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Secretary for shall be an executive department to be denominated the Department of the department War, (a) and that there shall be a principal officer therein, to be called

the Secretary for the Department of War, who shall perform and exe. cute such duties as shall from time to time be enjoined on, or entrusted to him by the President of the United States, agreeably to the Constitution, relative to military commissions, or to the land or naval forces,

ships, or warlike stores of the United States, or to such other matters 1798, ch. 35, respecting military or naval affairs, as the President of the United States

shall assign to the said department, or relative to the granting of lands to persons entitled thereto, for military services rendered to the United States, or relative to Indian affairs; and furthermore, that the said principal officer shall conduct the business of the said department in such manner, as the President of the United States shall from time to time

order or instruct. Principal Sec. 2. And be it further enacted, That there shall be in the said clerk, his duty. department an inferior officer, to be appointed by the said principal

officer, to be employed therein as he shall deem proper, and to be called the chief clerk in the department of war, and who, whenever the said principal officer shall be removed from office by the President of the United States, or in any other case of vacancy, shall, during such vacancy, have the charge and custody of all records, books and papers,

appertaining to the said department. Oath of office. Sec. 3. And be it further enacted, That the said principal officer,

and every other person to be appointed or employed in the said department, shall, before he enters on the execution of his office or employment, take an oath or affirmation well and faithfully to execute the trust

commited to him. Secretary to Sec. 4. And be it further enacted, That the Secretary for the departtake charge of

ment of war, to be appointed in consequence of this act, shall forthwith papers, &c. of war department. after his appointment, be entitled to have the custody and charge of all

records, books and papers in the office of Secretary for the department of war, heretofore established by the United States in Congress assem

bled.(6)

APPROVED, August 7, 1789.

STATUTE I.

Aug. 7, 1789. Chap. VIII.-An Act to provide for the Government of the Territory NorthOhio may continue to have full effect, it is requisite that certain provi- Act of April sions should be made, so as to adapt the same to the present Constitu- 30, 1802, ch.40. tion of the United States.(a)

west of the river Ohio. 1800, ch. 41.

Whereas in order that the ordinance of the United States in Congress 1802, ch. 40. assembled, for the government of the territory north-west of the river I do owe faith and true allegiance to the United States of America; and I do swear (or affirm) that I will, to the utmost of my power, support, maintain and defend the said United States in their freedom, sovereignty and independence, against all opposition whatsoever." And the oath of office shall be in the words following: “I, A. B. appointed to the office of

do swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully, truly and impartially execute the office of

to which I am so appointed, according to the best of my skill and judgment; and that I will not disclose or reveal any thing that shall come to my knowledge in the execution of the said office, or from the confidence I may thereby acquire, which in my own judgment or by the injunction of my superiors ought to be kept secret." That the form of the oath of fidelity heretofore prescribed by Congress, and all former resolutions of Congress relative to the department of war, be, and they are hereby repealed. Done by the United States in Congress assembled, the twenty-seventh day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty-five, and of our sovereignty and independence the ninth.

RICHARD HENRY LEE, President. CHARLES THOMSON, Secretary. (a) The Secretary at War, as the legitimate organ of the President, under a general authority from him, may exercise the power, and make the allowance to officers having a separate command. Parker v. The United States, 1 Peters, 296.

(b) By “ an act to establish an executive department to be denominated the Department of the Navy, passed April 30, 1798, chap. 35, the navy department was established, and by the 5th section of that act so much of the act of August 1, 1789, as vested any of the powers given to the department over the navy, by the act of April 30, 1798, were repealed.

(a) An Ordinance for the Government of the Territory of the United States north-west of the river Ohio.

Be it ordained by the United States in Congress assembled, That the said territory, for the purposes of temporary government, be one district; subject, however, to be divided into two districts, as future cir. cumstances may, in the opinion of Congress, make it expedient.

