The Life of John, Duke of Marlborough, with Some Account of His Contemporaries and of the War of the Succession, Volum 2

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William Blackwood, 1852

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Death of the Prince of Denmark
9
Deplorable situation of the French monarch
10
Great concessions offered by Louis
11
Counter proposals of the Allies
12
Who had begun a separate and secret negotiation with England
20
Marlboroughs successful opposition to measures favouring the Pre
22
Great fame earned by Marlborough by this exploit
26
Description of Tournay
29
Opinion of Rousset on this success
27
Rigorous demands of the Allies
28
Siege and capture of that town
31
Siege of the citadel and its desperate chances
32
Alarms of the troops at the subterraneous warfare
33
Its real horrors
34
But the citadel is at length taken
35
Vigorous movements of Marlborough towards Mons
36
Positions taken by Marlborough after the lines were passed
38
He turns Villars lines and gets between them and France
39
Concentration of the Allied and of Villars armies
40
Composition and strength of the French army
41
Description of the field of Malplaquet
43
Noble force on both sides
44
Preparatory movements on both sides and interference of the Dutch deputies
45
Opinions of Marlborough and Eugene in the ouncil of war
46
Villars fortifies his position
47
Plan of attack by the Allied generals
48
Feelings of the soldiers on both sides
49
Commencement of the battle
51
Marlborough after a desperate conflict carries the wood of Taisnière
52
Bloody repulse of the Prince of Orange on the left
53
Heroic but ineffectual efforts of the Prince of Orange to restore the com bat
54
Marlborough hastens to the spot and restores the battle
55
A vigorous attack of Villars on the right weakens his centre which Marl borough prepares to attack
56
Decisive attack by Lord Orkney on the centre
57
Admirable efforts of Boufflers to regain the day
58
Terrible cavalry action
59
Boufflers able and orderly retreat
60
Results of the battle to the Allies
61
Loss of the French and humanity of Marlborough
62
Distinguished officers killed and wounded on both sides
64
Blame unjustly thrown on the Prince of Orange in this battle
65
Reflections of Marshal Saxe on this battle ib 63 Grief and humanity of Marlborough after the battle
67
Capture of Mons and conclusion of the campaign
68
Continued decline of Marlboroughs influence at court
69
Unjust criticisms and censures on the campaign
71
Injudicious request of Marlborough to be made captaingeneral for life
72
His flattering reception from the Houses of Parliament
73
Increasing jealousies of him at court
74
His trial before the Peers 71 Marlborough threatens to resign
76
His remonstrances with the Queen ib 73 He determines to resign if Mrs Masham is not removed
78
But is persuaded to yield and is seemingly reconciled to the Queen ib 75 Reflections on these steps of Marlborough
79
Page 76 Great interests at stake in the bedchamber appointments
80
Extraordinary change in the public mind regarding the war and its hero
81
Cause of this remarkable change
82
Parallel examples in former times
83
CHAPTER VIII
84
Remarkable coincidence of particular battles in both periods
85
Remarkable parallel of the invasions of Russia by Charles XII and Napo leon
86
Proud position of Charles XII at Dresden before he began his march to Poland
87
His march from Dresden to Poland
88
Increasing difficulties of Charles in his march
89
Charles directs his march to the Ukraine to join Mazeppa
90
Defeat of Levenhaupt and capture of his convoy
91
March of Charles towards Moscow
92
After a thousand hardships they arrive at Pultowa ib 11 Preparations for the battle of Pultowa
93
Battle of Pultowa and total defeat of Charles
94
Surrender of fourteen thousand Swedes under Count Piper
95
Reflections on this event and grief it occasioned to Marlborough
96
Character of Peter the Great of Russia
97
His errors and delusion regarding him
98
Real character of his changes
99
Campaign on the Rhine and its disasters
100
Operations in Piedmont and their abortive result
101
Affairs of Spain in 1709 Increasing attachment of the Castilians to Philip
103
