« ForrigeFortsett »
diameter, and 11 in elevation, "the monarch of this group." On the floor was the skeleton of a very tall man, lying on his right side, with his head towards the south-east. At his feet were laid a massive hammer, of a dark-coloured stone, a bronze celt, a tube of bone, a whetstone with a groove in the centre, and several other articles of bone, amongst which is the enormous tusk of a wild boar, but the most curious article found was one of twisted bronze, of which Sir Richard Hoare could not divine the use. It is engraved in plate xxix. of "Ancient Wilts," vol. i.
No. 1, a long barrow, not opened. The diminutive barrow, No. 2, produced, just under the surface, a rude but perfect little cup (engraved plate xxx.), which is perforated at the bottom like a colander, and has holes on the sides for suspension. This cup accompanied an interment of burnt bones. Nos. 3 and 4 had been previously opened. In No. 5 was an interment of burnt bones, with twenty or thirty small black beads, which appeared to have been composed of earth or wood, and to have passed the fire. No. 6, one of the finest barrows in this group is 13 feet 9 inches high. Within one foot of the surface a large sepulchral urn, rudely formed and baked, 15 inches high and 13 wide, had been placed with its mouth downwards over a large pile of burnt bones, amongst which was a fine ivory bodkin. At a further depth of 5 feet were the remains of two skeletons; and at the bottom of the barrow, and total depth of 13 feet 9 inches, was an oblong cist, five feet deep, and seven feet long, cut in the chalk, containing the skeleton of a child, apparently not more than two or three years old, accompanied by a drinking cup. No. 7 is a large bell-shaped barrow, composed entirely of vegetable earth. It contained, within a cist, a little pile of burnt bones, with which had been deposited a very fine bronze pin, a large stone bead which had been stained red, a bead of ivory, and a lancehead of bronze. (Pl. xxx.) No. 8, a very wide and flat barrow, about 6 feet high, and 48 in diameter, from which the French Prophets are supposed to have preached in 1710 (see Stukeley). At the depth of 2 feet a pile of marl was reached, which increased in
size as the floor was approached. On the north side of the section was found the cist from whence this marl had been thrown out; it was 8 feet long, and above 2 wide, and contained a pile of burnt human bones, which had been enclosed within a box of wood. Near the bones lay a fine spear head and a whetstone. (Pl. xxviii.) No. 9, a fine bell-shaped barrow, 10 feet high, produced only a simple interment of burnt bones on the floor. In No. 10 nothing was found but the skeleton of a dog and the head of a deer.1 Nos. 11 and 12 had been previously opened. No. 13 contained a simple interment of burnt bones. In No. 14 and 15 we see a kind of double barrow, the smallest end of which had been opened before. The floor of the larger mound was strewed with an immense quantity of wood ashes, and in a small oblong cist was an interment of burnt bones, together with four glass pully beads, one of stone, two of amber, and a bronze pin. On the north side of the adjoining inclosure, but not within it, are a few small barrows, scarcely elevated above the soil, which were more productive than their size seemed to promise. No. 21 had been opened before, but amongst the earth and scattered bones were some fragments of a fine drinking cup, some chipped flints and one perfect arrow-head of flint. No. 22 had been partially opened, but amongst the unburnt bones which had been moved were found
1Dr. Thurnam says (page 25 of "Ancient British Barrows," part ii.): “I have myself successfully re-opened tumuli, 'unproductive' under the hands of Hoare and Cunnington, whose explorations had yielded no signs of interment.' Fifty or sixty years after these unsuccessful attempts, I was, in the case of four barrows, rewarded by the discovery of interments of burnt bodies, eccentrically deposited. One was on Lake Down (Ancient Wilts, i., 211 (10), on which Cunnington had made two trials. The others were on Winterbourn Stoke Down (Ibid, i., 121 (10), 124 (23), the fourth being one of two or three very small mounds, about a quarter of a mile to the north, not distinguished by numbers. (Ibid, i., 126.) In three of the number the burnt bones were contained in shallow graves, whilst.in the fourth they were collected into a large upright urn, with the rim in close proximity to the ploughed surface of the very low burial mound." Dr. Thurnam opened besides, barrows not examined by Sir R. Hoare, at Lake, Amesbury "Seven Barrows," North, King Barrow," and Winterbourn Stoke (p. 5 of Ancient British Barrows, ii.); but, with the exception of the information that the last was unsuccessful, and that the examination of two of the five barrows at Winterbourn Stoke had been described in "Proc. Ant. Soc." 2nd series, ii., 427-429, he has not published details respecting them.