Be it ordained by the authority aforesaid, That the estates both of resident and non-resident proprie. tors in the said territory, dying intestate, shall descend to, and be distributed among their children, and the descendants of a deceased child in equal parts; the descendants of a deceased child or grandchild, to take the share of their deceased parent in equal parts among them: And where there shall be no children or descendants, then in equal parts to the next of kin, in equal degree; and among collaterals, the children of a deceased brother or sister of the intestate, shall have in equal parts among them their deceased parents' share; and there shall in no case be a distinction between kindred of the whole and half blood; saving in all cases to the widow of the intestate, her third part of the real estate for life, and one third part of the personal estate ; and this law relative to descents and dower, shall remain in full force until altered by the legislature of the district. --And until the governor and judges shall adopt laws as hereinafter mentioned, estates in the said territory may be devised or bequeathed by wills in writing, signed and sealed by him or her, in whom the estate may be (being of full age) and attested by three witnesses ;—and real estates may be conveyed by lease and release, or bargain and sale, signed, sealed and delivered by the person, being of full age, in whom the estate may be, and attested by two witnesses, provided such wills be duly proved, and such conveyances be acknowledged, or the execu. tion thereof duly proved, and be recorded within one year after proper magistrates, courts and registers shall be appointed for that purpose; and personal property may be transferred by delivery; saving, however, to the French and Canadian inhabitants, and other settlers of the Kaskaskies, St. Vincent's, and the neighbouring villages, who have heretofore professed themselves citizens of Virginia, their laws and customs now in force among them, relative to the descent and conveyance of property.

Be it ordained by the authority aforesaid, That there shall be appointed from time to time, by Congress, a governor, whose commission shall continue in force for the term of three years, unless sooner revoked by Congress : he shall reside in the district, and have a freehold estate therein, in one thousand acres of land, while in the exercise of his office.

There shall be appointed from time to time by Congress, a secretary, whose commission shall continue in force for four years, unless sooner revoked; he shall reside in the district, and have a freehold estate therein, in five hundred acres of land, while in the exercise of his office: it shall be his duty to keep and preserve the acts and laws passed by the legislature, and the public records of the district, and the proceedings of the governor in his executive department; and transmit authentic copies of such acts and proceedings, every six months, to the secretary of Congress : There shall also be appointed a court to consist of three judges, any two of whom to form a court, who shall have a common law jurisdiction, and reside in the district, and have each therein a freehold estate in five hundred acres of land, while in the exercise of their offices; and their commissions shall continue in force during good be. haviour.

The governor and judges, or a majority of them, shall adopt and publish in the district, such laws of the original States, criminal and civil, as may be necessary, and best suited to the circumstances of the district, and report them to Congress, from time to time, which laws shall be in force in the district until the organization of the general assembly therein, unless disapproved of by Congress; but afterwards the legislature shall have anthority to alter them as they shall think fit.

The governor for the time being, shall be commander-in-chief of the militia, appoint and commission all officers in the same, below the rank of general officers; all general officers shall be appointed and commissioned by Congress.

Previous to the organization of the general assembly, the governor shall appoint such magistrates and other civil officers, in each county or township, as he shall find necessary for the preservation of the peace and good order in the same: After the general assembly shall be organized, the powers and duties of magistrates and other civil officers shall be regulated and defined by the said assembly; but all magis. trates and other civil officers, not herein otherwise directed, shall during the continuance of this temporary government, be appointed by the governor.

For the prevention of crimes and injuries, the laws to be adopted or made shall have force in all parts of the district, and for the execution of process, criminal and civil, the governor shall make proper divisions thereof—and he shall proceed from time to time, as circumstances may require, to lay out the parts of the district in which the Indian titles shall have been extinguished, into counties and townships, subject, however, to such alterations as may thereafter be made by the legislature.

So soon as there shall be five thousand free male inhabitants, of full age, in the district, upon giving proof thereof to the governor, they shall receive authority, with time and place, to elect representatives from their counties or townships, to represent them in the general assembly ; provided that for every five hundred free male inhabitants, there shall be one representative, and so on progressively with the number of free male inhabitants shall the right of representation increase, until the number of represen. tatives shall amount to twenty-five; after which the number and proportion of representatives shall be regulated by the legislature: provided that no person be eligible or qualified to act as a representative, unless he shall have been a citizen of one of the United States three years, and be a resident in the district, or unless he shall have resided in the district three years; and in either case, shall likewise hold in his own right, in fee simple, two hundred acres of land within the same: provided also, that a free. hold in fifty acres of land in the district, having been a citizen of one of the States, and being resident in the district, or the like freehold and two years residence in the district shall be necessary to qualify a man as an elector of a representative.

The representatives thus elected, shall erve for the term of two years; and in case of the death of a representative, or removal from office, the governor shall issue a writ to the county or township, for which he was a member, to elect another in his stead, to serve for the residue of the term.

