is met with three times in my own neighbourhood; first as the name of a large tithing, where, from an ancient spelling Wif-leg, it is clearly the memorial of Ulf, an owner in the time of the Confessor, -next as the name of a street in Bradford-on-Avon, where it is a corruption of Tooley, itself a contraction of St. Olave, to whom a chapel was dedicated in the street-just as Tooley Street, in Southwark, is so called from the church of St. Olave which is situated in it,-and lastly as the name of a small parish connected with that of Bathwick, where, if we may draw conclusions from an old spelling Wilege, the name is certainly to be sought for in a source perfectly distinct from the other two.1

(c) Then of course there are cases here, as with Celtic Names, in which the original has been so altered as to defy the happiest conjecture. Among such apparently hopeless corruptions-stereotyped I fear in many instances by those who compiled the Ordnance Map for Wilts, and who would have been better friends to Philologists if they had taken with them some some one acquainted with the dialect of the county-is what now appears as CHICK CHANGLES Wood, in the parish of East Overton. It is now some years ago, when, in company with the late lamented Dr. Thurnam, I went over the bounds of this parish, and we were both convinced that it was undoubtedly the Scythangra spoken of in the charter relating to it (Cod. Dipl., 1120), a name that might fairly be Englished as Shothanger, and which means literally the "shooting" or sloping "hanger,” i.e., wood, on the declivity of a hill.

38, Such names as we are now about to consider are generally composed of two members, the one, which for the most part forms the termination, being a generic term, applicable to a number of places of a similar character, and denoting the nature of the settlement or neighbourhood to be described-the other a specific term,

'The Domesday Name looks as though it were connected with the AngloSaxon wileg (=willow). There is however a charter relating to CHARLCOMBE, the neighbouring parish, (Cod. Dipl. iii., 455,) in which we meet with this passage, "Of Ceólles-cumbe ést. tó dám weallon" i.e., "From Chelscombe east... to the wells" (=springs);-if this be meant for WOOLLEY, and it certainly is a very probable conjecture, that name really, like Wellow, is derived from the Anglo-Saxon 10eall (or wille) a “ spring (or well) of water."



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limiting the meaning to a particular portion of such settlement or neighbourhood. The difference between the Celtic and Teutonic languages in respect of compound names has already been noticed (see above § 2), and therefore the remark need not here be repeated or exemplified.

In speaking of one class of Celtic Names-those comparatively few, in which to a word found in use the Teutonic settlers added their own terminations (see above § 3 c.)-we assumed that the general purport of such "endings" was understood. Now however that we are discussing names, in which one or other of them almost invariably occurs, it will be well to give a more exact account of the meaning of those which are most common.

Tún. This ordinarily in terminations assumes the form of Ton. The word originally denotes any enclosure, great or small. From it is derived the verb tynan (= to enclose). Hence the Wiltshire words Garston, (gærs-tún) literally "grassenclosure," and Tining, which denotes "enclosed ground." The word is applied to areas of the most varying extent, a garden, a court, a village, a town. In most cases perhaps our word "village" would be its best interpretation. Indeed what in our authorized version of the Bible is translated "go ye into the village over against you, &c." (Luke xix., 30), is in Tyndale's version (1526), translated "goo ye into the toune, &c." The village of Bethany moreover is called (John, xi., 1) "the town of Mary and her sister Martha." The very common word BARTON, which is applied to the buildings enclosed within a rick-yard, and also to any small enclosed court or yard, is originally Bere-tún, i.e., literally corn-town or enclosure.

89. Ham. This word also, like the preceding, means that which surrounds, encloses, hems, or defends something. The word itself occurs as a local name-spelt in the charter HAMME (Cod. Dipl., 1220) -on the eastern border of the county, not far from Hungerford. Leo tells us, that, according to Grimm, it is connected with an obsolete root himan, which must have signified to "enclose." He adds, from Outzen's

"Glossary of the Frisian Language," the following statement: "Ham applies to every enclosure by rampart, ditch, or hedge. In the country of the Angles as well as in North Friesland every enclosed place is called a hamm." And from another authority he quotes these words: "Whatever obstructs or is obstructed, hems in or is hemmed in, is called hamm or hemme, whether it be a forest, a fenced field, a meadow. a swamp, a reed-bank, or isolated lowlands won by circumscribing with palisades an area in the bed of a river; indeed even a house, or a castle, was so called by the Frisians.1

