in pattern and design." No. 156, a fine bell-shaped barrow, 102 feet in base diameter, and 10 feet in height, contained within a very shallow cist, the remains of a skeleton, and a deposit of various elegant little trinkets, the most remarkable of which are two gold beads (engraved in plate xxv.). Besides these beads of amber, jet, and stone, was a beautiful little grape cup, and at the feet of skeleton, a drinking cup. No. 157 had a prior opening. No. 158 called by Stukeley, Bush Barrow, was not opened by him. Mr. Cunnington's attempts were at first unsuccessful, but in 1808, on reaching the floor of the barrow, he and Sir R. Hoare discovered the skeleton of a stout and tall man lying from S. to N., the extreme length of his thigh bone was 20 inches. About 18 inches south of the head, we found several bronze rivets intermixed with wood, and some thin bits of bronze, nearly decomposed. These articles covered a space of 12 inches or more; it is probable therefore that they were the mouldered remains of a shield. Near the shoulders lay a fine celt (plate xxvi). Near the right arm was a large dagger of bronze, and a spear-head of the same metal, full 13 inches long, and the largest Sir R. Hoare had found. A curious article of gold had probably decorated the case of this dagger. The handle of wood belonging to this instrument (engraved in plate xxvii), had been formed, with a labour and exactness almost unaccountable, by thousands of gold rivets smaller than the smallest pin. Beneath the fingers of the right hand lay a lance-head of bronze. Immediately over the breast of the skeleton was a large plate of gold in the form of a lozenge, measuring 7 inches by 6. It was fixed to a thin piece of wood, over the edges of which the gold was lapped : it is perforated at top and bottom, for the purpose, probably, of fastening it to the dress as a breast-plate. The even surface of this noble ornament is relieved by indented lines, chequers, and zig-zags, following the shape of the outline, and forming lozenge within lozenge, diminishing gradually towards the centre. On the right side of the skeleton, was a very curious perforated stone, with some wrought articles of bone, many small rings of the same material, and another article of gold. No. 159 had been opened by Lord Pembroke or Dr. Stukeley. No. 160 produced within a small

circular cist, an interment of burnt bones, and with it a great variety of amber, jet, and glass beads. In No. 161, a low barrow, was a skeleton with a drinking cup, the head towards the southeast; and eighteen inches lower down was another, lying on its left side, with the head towards the east. Beneath this again in a cist nearly 6 feet deep, cut in the chalk, was the primary interment, a young man with a drinking cup close to his right hand, the head lying towards the north. No. 162 had been opened before. No. 163 contained an interment of burnt bones, deposited in a shallow oval cist, with the fragments of a small cup, and a bone pin. No. 164 may be considered as the most beautiful bell-shaped barrow in the plains of Stonehenge. Its base diameter is 145 feet, and its elevation 14 feet. It contained, within a very shallow cist, the skeleton of a man, with his head deposited towards the north-east, upon a plank of elm wood; on the left side of the head was a fine dagger of bronze, and a small lance-head of the same metal, the former of which had been guarded by a wooden case: at the feet of the skeleton was a richly-ornamented drinking cup. Some stags' horns were at the head and feet of the skeleton. Large pieces of petrified wood were found in holes extending from the top to the bottom of the barrow. No. 1651 is a small oblong barrow, and was opened at the broad end, but the sepulchral deposit was not found. No. 166 contained the remains of a skeleton, with a drinking cup and stags' horns. No. 167 is a "pond" barrow." No. 168 produced

1 In "Tumuli Wiltunenses," 165 described as a small oblong barrow, in which we found interments, as usual, at the broad end." p. 41. This was opened by Dr. Thurnam. Three skeletons were found, and secondary inter


2" Pond barrow, a misnomer introduced by Sir R. C. Hoare, it not being a barrow at all, but a circular excavation in the surface, similar to what might be made for a pond. The name 'barrow' necessarily involves the idea of a mound or heap, and, as applied to sepulchral monuments, implies a grave-mound; it is entirely inapplicable to such hollows as are here referred to. These circular excavations are often found among or adjacent to the barrows of Wiltshire, but the area within has scarcely ever yielded traces of interment. Sir R. Hoare and the Rev. E. Duke excavated the centre of three without finding sepulchral or other remains; in a fourth, however, in a hole in the chalk, there was a deposit of burnt bones. Dean Merewether opened others in North Wilts, and the



an interment of burnt bones and No. 169 did not prove sepulchral.1 No. 170 is a long barrow, not opened. No. 171 denotes a group of various tumuli of different sizes, the largest of which produced a rude urn, some jet beads, and a brass pin. In another, which had been opened before, was found the fragments of a large urn, and a piece of granite similar to one found in a barrow at Upton Lovel. Nearly all the smaller barrows in this group contained simple interments of burnt bones. In No. 172 was at first discovered a circular cist, containing a vast quantity of black ashes, with a few fragments of burnt bones; but the interment was placed on the floor, by the side of the cist. With the bones was a large ring and

Rev. J. H. Austen one in Purbeck, Dorset, and found nothing. I have also dug into two or three (including that marked No. 14 on Winterbourn Stoke Down) with the same negative result; save only that in one (94 or 97 'Ancient Wilts,' i., 168), a mile to the north of Stonehenge, I found the skull and bones of the right arm of a woman in situ. The absence of the left arm and of the lower part of the skeleton was remarkable, and showed that the body had been dismembered before burial, which was probably long subsequently to the formation of the cavity. Stukeley opened one near Stonehenge (p. 45), and found nothing but a bit of red pottery. He speaks of them as 'circular dishlike cavities dug in the chalk, like a barrow reversed;' and elsewhere calls them 'barrows inverted.' ('Abury,' p. 12.) His view of their use as 'places for sacrificing and feasting in memory of the dead' is not unlikely. The earth and chalk excavated from them would be employed, we may suppose, in the completion of one or more of the adjacent barrows." Dr. Thurnam, "Archæologia," xlii., p. 167.