The general assembly, or legislature, shall consist of the governor, legislative council, and a house of

Section 1. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of RepresentaGovernor to tives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That in make communi.

all cases in which by the said ordinance, any information is to be given, cation to the President of the or communication made by the governor of the said territory to the

United States in Congress assembled, or to any of their officers, it shall

U. States.

representatives. The legislative council shall consist of five members, to continue in office five years, unless sooner removed by Congress; any three of whom to be a quorum : and the members of the council shall be nominated and appointed in the following manner, to wit: As soon as representatives shall be elected, the governor shall appoint a time and place for them to meet together, and, when met, they shall nominate ten persons, residents in the district, and each possessed of a freehold in five hundred acres of land, and return their names to Congress; five of whom Congress shall appoint and commission to serve as aforesaid ; and whenever a vacancy shall happen in the council, by death or removal from office, the house of representatives shall nominate two persons, qualified as aforesaid, for each vacancy, and return their names to Congress; one of whom Congress shall appoint and commission for the resi. due of the term. And every five years, four months at least before the expiration of the time of service of the members of council, the said house shall nominate ten persons, qualified as aforesaid, and return their names to Congress; five of whom Congress shall appoint and commission to serve as members of the council five years, unless sooner removed. And the governor, legislative council, and house of representatives, shall have anthority to make laws, in all cases, for the good government of the district, not repugnant to the principles and articles in this ordinance established and declared. And all bills having passed by a majority in the house, and by a majority in the council, shall be referred to the governor for his assent; but no bill or legislative act whatever, shall be of any force without his assent. The governor shall have power to convene, prorogue and dissolve the general assembly, when in his opinion it shall be expedient.

The governor, judges, legislative council, secretary, and such other officers as Congress sha)l appoint in the district, shall take an oath or affirmation of fidelity, and of office; the governor before the president of Congress, and all other officers before the governor. As soon as a legislature shall be formed in the district, the council and house assembled, in one room, shall have authority, by joint ballot, to elect a delegate to Congress, who shall have a scat in Congress, with a right of debating, but not of voting during this temporary government.

And for extending the fundamental principles of civil and religious liberty, which form the basis whereon these republics, their laws and constitutions are erected ; to fix and establish those principles as the basis of all laws, constitutions, and governments, which forever hereafter shall be formed in the said territory: to provide also for the establishment of States, and permanent government therein, and for their admission to a share in the federal councils on an equal footing with the original States, at as early periods as may be consistent with the general interest :

It is hereby ordained and declared, by the authority aforesaid, That the following articles shall be considered as articles of compact between the original States, and the people and States in the said territory, and forever remain unalterable, unless by common consent, to wit:

ART. I. No person, demeaning himself in a peaceable and orderly manner, shall ever be molested on account of his mode of worship or religious sentiments, in the said territory.

ART, II. The inhabitants of the said territory, shall always be entitled to the benefits of the writ of habeas corpus, and of the trial by jury; of a proportionate representation of the people in the legislature, and of judicial proceedings according to the course of the common law. All persons shall be bailable, unless for capital offences, where the proof shall be evident, or the presumption great. All fines shall be moderate; and no cruel or unusual punishments shall be inflicted. No man shall be de. prived of his liberty or property, but by the judgment of his peers, or the law of the land, and should the public exigencies make it necessary, for the common preservation, to take any person's property, or to demand his particular services, full compensation shall be made for the same.

And in the just preservation of rights and property, it is understood and declared, that no law ought ever to be made, or have force in the said territory, that shall in any manner whatever interfere with, or affect private contracts or engagements, bona fide, and without fraud previously formed.

ART. III. Religion, morality, and knowledge, being necessary to good government and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of education shall forever be encouraged. The utnost good faith shall always be observed towards the Indians; their land and property shall never be taken from them without their consent; and in their property, rights and liberty, they never shall be invaded or disturbed, unless in just and lawful wars authorized by Congress; but laws founded in justice and humanity shall from time to time be made, for preventing wrongs being done to them, and for preserving peace and friendship with them.