Húm. It is very important to distinguish between this word with its accented vowel and that which has just been explained. This word, as Kemble remarks, denotes "something far more sacred and profound, and is the most intimately felt of all the words by which the dwellings of man are distinguished." From it is derived the word haman, which in its purest sense signifies to "marry," and so represents to us the family itself, and the sanctity of home, as well as the subsequent union of several families. Kemble adds these important words: "Hám in its largest sense implies the general assemblage of the dwellings in each particular district, to which the arable land and pasture of the community were appurtenant, the home of all the settlers in a separate and well-defined locality, the collection of the houses of the freeman. Wherever we can assure ourselves that the vowel is long, we may be certain that the name implies such a village or community." "


Wic. This word in composition usually means a dwelling-
place of one or more houses. The general idea would seem
to be that of a place fenced and fortified, shut in and so a
place of security. There are still woods and copses known
as wicks. In such words as Sand-wich it would seem to have
the sense of "harbour." From this idea of harbour or
shelter comes the sense of camp, or village, or hamlet and
even of castle. In military history "they encamped" is
1 Anglo-Saxon Names of Places, p. 39.
Cod. Dipl. iii., xxix



"wicodon," when they quit the camp it is "of wicum." In Wright's Vocabularies, Castellum is thus explained (p. 94): "wic vel lutel-port," that is, it means "a wick or a little town" (fortified). Now the wic or lutel-port was a group of houses fenced round with a ditch and mound stockaded a-top. After the Conquest the military sense of wie was forgotten and it retained only the sense of residence. In Layamon (Anno 1200) we have wikien (= to dwell) and wickinge or wickeninge ( a dwelling). Archæol. Journal, xvii., 103. It is, as has been already mentioned (§ 2) the Greek Eixos, the Latin vicus, the Celtic gwic, and the Anglo-Saxon wie, and it is difficult to assign the priority to any of them.1 Buruh, Burh, Byrig. These words commonly appear as the terminational form bury, as in West-bury, Rams-bury, &c. The general sense of this word is what we now call a Town or Borough. Kemble considers that its source is to be sought, like that of the word that follows, in beorg-an (= to hide, or shelter). It would represent thus, an inhabited place with more substantial fortifications than simple hedges or ditches. "I am inclined to believe," says Kemble, "that the modern sense of burg, viz., a fortress, was the original Saxon one also; it would appear so from the name of a man frequently occurring in the composition: most probably the village grew up around the castle." Cod Dipl., III., xix. Beorh, Berg. These words also assume in composition the form of bury, as in Ry-bury (originally Ruge-berg), and sometimes of borough, as in Wood-borough (spelt in the charters Wódnesbeorg, Cod. Dipl., 1035). The meaning of the word is a hill. It is connected certainly with the verb beorgan (=to hide or shelter). The fundamental signification of berg was ground that conceals, whether in respect of which may be

1It may be observed that WICK in the Scandinavian languages means a "bay or recess," and hence the old fierce Vikings had their name. Like the Greek Pirates they issued from their winding bays to carry slaughter and rapine wherever they could. Old Norse vik (= wik) "recessus, sinus brevior et laxior." The word wick in the North of England means a corner, i.e., bending. A Lancashire man will talk of "the wicks of his mouth."

buried underneath, or because of what it intercepts or bars, or what it shelters. "The Anglo-Saxon beorh was not the German berg (a mountain) in its strict application, but bore a far wider meaning. The least elevation or rising of the ground, even a cluster of stones, or a heap of earth, was called beorh. The term is used in Joshua, vii., 26, " And worhton mid stánum ánne steápne beorh him ófer" And they wrought with stones one high beorh (heap) over him." There can be little doubt as to our word barrow (when applied to the tumuli on our downs) being a form of the same word. There is however an Anglo-Saxon verb byrian which signifies to raise, and eordbyre is also the common name for a tumulus. From this comes the word, so frequently found in charters, byrigels (= a burial-place), and possibly also the words barrow and burrow (= a warren), because eordbyre signifies not only a tumulus or tomb, but a heap of earth in every other respect. Leo, p. 76.

41. Berie. This occurs as a frequent termination, and in the names of places which can neither be described as towns, villages, or hills. Thus we have Hésel-beri (Cod. Dipl., 706) (=Haselbury), and Etes-berie (= Yatesbury) (W. Domesd., 122). There are two words of frequent occurrence in charters, bearo, which means a "woody plot," and bæro, or bero, a word only occurring in composition, and denoting "pasture." The connection of beri with either of these is however not clear. It seems clearly a distinct word from either of the two just explained, though it assumes in composition the same form bury. Whishaw, in his Law Dictionary, gives Beria, Berie, Berry as meaning a "large open field." He adds these words from Cowell: "Most of our glossographers have confounded the word berie with that of bury and borough, as the appellations of ancient towns: whereas the true sense of the word berie is a flat wide campaign. Many flat and wide meads and other open grounds are called by the names of Beries and Berry-field. The spacious meadow between Oxford and Ifley was, in the reign of King Athelstan, called Bery. As

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