by this mistake robbed the discovery of its greatest interest. In consequence, the first discovery of New Holland has been generally ascribed to Theodoric Hertoge, who, on his passage from Holland to the East Indies, in a small vessel called the Eendracht, or Concord, fell in with the western coast of that great continent in about 25° S. To the part seen by him he gave the name of the Land of Eendracht, which is preserved in modern maps, with those of Dirk Hertoge's Cape and Road. This discovery was zealously followed up by the Dutch in the East Indies. In 1618, Zeachen discovered the northern coast of Australia, in those parts which are named the lands of Arnhem and Diemen. Jan Edels ran along the western coast in 1619, and left his name to his discoveries. In 1622, was seen that portion of the land called Leuwin's Coast. De Nuitz examined; in 1627, the southern coast, to which he gave his name ; and in the following year De Witt continued his researches. In the same year, a Dutch commander, named Carpenter, discovered and gave his name to the coast called Carpentaria. Thus the Dutch, within a very few years, had made a general survey of the whole western and northern coasts of that extensive region, and imposed names on its different portions, which served as memorials of their discoveries. But the merit by which the Dutch navigators in the East Indies so soon eclipsed the Portuguese who had preceded them, was much more their enlightenment than their enterprise. There is strong reason to suspect that the Portuguese had some knowledge of Australia nearly a century before it was visited by the Dutch. Two maps are preserved in the library of the British Museum which tend forcibly to strengthen this opinion. In one of these, written in French, and supposed to have been drawn about 1550, there is placed to the south of Asia a great island, the position of which exactly corresponds with that of Australia. A narrow passage separates it from Java. Timor is placed to the north-east. This large country is called Great Java. Among the names

which are written on its coasts, there occurs that of Cóte des Herbaiges, or Botany Coast, somewhat to the north of the modern Botany Bay. To the south of that we meet with other names at considerable distances, such as Côte des Gracal, and a great promontory called Cap de Fromose. Still farther to the south is marked a goufre, which means perhaps, not properly a gulf, but a great bay or inlet. The line which bounds the map cuts this great island, and leaves its extent undetermined. The names Gracal and Fromose occurring here seem to be Portuguese, and give rise to the suspicion that this map has been translated from that language. This suspicion is confirmed by the Hydrography of John Rotz, dated in 1542, which is also preserved in the British Museum. This curious manuscript is written in English ; but it is conjectured that its author was one of those Flemings who passed into England in 1540 with Anne of Cleves. Here Australia, which is called the Land of Java, is drawn nearly as it was in the seventeenth century, previous to the voyage of Abel Tasman. A comparison of this map with the foregoing leads to the conjecture that the maps of Rotz are the originals; for in them are found many Portuguese names, which in the other are translated into French. In both, Borneo is placed with tolerable correctness; which at once refutes the supposition that the great island is intended for Borneo, named Great Java by Marco Polo. The same indications have been seen in other maps of the same age. When it is considered that New Guinea was discovered, according to the Portuguese, by Menezes, in 1527, and, according to the Spaniards, a year later, by Saavedra ; when we reflect on the negligence and illiberality which have obscured all the discoveries of these two nations, and then turn to consider the indications detailed above; it will be difficult to avoid concluding that the Spaniards and Portuguese visited the northern and even eastern coasts of New Holland nearly a century before that country was discovered by the Dutch. WOL. II. U

