbury C. Latimer of South Carolina. to represent the senate; Representatives B. F. Howell of New Jersey, A. P. Gardner of Massachusetts and J. L. Burnett of Alabama, to represent the house of representatives, and Labor Commissioner Charles P. Niell of Texas, Pror. Jeremiah W. Jenks of Cornell University, New York, and Ira E. Bennett of California, to represent the country at large.]

DIVISION OF INFORMATION. Authority is given the commissioner-general of immigration to establish under the control of the secretary of commerce and liabor a division of information in the bureau of immigration and naturalization, the duty of which shall be to promote a beneficial distribution of aliens admitted into the United States among the several states and territories desiring immigration.

Correspondence shall be had with the proper officials of the states and territories and the division shall gather from all available sources useful information regarding the resources, products and physical characteristics of each state and territory and shall publish such information in different languages and distribute the publications among all admitted aliens who shall ask for such information at the immigrant stations. State or territorial agents may, under regulations prescribed by the commissioner of immigration, be admitted to such stations the purpose of presenting the inducements of the respective states and territories to aliens to settle therein.

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Civil-service act approved Jan. 16, 1883. Officers-Three commissioners are appointed by ative capacity and fitness to discharge the duties the president to assist him in classifying the gov- to be performed. It is necessary to obtain an aver ernment offices and positions, formulating rules age percentage of 70 to be eligible for appoint and enforcing the law. Their office is in Washing- ment, except that applicants entitled to preference ton, D. C. The chief examiner is appointed by because of honorable discharge from the military the commissioners to secure accuracy, uniformity or naval service for disability resulting from and justice in the proceedings of the examining wounds or sickness incurred in the line of duty boards. The secretary to the commission is ap- need obtain but 65 per cent. The period of eligipointed by the president.

bility is one year. General Rules—The fundamental rules governing Qualifications of Applicants-No person will be appointments to government positions are found in examined who is not a citizen of the United

civil-service itself. Based upon these are States; who is not within the age limitations premany other regulations formulated by the commis- scribed; who is physically disqualified for the servsion and promulgated by the president from time ice which he seeks; who has been guilty of crimito time as new contingencies arise. The present nal, infamous, dishonest or disgraceful conduct; rules were approved March 20, 1903, and went who has been dismissed from the public service into effect April 15, 1903. In a general way they for delinquency and misconduct or has failed to require that there must be free, open exam- receive absolute appointment after probation; who inations of applicants for positions in the public is addicted to the habitual use of intoxicating service; that appointments shall be made from liquors to excess, or who has made a false statethose graded highest in the examinations; that ap- ment in his application. The age limitations in pointments to the service in Washington shall be the more important branches of the public service apportioned among the states and territories ac- are: Postoffice, 18 to 45 years; rural letter carcording to population; that there shall be a pe. riers, 17 to 55; internal revenue, 21 years and riod (six months) of probation before any absolūte over; railway mail, 18 to 35; lighthouse, 18 to 50; appointment is made; that no person in the public life saving, 18 to 45; general departmental, 20 service is for that reason obliged to contribute to and over. These age limitations are subject to any political fund or is subject to dismissal for change by the commission. They do not apply to refusing to so contribute; that no person in the applicants of the preferred class. Applicants for public service has any right to use his official the position of railway mail clerk must be at least authority or influence to coerce the political action 5 feet 6 inches in height, exclusive of boots or of any person. Applicants for positions shall not shoes, and weigh not less than 135 pounds in ordibe questioned as to their political or religious be- nary clothing and have no physical defects. Apliefs and no discrimination shall be exercised plicants for certain other positions have to come against or in favor of any applicant or employe on up to similar physical requirements. account of his religion or politics. The classified Method of Appointment-Whenever a vacancy excivil service shall include all officers and employes ists the appointing officer makes requisition upon in the executive civil service of the United States the civil-service commission for a certification of except laborers and persons whose appointments names to fill the vacancy, specifying the kind of are subject to confirmation by the senate.

