had yet been discovered by Spaniards.”” But the violence of the Spaniards, exciting the determined enmity of the inhabitants, defeated all their plans. Quiros, however, took possession of the country in the name of Philip III., and acted the formalities of founding a city, which he named New Jerusalem, appointing the alcaldes, regidores, and other officers. While Quiros lingered in the port of La Vera Cruz, still hoping to establish a friendly correspondence with the islanders, a violent storm drove his ship out to sea, thus separating him from the remainder of his fleet. He returned immediately to Mexico, whence he proceeded to Spain to entreat permission “to add the Australia del Espiritu Santo to the other possessions of the Spanish monarchy.” So importunately did he urge his suit, that he is said to have presented no less than fifty memorials on the subject to the king. He described the newly discovered country as a perfect paradise, abounding of course in the precious metals. His zeal and assiduity at length gained their object, and he was remanded to the viceroy of Peru to be furnished with ships for another expedition ; but he died at Panama on his way to Lima. His Australia is generally believed to be the same with the Grandes Cyclades of Bougainville, and New Hebrides of Cook. After the separation of Quiros from his fleet, Luis Vaz de Torres, the second in command, proceeded on his voyage to the south-west. He saw enough of Australia to persuade him that it was not a continent, and mentions his intention of circumnavigating it if the season had permitted. Having reached the latitude of 21° without finding land, he stood more to the north, and at length fell in with the eastern extremity of New Guinea, and followed the southern coast of that great island on his way to the Moluccas. He found this sea, which he was the first to explore, to be an archipelago covered with innumerable islands. It is remarkable also, that in 11° south latitude he saw land to the south* Monarquia Indica, lib. v. cap. 68. VOL. II. T

ward, which must have been some part of the great Terra Australis, at present commonly but incorrectly called New Holland. Torres went on shore in different parts of New Guinea, and took formal possession of that country for the king of Spain. While Portugal maintained an obstinate struggle with Holland for the possession of the Spice Islands and the Japanese trade, the Dutch East India company resolved to make a vigorous effort to reach the Moluccas by the Straits of Magellan. Six large vessels were equipped for that purpose, and sailed from the Texel in August, 1614, under the command of George Spilbergen. The course which he designed to follow was kept profoundly secret until he had advanced a long way across the Atlantic ; the crews then breaking out into murmurs, from anxiety to know their destination, he declared “ that he had no other orders than to sail through the Straits of Magellan, inasmuch as no other passage was known to him.” He effected his passage through the straits in thirty-four days. Spilbergen adds his testimony in favour of the existence of Patagonian giants. At first he was inclined to doubt on this point the veracity of previous voyagers. The savages whom he usually saw were rather below the ordinary size; but one day a man of gigantic stature was observed climbing a hill to look at the fleet: he afterwards approached the shore for the same purpose, and was seen distinctly by all the crews. It was the unanimous opinion that his stature exceeded that assigned to the Patagonians by Magellan. The fleet entered the South Sea in May, not without encountering one of those violent storms which seem to keep perpetual guard at the entrances of those dangerous straits. The remainder of the voyage was a continual triumph. No geographical discoveries indeed were made, but Spilbergen succeeded in the proper object of the expedition. He completely defeated the Spanish fleet on the coast of Peru; he assisted in the reduction of the Spice Islands; and contributed effectually to establish the power of the Dutch in the East Indies. He arrived safely in Holland in July, 1617, having employed two years and eleven months in his voyage round the globe. His glory was enhanced by the contrast of his voyage with those of Van Noort and Mahu: for he brought back his armament undiminished; whereas of nine ships that had sailed in the preceding expeditions, only one returned home. The year after the departure of Spilbergen’s expedition, two ships fitted out by private adventurers sailed from the Texel on a voyage of discovery. This voyage, which, as far as regarded the projectors, was as unfortunate in its termination as that of Spilbergen’s was successful, though far more important in the history of geography, had its rise in the following circumstances: — The Dutch East India Company claimed, by virtue of their charter, an exclusive right to the trade carried on with India by the Cape of Good Hope and the Straits of Magellan ; but the merchants, who felt themselves oppressed by this monopoly, entertained hopes that the exclusive rights conferred by the charter might be nullified by a strict