Hitherto no limits had been set by the discoveries of the Dutch to the extension of the Terra Australis towards the east and south. But in 1642 the governor and council at Batavia fitted out two ships to prosecute the discovery of the South Land, as it was still called, principally with a view to ascertain its extent. The command of this expedition was given to captain Abel Jansen Tasman ; and the result justified the choice : for few voyages since that of Magellan contributed more to the perfection of geography. Tasman sailed first to the Mauritius: he left that island on the 8th of October, directing his course generally to the south-east. On the 27th a great deal of duck-weed was seen, and it was resolved to keep a man constantly at the topmasthead to look out for land, and that whoever first discovered land or shoals should receive a reward of three reals and a pot of arrack. Floating weeds were frequently seen in abundance, and awakened the expectations of the seamen ; yet no land was discovered till the 24th of November, when, about four o'clock in the afternoon, high land with mountains, about ten miles distant, was descried, extending from the north-east towards the south. It was resolved immediately to run off to sea for five hours during the night, and then to stand in close to land. Tasman found himself in lat. 42° 30' and lon. 163° 50'. He observed also that near the coast the variation of the compass suddenly decreased, and the needle pointed true north. To the land which he had discovered he gave the name of Antony Van Diemen's Land, in honour of the governor-general, who had prepared the expedition. Some of his crew went on shore, but found no inhabitants; they saw, however, trees, in which steps were cut for people to climb up in search of birds'-nests. The country was furnished all over with trees, which stood so thin as never to interrupt the distant prospect. From the ships they could see people on shore; and smoke was observed to rise from the woods. On the 2d of December they cleared the southernmost point of the land, and stood for some time to the northward; but on the 5th they steered to the east, and soon lost sight of land. Tasman had thus sailed round to the south of Australia, and proved that the South Land did not extend indefinitely to the pole as it was supposed. On the 14th, in lon. 189° 3", land was again descried to the east. The mountains were concealed in clouds; but the ships approached so near to the coast that they could see the waves breaking on the shore. No people were seen, nor fires; and the country had a barren appearance. The ships sailed along it towards the north, and on the 18th came to anchor in a sheltered bay; after sunset, lights were seen on the shore, and four vessels were observed approaching the ships. The islanders called to the Dutch in a strong rough voice, and sounded an instrument that resembled a Moorish trumpet. The Dutch blew their trumpets in return; and this salutation was repeated several times; but the natives still kept at a distance from the ship, and as it grew dark returned to the shore. In the morning they repeated their visit. “They called to us several times,” says Tasman, “ but their language had nothing in it like the vocabulary of the Salomon Islands given to us by the general and council at Batavia. These people, as well as we could judge, were of our own common stature, strong boned, and of a rough voice. Their colour is between brown and yellow ; their hair black, which they tie up on the crown of the head like to the Japanese, and wear a large white feather upright in it. Their vessels were two narrow long canoes fastened together, upon which boards were fixed to sit on. Their paddles were more than a fathom long, and were pointed at the end. Their clothing seemed to us to be of mats or of cotton, but most of them went with their breast naked.” As the islanders seemed to have friendly intentions, the Dutch prepared to anchor nearer to the shore; but they soon discovered their mistake: seven canoes came off rapidly from the shore, and stationed themselves near the ships; and observing a boat full of Dutch carrying orders from one ship to another, the canoes of the natives made rapidly towards her, and struck her so violently with their beaks as nearly to upset her. The natives then commenced their attack on the crew with their clubs and paddles: three of the Dutch were killed, and one was mortally wounded ; the rest saved their lives by swimming. The natives then returned to the shore with one of the dead bodies; but the others, with the boat, they left behind. All hope of friendly intercourse with the islanders being thus at an end, the Dutch weighed anchor, and stood out to sea: when they were under sail, twenty-two canoes, eleven of which were full of people, advanced rapidly towards them. The Dutch, however, fired their guns at them, and forced them to make a precipitate retreat. This bay was named by Tasman Moordenaares (Murderers') Bay. Of this inhospitable land he observes—“This is the second land discovered by us; we named it Staten Land, in honour of the states-general. It is possible that it may join the other Staten Land (of Schouten and Le Maire, to the south of Tierra del Fuego), but it is uncertain: it is a very fine country, and we hope it is part of the unknown south continent.” The Staten Land of Tasman has since received the name of New Zealand. The Dutch ships continued for several days to run northward along the coast, and on the 5th of January saw a small island, which they proceeded to examine in search of fresh water ; but the surf was so violent that it was impossible to effect a landing. Several natives were seen on the island, armed with staves or clubs, and resembling the other New Zealanders in the hoarseness of their voices: they appeared to be very tall, and in walking took great strides. This island was named Drie Koning (Three Kings’) Island, from the circumstance of its being discovered on the day of the epiphany. It was now resolved to sail eastward as far as lon. 220°, and then to steer towards the north. Staten Land, or New Zealand, was soon lost sight of. No land was seen on this course for twelve days; but at the end of

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