Independent and dignified tone assumed by Philip in the negotiations at the Hague
104
Operations in Aragon and on the Catalonian frontier ib 23 Operations on the Portuguese frontier
105
Marlboroughs opinion on the Spanish war ib 25 The government of the Netherlands again refused by Marlborough
106
New confederacy in the north and Marlboroughs advice regarding it
107
Commencement of the conferences of Gertruydenberg
108
General plan of the campaign of 1710
112
Anecdotes illustrative of the chivalrous character of the age
118
Great skill with which Villars averted the invasion of France on this occa
124
224
127
General alarm at the augmentation of the public burdens
130
Progress of the secret intrigue with Shrewsbury
137
Marlborough in vain applies to the Duke of Shrewsbury
143
Renewed altercation between the Duchess and the Queen
149
Noble conduct of Marlborough and his wise advice to the Duchess
155
Patriotic conduct of Godolphin and Marlborough on this occasion
157
Consternation of the Whigs and new ministry
159
Decision of Marlborough on this crisis
160
Sacheverells triumphant progress through the country
162
Parliament is dissolved and the Tories get a decided majority
163
Paltry difficulties thrown in the way of the completion of Blenheim ib 77 Attempts to gain over Marlborough to the Tories
164
Ungrateful reception of Marlborough by the ministers and the country
165
Dismissal of the Duchess of Marlborough
166
Marlborough with great reluctance withholds his intended resignation
168
Causes of the fall of the Whig administration ib 82 Great achievements of Marlborough down to this time
170
CHAPTER IX
171
Commencement of the campaign of 1710 in Spain and defeat of Philip
172
Entry of Charles into Madrid and his cold reception there
173
Efforts of Philip and precarious situation of Charles at Madrid
174
Arrival of Noailles at Valladolid and great efforts of the Spaniards ib 6 Divisions and irresolution on the part of Charles at Madrid
175
The Portuguese government refuse to allow their troops to succour Charles VI
176
Vigorous measures of the French and retreat of Charles from Madrid
177
Attack on Stanhopes division at Brihuerga which is forced to capitu late
178
Battle of Villa Viciosa in which Vendôme is repulsed and subsequent disasters of the Allies
179
Great disasters in the retreat
180
Effects of these disasters on Marlborough who lands in Holland
181
Death of the Emperor Joseph and election of Charles VI as Emperor
182
Great lines constructed by Villars ib 16 Plan of the campaign
184
Appearance of the Pretender in the French army
185
Fatal separation of Eugene with his troops from Marlborough
186
Villars avoids a battle by orders of Louis
187
147
211
The Ministers falsely declare the Allies to be parties to the negotiation
225
Villars destroys the detachment at Denain
231
Marlborough obtains passports and goes abroad
236
Death and character of Godolphin
237
Moral lessons to be deduced from Marlboroughs fall
238
The grasping disposition of Marlborough and the Whigs was one chief cause of his fall
239
It was the previous revolts against the Crown which occasioned this dis trust in the Sovereign
241
Errors of the people at this crisis
242
Faults of the Queen and the Tories at this crisis ib 74 Moral lesson from subsequent events
243
CHAPTER X
245
Marlborough is received with the highest honours on the Continent
246
Base ingratitude of the Imperial court to him
248
Continued malice against him at home
249
Suspension of the building of Blenheim at the public expense
250
Dissensions between Lady Masham and the Duchess of Somerset
252
Instantaneous measures of the Whigs to secure the succession
263
Reflections on this subject and impolicy of death for political crimes
288
Progress of the siege
294
His magnanimity in judging of others
316
False imputation against him of being adverse to peace and fond of money
317
Subsequent life and death of the Duchess of Marlborough
319
CHAPTER XI
321
Opposite interests and causes for which the parties contended
322
Magnitude of the danger which threatened Europe if France had proved successful
323
Results which might have followed the triumph of France ib 5 Opposite sides on political questions on which the parties were ranged similar to what ...