the remains of two neatly-ornamented drinking cups; and on digging towards the south-east was discovered the skeleton of a child, and over it a drinking cup. (Pl. xviii.) No. 23 contained a simple interment of burnt bones within a cist, made in the form of a cone, and No. 24 produced a similar interment, immediately under the turf, with fragments of a drinking cup. Two feet lower down was another deposit of burnt bones immediately over the head of a skeleton; and beneath this was a second skeleton, lying with its head to the north-west, and several large pieces of stags' horns by its side. The barrows, Nos. 16, 17, 18, 19, and 20, were opened by their owner, the Rev. Edward Duke, in 1806. Nos. 16, 17, and 18 had each an interment of burnt bones, and a small lance-head of bronze. No. 20, besides a lance-head contained four little articles of bone, intermixed with the ashes and burnt bones. Sir Richard Hoare thought they might have been used, like tesseræ, for some kind of game. (Pl. xxxi.) No. 21, a wide and low tumulus, ploughed over for many years. The mode of interment was here varied, and the very rich and numerous trinkets discovered in this barrow seem to announce the skeleton to have been that of some very distinguished British female. The most remarkable of these was an ornament of amber, 10 inches in height, and above 3 in breadth. It is formed of eight distinct tablets, and by being strung together, formed one ornament, as may be distinctly seen by the perforations at top and bottom. Besides the above were numerous beads of amber of much larger proportions than usual,and varying in their patterns, four articles of gold perforated, perhaps for earrings, and two small earthen cups, the one about 7 or 8 inches deep, the other little above an inch. The largest of the beads, the gold ornaments and the fragment of the smallest cup are engraved of their full size in plate xxxi.
BARROWS AT WINTERBOURN STOKE.
These are situated at a short distance from the village, on a gentle eminence, and are twelve in number. Nine of them are surrounded by a ditch and vallum enclosing an area of about four acres, but certainly of a period subsequent to the barrows within it. All, but
one, were opened in 1809, with the following results: No. 1 a large and wide disc barrow, in which it appeared that the primary interment had been moved to make room for the subsequent deposit of a skeleton, which also had been disturbed at some still later period. The examination of the cist which contained the skeleton showed that the feet had not been displaced; near them was an iron knife; and at the bottom of the cist were several fragments of burnt bones, belonging to the remains of the original interment. No. 2 is much mutilated, and of large diameter, but not more than 4 feet in elevation. It contained an interment of burnt bones secured within a very large brown urn, rudely ornamented. A considerable quantity of linen cloth was perceptible among the bones. No. 3, a flat barrow, mutilated, contained, within an oval cist, a simple interment of burnt bones, and shreds of linen cloth. No. 4 afforded no sepulchral remains, and probably was not intended for a barrow. No. 5, a circular flat barrow, contained a double cist, the smallest of which produced a little dagger of bronze, and a variety of beads (about four dozen in number, neatly made of clay), amongst which were two joints of the vertebral column of petrified encrinus. Besides, the above were a great quantity of curious little shells, in shape like the Hirlas horn used by the Britons, which were perforated lengthways, and formed probably the necklace of some female. The large cist contained only the bones of a sheep. In No. 6, a flat circular barrow, was found an oval cist, containing burnt bones, and a rude little cup, resembling a saucer. No. 7 is a small "pond" barrow. No. 8, a very irregular flat barrow, 3 feet high, produced, near the centre, a large urn, standing upright within a circular cist, and containing, amongst an interment of burnt bones, a small bronze dagger, with a bone top to it, neatly finished, with five holes on the side for so many rivets, by which it was fastened to a wooden handle. The urn was very large, and elegantly formed; it contained a few black beads that had undergone the action of fire. No. 9, a flat circular barrow, contained two small round cists, in each of which was deposited an interment of burnt bones; in one was a curious little double cup. No. 10 was opened by Mr. Cunnington, in 1804. It contained an urn inverted over the burnt bones, which had been
wrapped up in a linen cloth to protect them; and with the bones were found a small bronze pin, employed probably for fastening the cloth, five rings of a dark brown colour, one of which was perforated for suspension, a small cone of the same materials perforated also for the same purpose, and several pully beads of glass, with one of jet, and another of amber. No. 11 contained, within an oblong cist, a simple interment of burnt bones. No. 12 contained a very large rude urn, 16 inches deep, inverted over an interment of burnt bones, and within it a smaller vase. Within them were found two dark rings, a large amber bead perforated, four pully beads and three of a black colour.
On the eastern side of the valley, and nearly opposite to the cluster of barrows just described, is another group situated on the southern declivity of a projecting point of the downs. They are enclosed in an area of about seven acres, within an oval earthen work, surrounded by a bank and ditch of slight elevation, and are eleven in number. Cremation had been practised in Nos. 1 and 2. Nos. 3 and 4 had been opened by shepherds, and contained interments of burnt bones. In the former was a little cup, which Mr. Cunnington purchased. No. 5 contained an urn very imperfectly baked, and within it an interment of burnt bones, and a very small arrow-head of bone. In No. 6 cremation had been adopted. No. 7, a large barrow, produced three interments. At the depth of 4 feet was the skeleton of an infant; and immediately beneath it a deposit of burnt bones, and a drinking cup. At the depth of 8 feet, and in the native bed of chalk, was the primary interment, viz., the skeleton of a man, lying from north to south, with his legs gathered up according to the primitive custom. On his right side, and about a foot or more above the bones was an enormous stag's horn. No. 8, a large old-fashioned bowl-shaped barrow, with a base diameter of nearly 100 feet, contained a skeleton lying on the floor with its head to the north. The other three barrows, 9, 10, and 11, afforded, on opening, no one appearance of sepulchral remains.