position vacant, the sex desired and the salary. Examinations-These are conducted by boards of The commission thereupon takes from the proper examiners chosen from among persons in governi- register of eligibles the names of three persons ment employ and are held twice a year in all the standing highest of the sex called for and certifies states and territories at convenient places. In Illi- them to the appointing officer, who is required to nois, for example, they are usually held at Cairo, make the selection. He may choose any

one of Chicago and Peoria. The dates are announced the three names, returning the other two to the through the newspapers or by other means. They register to await further certification. The time can always be learned by applying to the commis- of examination is not considered, as the highest sion or to the nearest postoffice or custom house. in average percentage on the register must be cerThose who desire to take examination are adviseil tified first. If after a probationary period of six to write to the commission in Washington for the months the name of the appointee is continued on "Manual of Examinations,” which is sent free to the roll of the department in which he serves the all applicants. It is revised semiannually to Jan. appointment is considered absolute. 1 and July 1. The January edition contains a sched- Removals-No person can

be removed from a ule of the spring examinations and the July edi- competitive position except for such cause as will tion contains a schedule of the fall examinations. promote the efficiency of the public service and for Full information is given as to the methods and reasons given in writing. No examination of witrules governing examinations, manner of making nesses nor any trial shall be required except in application, qualifications required, regulations for the discretion of the officer making the removal. rating examination papers, certification for and Salaries-Entrance to the departmental service is chances of appointment, and as far as possible it usually in the lowest grades, the higher grades beoutlines the scope of the different subjects of gen- ing generally filled by promotion. The usual en. eral and technical examinations. These are prac- trance grade is about $900, but the applicant may tical in character and are designed to test the rel. be appointed at $810, $760 or even $600.

TRIAL OF WILL J. DAVIS FOR IROQUOIS FIRE. Will J. Davis, theater manager, was indicted change of venue. Oct. 8 Judge Smith decided with others Feb. 20. 1904, for involuntary man- that the case should be tried at Danville, 111. slaughter in connection with the burning of the After some postponements the trial began before Iroquois theater in Chicago, Dec. 30, 1903, in which Judge E. R. E. Kimbrough in that city March 3, 596 persons lost their lives. Feb. 9, 1905, the in- 1907. A jury was secured March 5, but the claim dictment was quashed by Judge Kersten of Cook was set up by the defense that the Chicago buildcounty and Judge Green of Peoria county, but a ing ordinance under which the indictment was new indictment was returned by the grand jury brought was defective, and, the judge taking the March 4 of the same year. Jan. 23, 1906, Judge same view, no testimony was taken, and on March Kavanagh denied a motion to quash the indict- 9 the jury, by direction of the court, gave a verment, and June 14 Judge Ben M. Smith granted a dict of not guilty.


Cornelius P. Shea and others were charged with conspiracy in connection with the teamsters' strike in Chicago in May, 1905. They were indicted June 28 the same year and reindicted July 25, 1906. The first trial began Sept. 13, 1906, and ended Jan. 19, 1907, in a disagreement. The second trial

began Feb. 3 and ended Feb. 21, 1907, in acquittal.
It took ninety days to get the first jury and four-
teen to get the second, more than 5,000 talesmen
being examined. The estimated cost of the two
trials to the county was $45.000.



Sent to congress Jan. 23, 1907. To the Senate and House of Representatives: I to offset the expense by giving some advantage call your attention to the great desirability of to the ship itself. enacting legislation to help American shipping

The proposed law which has been introduced in and American trade by encouraging the building

congress is in no sense experimental. It is based

on the best and most successful precedents, as, and running of lines of large and swift steamers

for instance, on the recent Cunard contract with to South America and the orient. The urgent the British government. As far as South America need of our country's making an effort to do is concerned its aim is to provide from the something like its share of its own carrying trade Atlantic and

Pacific coasts better American on the ocean has been called to our attent on in lines in the great ports of South America than striking fashion by the experiences of Secretary the present European lines. The South AmerRoot on his recent South American tour.