324
Yet fundamentally the Allies and France were in both cases ranged on the same sides
325
Important difference in the parties by whom the war was opposed in the times of Marlborough and of Napoleon
326
State of the opposite parties in Great Britain since the Great Rebellion
327
The union of parties had brought about the Revolution
329
Dangers which flowed from the Revolution The funding system
330
General terrors it excited in Great Britain
331
Bolingbrokes account of its dangers
332
General corruption which was induced in the country
333
Bolingbrokes account of the general indignation at this demoralising system
335
His alarming picture of its effect on public morals
336
Strong principles of freedom and loyalty in the English character
337
Reaction of generous feelings in favour of the Tories in the advanced period of the war
339
Character of Bolingbroke
340
His inconsistencies and faults
342
Character of Harley Earl of Oxford
343
Swift and the Tory writers in the press
344
Feelings and principles of the High Tories in regard to the war
345
It was these causes which overturned Marlborough
346
Great violations of moral rectitude in the mode of their attack on Marl borough
347
What was the danger to be guarded against in the Peace
349
The result has proved the Tories were wrong in their policy regarding it
350
Disastrous effects and serious dangers to England which followed the leaving a Bourbon on the Spanish throne
351
Examples of this in later times
352
These dangers have arisen solely from the Spanish alliance
353
France
356
Instance of the same political infatuation in our times
357
Results which have followed from it in the last instance
358
Strange insensibility to national sins which often prevails
359
Analogy between the situation of the Tories in the War of the Succession and the Whigs in that of the Revolution
361
Extraordinary coincidence in the crises of the two contests
362
Real causes of this identity of conduct of the opposite parties on these occasions
363
Excuses which existed for the policy of the Tories at the Treaty of Utrecht from the dread of Spain
364
Bolingbrokes picture of the ruined state of the Spanish monarchy at this period
365
What course the Tories should have pursued at the Treaty of Utrecht
367
But no excuse can be found for our violation of the Treaty of Utrecht by the Quadruple Alliance in 1834
368
Answer to the common argument used in behalf of the Quadruple Alliance
369
Our active interference to put down Don Carlos and the male line was still more unjustifiable
370
What England should have done on the occasion
371
Just punishment we have now received
372
Great change which the substitution of the female line for the male in Spain made in this respect on the interests of other powers
374
CHAPTER XII
376
Nature of the feudal wars
377
Great change when armies were paid by Government
378
Turenne introduced this system and brought it to perfection
379
Character of Condé
380
Peculiar character of Marlborough as a general
381
His extraordinary prudence and address
382
Though inferior in force he always maintained the initiative
383
Nature of war in the time of Marlborough
384
Circumspection was in him a matter of necessity
385
He was compelled to adopt the system of sieges and fix the war in Flanders
386
S Page 12 Dangers of the opposite system
387
Reasons why Marlboroughs genius was underrated in his life
388
He was the perfection of genius matured by experience
389
His great address and suavity of manner
390
His character as a statesman
391
And in private
392
His political character after the Revolution ib 19 His faults and weaknesses
393
Circumstances which palliate these faults in him
394
His private character and elevated ideas in the disposal of money
395
His magnanimity and humanity
396
His character as drawn by Adam Smith and Bolingbroke
397
The five great generals of modern times
398
Leading characteristics of each ib 26 Character of Prince Eugene
399
His astonishing successes over the Turks
400
Narrow escape from ruin and wonderful victory at Belgrade
401
His character as a general and parallel to Napoleon
402
Daring and skill with which he extricated himself from dangers ib 31 Early life of Frederick the Great
403
His accession to the throne and vigorous application to its duties
404
His aggression on and conquest of Silesia and first victory at Mollwitz
405
His glorious successes over the Austrians
406
Who are at length obliged to make peace
407
His decided and indomitable character already appears
408
His great services to his kingdom during the next ten years of peace
409
Coalition of Austria Russia France Saxony and Sweden against Prussia ib 39 Frederick invades Saxony and conquers that country
410
Great effects of this stroke
411
He defeats the Austrians at Prague and is defeated at Kolin ib 42 Desperate situation of the Prussian monarchy
412
Fredericks marvellous victories at Rosbach and Leuthen
413
Disasters sustained by his troops in other quarters and victory of Zorndorf
414
Fredericks defeat at Hohenkirchen
415
Terrible battle of Cunnersdorf in which Frederick is defeated
416
Overwhelming misfortunes in other quarters ib 48 Victory of Frederick over Laudon at Liegnitz
417
Dreadful battle and victory of the Prussians at Torgau ib 50 Desperate state of Prussia at this time
418
Operations in the camp of Bunzelwitz in 1761
419
The death of the Empress of Russia restores his affairs
420
Wonderful result of the struggle
421
His character as a general
422
Comparison of Frederick and Napoleon
423
Their points of resemblance
424
Of Marlborough and Wellington ib 58 Points in which their situations differed
426
Great superiority of force with which Wellington had to contend
427
boroughs
429
Marlborough made more use of cavalry than Wellingtonand why
430
Napoleons and Hannibals opinion of cavalry
431
Marlborough was more successful than Wellington in sieges
432
Causes of this circumstance ib 67 Great and remarkable land triumphs of England over France
433
Long series of land disasters sustained by France from England
434
What have been the causes of this?