Art. IV. The said territory, and the States which may be formed therein, shall forever remain a part of this confederacy of the United States of America, subject to the articles of confederation, and to such alterations therein, as shall be constitutionally made; and to all the acts and ordinances of the United States in Congress assembled, conformable thereto. The inhabitants and settlers in the said ter. ritory, shall be subject to pay a part of the federal debts, contracted or to be contracted, and a propora tional part of the expenses of government, to be apportioned on them by Congress, according to the same common rule and measure, by which apportionments thereof shall be made on the other States; and the taxes for paying their proportion, shall be laid and levied by the authority and direction of the legislatures of the district or districts or new States, as in the original States, within the time agreed upon by the United States in Congress assembled. The legislatures of those districts or new States, shall never interfere with the primary disposal of the soil by the United States in Congress assembled, nor with any regulations Congress may find necessary for securing the title in such soil to the bona fide purchasers. No tax shall be imposed on land the property of the United States; and in no case shall non-resident proprietors be taxed higher than residents. The navigable waters leading into the Missis. sippi and St. Lawrence, and the carrying places between the same, shall be common highways, and for. ever free, as well to the inhabitants of the said territory, as to the citizens of the United States, and those of any other States that may be admitted into the confederacy, without any tax, impost, or duty therefor.

be the duty of the said governor to give such information and to make such communication to the President of the United States, and the Pre- Officers to be sident shall nominate, and by and with the advice and consent of the appointed by

the President Senate, shall appoint all officers which by the said ordinance were to and Senate. have been appointed by the United States in Congress assembled, and all officers so appointed shall be commissioned by him; and in all cases

To be com

missioned and where the United States in Congress assembled, might, by the said ordi

removed by the nance, revoke any commission or remove from any office, the President President. is hereby declared to have the same powers of revocation and removal.

Sec. 2. And be it further enacted, That in case of the death, removal, resignation, or necessary absence of the governor of the said territory,

death, removal,

&c., secretary the secretary thereof shall be, and he is hereby authorized and required to execute the to execute all the powers, and perform all the duties of the governor, power of gover. during the vacancy occasioned by the removal, resignation or necessary

nor during such

vacancy. absence of the said governor.(a)

APPROVED, August 7, 1789.

In cases of

Chap. IX.-An Act for the establishment and support of Lighthouses, Beacons, Aug. 7, 1789.

Buoys, and Public Piers.(b) Section 1. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That all Act of July expenses which shall accrue from and after the fifteenth day of August, 22, 1790, ch. 32.

Arr. V. There shall be formed in the said territory, not less than three, nor more than five States ; and the boundaries of the States, as soon as Virginia shall alter her act of cession, and consent to the same, shall become fixed and established as follows, to wit: The western State in the said territory, shall be bounded by the Mississippi, the Ohio and Wabash rivers; a direct line drawn from the Wabash and Post Vincents due north to the territorial line between the United States and Canada; and by the said territorial line to the Lake of the Woods and Mississippi. The middle State shall be bounded by the said direct line, the Wabash from Post Vincents to the Ohio; by the Ohio, by a direct line drawn due north from the mouth of the Great Miami, to the said territorial line, and by the said territorial line. The eastern State shall be bounded by the last mentioned direct line, the Ohio, Pennsylvania, and the said territorial line: Provided however, and it is further inderstood and declared, that the boundaries of these three States shall be subject so far to be altered, that it' Congress shall hereafter find it expedient, they shall have authority to form one or two States in that part of the said territory which lies north of an east and west line drawn through the southerly bend or extreme of lake Michigan. And whenever any of the sa States shall have sixty thousand free inhabitants therein, such State shall be admit. ted, by its delegates, into the Congress of the United States, on an equal footing with the original States, in all respects whatever; and shall be at liberty to form a permanent constitution and State government: Provided the constitution and government so to be formed, shall be republican, and in conformity to the principles contained in these articles; and so far as it can be consistent with the general interest of the confederacy, such admission shall be allowed at an earlier period, and when there may be a less number of free inbabitants in the State than sixty thousand.

ART. VI. There shall be neither slavery nor involuntary servitude in the said territory, otherwise than in punishment of crimes, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted : Provided always, that any person escaping into the same, from whom labour or service is lawfully claimed in any one of the original States, such fugitive may be lawfully reclaimed, and conveyed to the person claiming his or her labour or service as aforesaid. Done by the United States in Congress assembled, the thirteenth day of July, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty-seven, and of their sovereignty and independence the twelfth.

