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I.

BOO K two or three diftinet operations; to put it on,

is a peculiar business, to whiten the pins is another; it is even a trade by itself to put them into the paper; and the important business of making a pin is, in this manner, divided into about eighteen diftinet operations, which, in some manufactories, are all performed by distinct hands, though in others the same man will fometimes perform two or three of them. I have seen a small manufactory of this kind where ten men only were employed, and where some of them consequently performed two or three diftinét operations. But though they were very poor, and therefore but indifferently accommodated with the neceffary machinery, they could, when they exerted themselves, make among them about twelve pounds of pins in a day. There are in a pound upwards of four thousand pins of a middling fize. Those ten persons, therefore, could make among them upwards of forty-eight thousand pins in a day. Each person, therefore, making a tenth part of forty-eight thousand pins, might be considered as making four thou: fand eight hundred pins in a day. But if they had all wrought separately and independently, and without any of them having been educated to this peculiar business, they certainly could not each of them have made twenty, perhaps not one pin in a day; that is, certainly, not the two hundred and fortieth, perhaps not the four thou. fand eight hundredth part of what they are at present capable of performing, in consequence of

a proper

1.

à proper division and combination of their CHA P. different operations,

In every other art and manufacture, the effects of the division of labour are fimilar to what they are in this very trilling one; though, in many of them, the labour can neither be so much fub. divided, nor reduced to fo great a fimplicity of operation. The division of labour, however, fo far as it can be introduced, occasions, in every art, a proportionable increase of the productive powers of labour. The feparation of different trades and employments from one another, seems to have taken place, in consequence of this advantage. This feparation too is generally carried furthest in those countries which enjoy the highest degree of industryand improvement; what is the work of one man in a rude state of society, being generally that of several in an improved

In every improved society, the farmer is generally nothing but a farmer; the manufac, turer, nothing but a manufacturer. The labour too which is necessary to produce any one com, plete manufacture, is almost always dividedamong a great number of hands. How many different trades are employed in each branch of the linen and woollen manufactures, from the growers of the flax and the wool, to the bleachers and fmoothers of the linen, or to the dyers and dreffers of the cloth! The nature of agriculture, indeed, does not admit of so many subdivisions of labour, nor of fo complete a separation of one business from another, as manufactures. It is impossible to separate so entirely, the business of

the

one.

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ONE OF THE COMMISSIONERS OF HIS MAJESTY'S CUSTOMS

IN SCOTLAND;

AND FORMERLY PROFESSOR OF MORAL PHILOSOPHY

IN THE UNIVERSITY OF GLASGOW.

WITH AN ACCOUNT OF

HIS LIFE AND WRITINGS

BY DUGALD STEWART,
PROFESSOR OF MORAL PHILOSOPHY IN THE UNIVERSITY, AND
FELLOW OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY, OF EDINBURGH,

&c. &c. &c.

IN FIVE VOLUMES.

VOL. II.

LONDON:

PRINTED FOR T. CADELL AND W. DAVIES; F. C. AND J. RIVINGTON; OTRIDGE

AND SON; F. WINGRAVE; LONGMAN, HURST, REES, ORME, AND BROWN;
JOHN RICHARDSON ; J. BOOKER; B. CROSBY; E. JEFFERY ; W. STEWART;
BLACK, PARRY, AND KINGSBURY; S. BAGSTER; J. MAWMAN; J. ASPERNE ;
AND R. SCHOLEY : AND W. CREECH, AND BELL

AND BRADFUTE, AT
EDINBURGH.

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