436
Value of contemporary correspondence in establishing historic truth
437
Its vast effect on Marlboroughs memory ib INDEX
439
Progress of the negotiations
440
Biography of Marshal Berwick
443
His character
449
Flis death
457
Increased virulence of the libels against Marlborough
462
Trial and acquittal of Oxford
467
de Torcy secretly offers bribes to Marlborough which are refused 13
13
Remarkable conversation of M de Torcy with Marlborough 14
14
His sentiments expressed to M de Torcy on a peace 15
15
Ultimatum of the Allies which is rejected by France 16
16
Marlborough still labours to effect a pacification 17
17
False accusation against Marlborough of having prevented the peace 18
18
Resolution of the StatesGeneral on the rupture of the negotiations 19
19
Reflections on the rupture of this negotiation 20
20
Noble efforts of Louis to save France 21
21
Eulogy of M Dumont on the conduct of France on this occasion 22
22
Forces on both sides at the opening of the campaign 23
23
Marlboroughs efforts to obtain an augmentation of force in the Low Coun tries 24
24
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Side 78 - Think nothing gain'd," he cries, " till nought remain, On Moscow's walls till Gothic standards fly, And all be mine beneath the polar sky.
Side 79 - ... Hide, blushing glory, hide Pultowa's day : The vanquish'd hero leaves his broken bands, And shows his miseries in distant lands ; Condemn'da needy supplicant to wait, While ladies interpose, and slaves debate. But did not chance at length her error mend ? Did no subverted empire mark his end ? Did rival monarchs give the fatal wound ? Or hostile millions press him to the ground ? His fall was destined to a barren strand, A petty fortress, and a dubious hand ; He left the name, at which the world...
Side 292 - O God of our salvation ; Thou that art the hope of all the ends of the earth, and of them that remain in the broad sea.
Side 331 - AWAKE, my St. John ! leave all meaner things To low ambition and the pride of kings.
Side 296 - When a prince to the fate of the peasant has yielded, The tapestry waves dark round the dim-lighted hall ; With scutcheons of silver the coffin is shielded, And pages stand mute by the canopied pall : Through the courts, at deep midnight, the torches are gleaming ; In the proudly-arched chapel the banners are beaming ; Far adown the long aisle sacred music is streaming, Lamenting a chief of the people should fall.
Side 78 - The march begins in military state, And nations on his eye suspended wait; Stern Famine guards the solitary coast, And Winter barricades the realms of Frost; He comes...
Side 296 - Thus it has pleased Almighty God,, to take out of this transitory world, into his mercy, the Most High, Mighty, and Noble Prince, John Duke of Maiiborough.
Side 275 - I die a Roman Catholic. I am in perfect charity with all the world — I thank God for it — even with, those of the present government who are most instrumental in my death.
Side 205 - ... from your service by a letter of your own hand, though I find by it that my enemies have been able to prevail with your Majesty to do it in the manner that is most injurious to me. And if their malice and inveteracy against me had not been more powerful with them than the consideration of your Majesty's honour and justice, they would not have influenced you to impute the occasion of my dismission to a false and malicious insinuation contrived by themselves, and made public, when there was no...
Side 387 - Marlborough was raised to the head of the army, and indeed of the confederacy, where he, a new, a private man, a subject, acquired by merit and by management a more deciding influence, than high birth, confirmed authority, and even the crown of Great Britain, had given to King William. Not only all the parts of that vast machine, the grand alliance, were kept more compact and entire, but a more rapid and vigorous motion was given to the whole, and, instead of languishing or disastrous campaigns,...

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