WILLIAM GRAYSON, Chairman. CHARLES THOMSON, Secretary. (a) The States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and Michigan, were, after the enactment of this law, formed out of part of “The Territory of the United States, northwest of the river Ohio,” and became members of the federal Union.

Ohio was established as a State April 30, 1802. INDIANA was admitted into the Union December 11, 1816. ILLINOIS was admitted into the Union December 3, 1818. MICHIGAN was admitted into the Union January 26, 1837.

(b) See acts of July 22, 1790; act of March 3, 1791; act of March 2, 1793; act of March 2, 1795; act of May 30, 1796. Few acts have been specially passed since 1796 for the support &c. of lighthouses, &c. Provision for the same has been made in the general appropriation laws. By the 7th section of the act of May 15, 1820, “No lighthouse, beacon nor landmark shall be built or erected on any site previous to the cession of jurisdiction over the same being made to the United States."

Suits for pilotage on the high seas, and on waters navigable from the sea, as far as the tide ebbs and flows, are within the admiralty and maritime jurisdiction of the United States. The Thomas Jefferson, 10 Wheat, 428. Peyroux v. Howard, 7 Peters, 324. Hobart v. Drogan, 10 Peters, 108.

same,

near entrance

Expenses of one thousand seven hundred and eighty-nine, in the necessary support, support and re- maintenance and repairs of all lighthouses, beacons, buoys and public Aug. 1789, to be piers erected, placed, or sunk before the passing of this act, at the endefrayed out of trance of, or within any bay, inlet, harbor, or port of the United States, the treasury of for rendering the navigation thereof easy and safe, shall be defrayed out

, Provided a ces

of the treasury of the United States : Provided nevertheless, That none sion be made of the said expenses shall continue to be so defrayed by the United within one year. States, after the expiration of one year from the day aforesaid, unless

such lighthouses, beacons, buoys and public piers, shall in the mean time be ceded to and vested in the United States, by the state or states respectively in which the same may be, together with the lands and

tenements thereunto belonging, and together with the jurisdiction of the [Expired.)

Lighthouse Sec. 2. And be it further enacted, That a lighthouse shall be erected to be erected

near the entrance of the Chesapeake Bay, at such place, when ceded to of Chesapeake

the United States in manner aforesaid, as the President of the United Bay.

States shall direct. Secretary of Sec. 3. And be it further enacted, That it shall be the duty of the the Treasury to Secretary of the Treasury to provide by contracts, which shall be apbuilding, re.

proved by the President of the United States, for building a lighthouse pairing, &c. near the entrance of Chesapeake Bay, and for rebuilding when neceswhen necessary. sary, and keeping in good repair, the lighthouses, beacons, buoys, and

public piers in the several States, and for furnishing the same with all necessary supplies; and also to agree for the salaries, wages, or hire of the person or persons appointed by the President, for the superintend

ence and care of the same. Pilots to be Sec 4. And be it further enacted, That all pilots in the bays, inlets, regulated by the rivers, harbors and ports of the United States, shall continue to be reguexisting laws of the respective

lated in conformity with the existing laws of the States respectively States, wherein such pilots may be, or with such laws as the States may re

spectively hereafter enact for the purpose, until further legislative provision shall be made by Congress.(a)

APPROVED, August 7, 1789.

contract for

Sum appro.

STATUTE I. Chap. X.-An Act providing for the Expenses which may altend Negotiations or

Treaties with the Indian Tribes, and the appointment of Commissioners for Aug. 20, 1789.

managing the same. (Obsolete.)

Section 1. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That a

sum not exceeding twenty thousand dollars, arising from the duties on priated.

imports and tonnage, shall be, and the same is hereby appropriated to defraying the expense of negotiating and treating with the Indian tribes.

Sec. 2. And be it further enacted, That each of the commissioners Allowance to

who may be appointed for managing such negotiations and treaties, shall commissioners. be entitled to an allowance, exclusive of his expenses at the place of

treaty, of eight dollars per day during his actual service, to be paid out of the monies so appropriated.

APPROVED, August 20, 1789. (a) By the 2d section of the act of May 8, 1792, pilots are exempted from militia duty. By “ an act. concerning pilots," passed March 2, 1837, pilots on the waters which are the boundary of two States, may be licensed by either State, and may be employed by any vessel going into or out of any port siluated on such waters.

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