The re

ican republics now see only our warships. Under sult of these experiences he has set forth in his this

bill our

trade friendship will be mad address before the trans-Mississippi commercial evident to them. The bill proposes to build congress at Kansas City, Mo., on Nov. 20 last- large-sized steamships of sixteen knots speed. an address

SO important that it deserves the There are nearly two hundred such steamships careful study of all public men. The facts set already in the world's foreign trade, and forth by Mr. Root are striking, and they cannot over three-fourths of them now draw subsidiesbut arrest the attention of our people. The great postal or admiralty, or both. The bill will encontinent to the south of us, which should be courage our shipyards, which are almost as necknit to us by the closest commercial ties, is hard- essary to the national defense as battle ships, and ly in direct commercial communication with us the efficiency of which depends in large measure at all, its commercial relations being almost ex: upon their steady employment in large construcclusively with Europe. Between all the principal tion. The proposed bill is of importance to our South American ports and Europe lines of swift navy because it gives a considerable fleet of auxand commodious steamers, subsidized by their home iliary steamships, such as is now almost wholly governments, ply regularly. There is no such lacking, and also provides for an effective naval line of steamers between these ports and the reserve. The bill provides for fourteen steamUnited States. In consequence our shipping in ships, subsidized to the extent of over $1,500,South American ports is almost a negligible quan- 000, from the Atlantic coast, all to run tity; for instance, in the year ended June 30, to South American ports. It provides, on the 1905,

there entered the port of Rio de Janeiro Pacific coast, for twenty-two steamers, subsidized over 3,000 steamers and sailing vessels to the extent of $2,250,000, some of those Europe, but from the United States no steamers to

to South America, most of them and only seven sailing vessels, two of which to Manila, Australia and Asia. Be it rememberei were in distress.

One prime reason for this state that while the ships will be owned on the coas s of things is the fact that those who do business the cargoes will largely be supplied by the inon the sea do business in a world not of natural terior, and that the bill will benefit the Missiscompetition but of subsidized competition.

sippi valley as much as it benefits the seaboard. State aid to steamship lines is as much a part I have laid stress upon the benefit to be exof the commercial system of to-day as state em- pected from our trade with South America. The ployment of consuls to promote business.


lines to the orient are also of vital importance. commercial competitors in Europe pay in the ag- The commercial possibilities of the Pacific are gregate some $25,000,000 a year to their steam- unlimited, and for national reasons it is imperaship lines-Great Britain paying nearly $7,000,000. tive that we should have direct and adequate Japan pays between $3,000,000 and $4,000,000. By communication by American lines with Hawaii the proposed legislation the United States will and the Philippines. The existence of our present pay relatively less than any one of our com- steamship lines on the Pacific is seriously threatpetitors pays. Three years ago the trans-Missis- ened by the foreign subsidized lines. Our comsippi congress formally set forth as axiomatic munications with the markets of Asia and with our the statement that every ship is a missionary of own possessions in the Philippines, no less than our trade;. that steamship, lines work for their own communications with Australia, should depend countries just as railroad lines work for their not upon foreign but upon our own steamships. "The terminal points, and that it is as absurd for the southwest and the northwest should alike be United States to depend upon foreign ships to served by these lines, and if this is done they distribute its product as it would be for a de- will also give to the Mississippi valley throughout partment store to depend upon wagons of a com- its entire length the advantage of all transcontipeting, house to deliver its goods. This state- nental railways running to the Pacific coast. To ment is the literal truth. Moreover, it must be fail to establish adequate lines on the Pacific is remembered that American ships do not have to equivalent to proclaiming to the world that we contend merely against the subsidization of th ir have neither the ability nor the disposition to foreign competitors. The higher wages and the contend for our rightful share of the commerce of greater cost of maintenance of American officers the orient, nor yet to protect our interests in and crews make it almost impossible for our the Philippines.

It would surely be discre lpeople who do business on the ocean to compete itable for us to surrender to our commercial rivals on equal terms with foreign ships unless they the great commerce of the orient, the great comare protected as their fellow countrymen who do merce we should have with South America and business on land are protected. We cannot, as a

even of our own communications with Hawaii country, afford to have the wages and the man. and the Philippines. I earnestly hope for the enner of life of our seamen cut down, and the only actment of some law like the bill in question. alternative, if we are to have seamen at all, is


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