"The primary interments are sometimes at a not inconsiderable distance from the centre of the tumulus. Such an irregularity may be inferred to be accidental, dependent probably on the carelessness of those who raised the sepulchral mound. In one barrow near Collingbourn, the Rev. W. C. Lukis found the grave containing the prnicipal interment as much as 12 feet to the south of the centre. As the deviation is as likely to be in one direction as the other, the difficulty of finding the interment is immensely increased. Hence may be explained the fact that of the barrows explored by Hoare and Cunnington, nearly one-fifth (eighty-six out of four hundred and sixty-five) were unproductive; not that, unless in rare instances, they were mere cenotaphs, but that zeal failed in what seemed a hopeless search." Dr. Thurnam, "Archæologia," xliii., p. 330.


2 No. 170 was opened by Dr. Thurnam, but not successfully. There were important secondary interments. In this barrow Dr. Thurnam obtained the piece of stone spoken of in note at p. 93 of this paper.

several beads of a dark olive brown colour, made from some bituminized substance. No. 173 is a long barrow. In making a section at the broad end, a skeleton was discovered at the depth of 18 inches from the surface, and on reaching the floor of the barrow, four other skeletons were found strangely huddled together, and yet there was no appearance of a previous disturbance of the barrow. The bones were in a high state of preservation, and one of the persons here interred seems to have had no forehead, the sockets of his eyes appearing to have been on the top of his head, and the final termination of the vertebræ turned up so much" that we almost fancied we had found the remains of one of Lord Monboddo's animals." No. 174 had been opened before. No. 175 contained a simple deposit of burnt bones, and in the small tumulus attached to it, and which had been investigated, we found fragments of another interment. In No. 176, a fine bell-shaped barrow, was found a skeleton, lying on the floor with its head towards the north, but this barrow was not very minutely investigated. No. 177 was only the base of a large circular barrow, the earth having been removed for agricultural purposes; yet the spot where the deposit of burnt bones was made was discovered, and with them a fine spear head of bronze. No. 178 contained a simple interment of burnt bones; and Nos. 179, and 180, had been opened by the neighbouring farmers. No. 181 is a group consisting of several mean barrows, which appeared to have been previously opened. No. 182 produced an interment of burnt bones, deposited within a wooden box on the floor, and with them the head of a bronze dagger, which had been secured by a sheath of wood lined with linen cloth, a small lance-head, a pair of ivory nippers, and an ivory pin. In No. 183 was an interment of burnt bones and some stag's horns.


No. 1 is a small circular barrow, which had been explored. No. 2, a disc-shaped barrow, in it were found a lance-head of bronze, and a pin of the same metal, intermixed with a part of the interment of burnt bones. No. 3, a barrow of the same form, produced an interment by cremation, and a considerable quantity of glass, jet, and amber beads, together with a fine bronze pin. In No. 4 was

found only the cinerarium containing the ashes, but the interment was missed. No. 5, a flat bowl-shaped barrow, produced, on the floor, a single interment of burnt bones, placed by the side of a circalar cist, which contained another deposit of burnt bones within a beautiful sepulchral urn (engraved in plate xxviii.). Close to this urn was another oval cist, containing a similar deposit, together with a spear-head of bronze, which appeared to have been almost melted into a rude lump by the heat of the funeral pile. No. 6 had been opened. No. 7 has three sepulchral mounds within its area; in one were found the relics of the skeleton of a youth, and fragments of a drinking cup; in the central tump was a simple interment of burnt bones, with a small bronze pin; and the third seemed to have been opened. No. 8 had also been examined. No. 9, a large and almost bowl-shaped barrow, 8 feet high. Within a cist, 2 feet deep, was a little pile of burnt bones, and with them an ivory pin, a rude ring of bone, and a small bronze celt. (Plate xxviii.) The cist was protected by a thick covering of flints, and immediately over it was the skeleton of a dog. No. 10 is a "pond" barrow. Nos. 11 and 12 adjoin each other, and are wide and low barrows. The former had been opened, and its scattered relics seem to indicate two interments having taken place within it, cremation and the skeleton. The latter proved a singular, though not a productive barrow. From the small elevation of the mound it was expected that the interment would have been soon met with, but "we were obliged to dig 10 feet below the level, when we discovered a skeleton, with its head laid towards the east." In No. 13, a large bowl-shaped barrow, was the skeleton of a young and stout man, deposited in shallow cist, with the head towards the south-east, and near it a large and rude drinking cup. (Plate xxviii.) No. 14 had been previously opened. In No. 15 no interment could be found. No. 16, a bowl-shaped barrow, produced, at a foot beneath the surface, an interment of burnt bones, and some instruments made of stags' horns, some whetstones, an arrow-head of flint, another in an unfinished state, and a small spear-head. At a greater depth was the primary interment, of a skeleton, with its head laid towards the north-west. No. 17 had been opened. No. 18 is a large bell-shaped barrow, 121 feet in

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