greyhound, or a greyhound from a spaniel, or ch AP. this last from a shepherd's dog. Those different. II. tribes of animals, however, though all of the fame species, are of scarce any use to one another. The strength of the mastiff is not in the least supported either by the swiftness of the greyhound, or by the fagacity of the spaniel, or by the docility of the shepherd's dog. The effects of those different geniuses and talents, for want of the power or disposition to barter and exchange, cannot be brought into a common stock, and do not in the least contribute to the better accommodation and conveniency of the species. Each animal is still obliged to support and defend itself, separately and inde. pendently, and derives no fort of advantage from that variety of talents with which nature has distinguished its fellows. Among men, on the contrary, the most diffimilar geniuses are of use to one another; the different produces of their respective talents, by the general disposition to truck, barter, and exchange, being brought, as it were, into a common stock, where every man may purchase whatever part of the produce of other men's talents he has occafion for,




That the Division of Labour is limited by the

Extent of the Market.
A S it is the power of exchanging that gives
Il occasion to the division of labour, so the
extent of this division must always be limited
by the extent of that power, or, in other words,
by the extent of the market. When the market
is very small, no person can have any encourage,
ment to dedicate himself entirely to one employ,
ment, for want of the power to exchange all that
surplus part of the produce of his own labour,
which is over and above his own consumption,
for such part of the produce of other men's la.
bour as he has occasion for.

There are some sorts of industry, even of the lowest kind, which can be carried on no where but in a great town. A porter, for example, can find employment and subsistence in no other place. A village is by much too narrow a sphere for him ; even an ordinary market town is scarce large enough to afford him constant occupation. In the lone houses and very small villages which are scattered about in so desert a country as the Highlands of Scotland, every farmer must be butcher, baker and brewer for his own family. In such situations we can scarce expeet to find even a smith, a carpenter, or a : mason, within less than twenty miles of another of the same trade. The scattered families that

live at eight or ten miles distance from the C HA P. nearest of them, must learn to perform them., 10. felves a great number of little pieces of work, for which, in more populous countries, they would call in the assistance of those workmen. Country workmen are almost every where obliged to apply themselves to all the different branches of industry that have so much affinity to one another as to be employed about the same fort of materials. A country carpenter deals in every sort of work that is made of wood : a country smith in every sort of work that is made of iron. The former is not only a carpenter, but a joiner, a cabinet maker, and even a carver in wood, as well as a wheelwright, a plough-wright, a cart and waggon maker. The employments of the latter are still more various. It is impossible there should be such a trade as even that of a nailer in the remote and inland parts of the Highlands of Scotland. Such a workman at the rate of a thousand nails a day, and three hundred working days in the year, will make three hundred thousand nails in the year. But in such a situation it would be impossible to difpose of one thousand, that is, of one day's work in the year.

As by means of water-carriage a more extenfive market is open to every sort of industry than what land-carriage alone can afford it, so it is upon the sea-coast, and along the banks of navigable rivers, that industry of every kind naturally begins to subdivide and improve itself, and it is frequently not till a long time after that


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BOO K those improvements extend themselves to the in

land parts of the country. · A broad-wheeled waggon, attended by two men, and drawn by eight horses, in about six weeks time carries and brings back between London and Edinburgh near four ton weight of goods. In about the same time a ship navigated by fix or eight men, and failing between the ports of London and Leith, frequently carries and brings back two hundred ton weight of goods. Six or eight men, therefore, by the help of water-carriage, can carry and bring back in the same time the same quantity of goods between London and Edinburgh, as fifty broad-wheeled waggons, attended by a hundred men, and drawn by four hundred horses. Upon two hundred tons of goods, therefore, carried by the cheapest land. carriage from London to Edinburgh, there must be charged the maintenance of a hundred men for three weeks, and both the maintenance, and, what is nearly equal to the maintenance, the wear and tear of four hundred horses as well as of fifty great waggons. Whereas, upon the fame quantity of goods carried by water, there is to be charged only the maintenance of fix or eight men, and the wear and tear of a ship of two hundred tons burthen, together with the value of the superior risk, or the difference of the in surance between land and water-carriage, Were there no other communication between those two places, therefore, but by land carriage, as no goods could be transported from the one to the other, except such whose price was very confi,


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derable in proportion to their weight, they could c HA P. carry on but a small part of that commerce which at present subfifts between them, and confequently could give but a small part of that encouragement which they at present mutually afford to each other's industry. There could be little or no commerce of any kind between the diftant parts of the world. What goods could bear the expence of land-carriage between London and Calcutta ? Or if there were any fo pre. cious as to be able to support this expence, with what safety could they be transported through the territories of so many barbarous nations ? Thole two cities, however, at present carry on a very confiderable commerce with each other, and by mutually affording a market, give a good deal of encouragement to each other's industry.

Since such, therefore, are the advantages of water-carriage, it is natural that the first im. provements of art and industry should be made where this conveniency opens the whole world for a market to the produce of every fort of labour, and that they should always be much later in extending themselves into the inland parts of the country. The inland parts of the country can for a long time have no other market for the greater part of their goods, but the country which lies round about them, and separates them

from the sea-coast, and the great navigable rivers. . The extent of their market, therefore, must for

a long time be in proportion to the riches and populousness of that country, and consequently their improvement must always be posterior to


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