interpretation of the very clause which conveyed the grant. The states-general, with a view to encourage navigation, and chiefly, perhaps, to discover the long sought north-west passage, had decreed that the discoverers of new passages to India should have the profits of the first four voyages by the newly discovered route as their reward. It was concluded, therefore, that if a passage round South America, distinct from the Straits of Magellan, were discovered, the oppressive privileges of the East India Company might be completely evaded. An opulent merchant of Amsterdam, named Isaac le Maire, well versed in geography, was disposed to believe in the existence of such a passage; and consulting William Cornelison Schouten, of Horn, a man of great nautical experience, he was confirmed in his opinion. The result of their deliberations was, that such a passage might probably be found; that the southern countries which might be reached by it abounded in riches; and, finally, that the East India Company could not interfere with a trade carried on with India by a route distinct from those mentioned in their charter. In consequence, it was resolved to despatch an expedition of discovery. Isaac le Maire advanced the greater part of the money; Schouten was allowed to have the sole direction of the voyage; and Jacob le Maire, the eldest son of Isaac, was to accompany him as supercargo. So eager were they in the prosecution of the design, that their arrangements were soon completed. Strict secrecy was observed with respect to their definite object: yet their intention of exploring the southern seas was generally known ; and the terms in which we have seen above that Spilbergen expressed the instructions of his voyage, might lead to the conclusion that theories respecting the existence of a southern passage had been some time in agitation. Sir Francis Drake, though he took no pains to blazon his geographical discoveries, was well aware that he had nearly circumnavigated the broken land called Tierra del Fuego, and that he had seen the southernmost extremity of America. This conviction he had imparted to sir Richard Hawkins, a man of nautical experience and well acquainted with those seas, who concurred with him in opinion, and who writes, “ that a man with a fair wind may keep the main sea and go round about the straits to the southward, which is the shorter way.” It is not surprising, therefore, that at a time when the Dutch derived so much assistance from English seamen, the hydrographical information of Drake should have passed traditionally into Holland, and have reached the ears of those whose interests made them eager to embrace it. The two ships, the Unity and the Horn, sailed from the Texel in June, 1615. Having provided himself with an English gunner and carpenter, Schouten stood boldly across the Atlantic, resolving to shun those delays of stopping in port which had proved fatal to many preceding expeditions. Their destination was hitherto a secret but on crossing the line, the crew were told that they were bound to Terra Australis (Del Espiritu Santo of Quiros), and the men, who had never before heard of this country, wrote the name in their caps in order to remember it. By the middle of December they reached Port Desire, at the eastern entrance of the straits, where the smaller of the two vessels, the Horn, was accidentally consumed by fire, when undergoing some repairs. Proceeding southward from this port, they discovered Staten Land ; and passing through the strait which separates it from Tierra del Fuego, they found a great sea, in which whales and other monsters were so numerous as to embarrass the passage. Sea mews, larger than swans, with wings stretching a fathom across, flew screaming round the ship. The wind was adverse, and they were compelled to tack much: but at length they saw the southern extremity of the land to which Schouten, from his native town, gave the name of Cape Horn. The strait through which they had just sailed was named from Le Maire, the projector of the voyage. On the 3d of February, while struggling with adverse winds, they reached lat. 59° 25', and saw no land; on the 12th, sailing on the opposite tack, they found themselves to the west of Magellan's Straits. Nothing could exceed their joy at this discovery ; but they were so distressed by the fatigues of their late voyage, that they steered directly for the island of Juan Fernandez, in order to indulge there in a short repose. They found the island; but being unacquainted with its shores, they could not approach it through the surf, and were obliged to continue their voyage. Several small islands were descried by them, which seemed to have just risen from the waves. They were, in general, not above the level of the sea, the interior being covered with lagoons, and surrounded by a kind of dyke. Some of them appeared to be in a more advanced state of formation, and were furnished with a few trees. In one of them, named Fly Island from the circumstance, the flies were so numerous as to appear to the Dutchmen a sort of plague ; the seamen were covered with them as with another clothing,

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