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OTHER ILLUSTRATIONS

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13. BANQUET GIVEN BY RICHARD II. From a MS. of the Chronicles of England. (British Museum, 14 E. iv.)

24 14. An Act oF ARMS BEFORE THE KING AND QUEEN. From a MS. of the Romance of Sire Jeban de Saintré. (British Museum, Nero D. ix.)

24 15. GATEWAY OF THE BLOODY TOWER. From an Engraving by F. Nash, 1821

2416. QUEEN IN A HORSE LITTER, ATTENDED BY HER LADIES ON HORSEBACK. From a MS. of Froissart's Chronicles. (British Museum, 18 E. ii.)

24 17. VAULTED ROOM IN THE CRYPT OF THE WHITE TOWER, IN WHICH THE RACK STOOD.

From a Drawing in the Gardner Collection 18. A CELL IN THE BLOODY TOWER. From a Drawing by J. Wykeham Archer.

(British Museum) 19. The Privy COUNCIL CHAMBER IN THE LIEUTENANT'S LODGING. From a Drawing by P. Justyne. (Gardner Collection)

40 20. A ROOM IN THE BEAUCHAMP TOWER, WITH PRISONERS' INSCRIPTIONS ON THE WALLS

4021. THE BEAUCHAMP TOWER AND St. Peter's CHAPEL. From a Drawing by P. Jus

tyne. (Gardner Collection) 22. The LIEUTENANT'S LODGING. From a Drawing by C. J. Richardson. (Gard

ner Collection) 23. THE COLLEGIATE CHURCH OF ST. KATHARINE, LOOKING West. From an Engrav

ing by J. Carter 24. THE COLLEGIATE CHURCH OF ST. KATHARINE, LOOKING East. From an Engraving by B. T. Pouncey

40 25. The EXECUTION OF THE EARL OF STRAFFORD. From the Engraving by W. Hollar. 26. THE SEVEN BISHOPS TAKEN TO THE TOWER. From a Dutch Etching of the time. (Gardner Collection)

80 27. THE SOUTH VIEW OF THE TOWER OF LONDON. By Samuel and Nathaniel Buck, 1737

80 28. THE TOWER AND OLD LONDON BRIDGE. From an Engraving after J. Maurer, 1746. (Gardner Collection)

80 29. The Mont. From an Engraving after 7. Maurer, 1753. (Gardner Collection)

9630. THE TOWER AND THE MINT, FROM Tower Hill. From a Drawing by T. S.

Boys, 1842. 31. The TOWER FROM THE THAMES. After E. Duncan 32. The City BARGES AT THE TOWER STAIRS. From a Drawing on stone by W. Parrott.

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(Gardner Collection) PLAN OF THE TOWER OF LONDON. From a Drawing made between 1681 and 1689 104

The numerous subjects drawn from the collection formed by the late Mr. J. E. Gardner are reproduced by kind permission of Mr. E. T. Gardner. The skill of Miss E. A. Ibbs has contributed to the production of the illustrations in colour.

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THE TOWER OF LONDON

CHAPTER I

EARLY HISTORY

Ancient London-Its Port and TradeThe Tower its SafeguardInvasion by

Julius CaesarThe Roman Province of BritainRoman Wall and TowerThe Roman Abandonment-Saxon InvasionLondon the East Saxon CapitalDanish InvasionsDesertion of LondonIts Restoration by AlfredThe Norman ConquestBishop Gundult, the Conqueror's Architect of the White TowerIt becomes a Royal Palace for the East as Westminster for the West-The Royal Menagerie in the Tower-Great Additions made by Henry 111-His unpopularityThe Civil War-How the Tower became a State PrisonAdditions made by Edward 1 -Quarrels of Edward II with his Barons-His Occupation of the TowerHis Flight-Murder of Bishop Stapledon-Murder of the KingResidence of Edward III in the Tower, first as his Mother's Prisoner, then independentExecution of Mortimer-The Beginning of the Hundred-rears' WarStrange use made of the Tower in the days of preparationImprisonment of illustrious French Captives, the Comte d'Eu, King John of France, Charles of BloisAlso of King David Bruce of ScotlandPeace of Bretigny-The Mint - St. Katharine's Hospital.

The Tower of London is the most interesting fortress in Great Britain ; it has a history equalled in interest by few fortresses in the world. The Acropolis at Athens and the Capitol of Rome are far more ancient, but they are fortresses no longer. The only rival in this respect that occurs to me is the massive tower at the Western Gate of Jerusalem. It was probably built by King David, and enlarged by Herod; and it is a military castle at this day. So is our Tower, and it was built for that use.

The Port of London held a high position from the beginning of the history of Western Europe. Before the first Roman invasion of Britain there was a City of London, carrying on trade not only with the inland towns, but with the Continent. It was, as it is, a splendid position, and on the site of the present Tower the Britons had a fortress

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