king on the dangers to which the monarchy was exposed by the revolution which was then fermenting, and announcing itself in the pretensions of the tiers-etat. At the time of the convocation of the states-general, he, by order of the king, refused the place of deputy of the seneschalate of Tartas: the order of the noblesse caused their regret at his refusal to be testified to him. When the news of the events of the 14th of July reached Versailles, he appeared with the king in the assembly; but the alteration of his looks, and the disorder of his countenance, by revealing the sentiments which agitated him, afforded new subject for the accusations of which he was the object. At last, the Duke de Liancourt having informed him that the Parisians had set a price on his head, he withdrew himself during the night from the fury of his enemies, and first gave the signal for emigration by going to Turin, with his family, to the king of Sardinia, his father-inlaw. The Parisians laid aside the green cockade which they had assumed in the first days of the insurrection, as soon as they perceived that this colour was that of the Count d'Artois' livery. The national assembly received unfavourably the list of his debts, which Anson presented, classed among the public expences; the next year, M. Necker denied having given him money. In 1790, the Count d'Artois had an interview at Mantua with the Emperor Leopold; in 1791 he went to Worms, with Marshal Broglio and the Prince de Conde, which occasioned the emigration of a great number of officers. He remained for some time near Bonn, went to Brussels, where he was welcomed by the Archduchess Maria Christina, and afterwards set out for Vienna, where he met with the most

distinguished reception from the Emperor. At Pilnitz, he had an interview with the King of Prussia and the Emperor Leopold, and there the foundation of the first coalition against France was laid. The Count d'Artois hastened to communicate to Louis XVI., and even to declare loudly the resolution of these two monarchs; at which the court of Vienna expressed its dissatisfaction, and, from that time, it adopted a system of indecision with regard to the emigrants: it protected them secretly, and feared to engage itself too openly, for which reason it refused the Count d'Artois permission to establish a recruiting depot in the low countries. During this time, a decree of accusation against all the emigrant princes was demanded of the national assembly; and a legislative act was passed, importing, that all those who did not return by the 1st of January 1792, should be declared enemies of the nation. After the acceptation of the constitution of 1791, Louis XVI. invited the Count d'Artois to return to him, but in vain. This prince, who had then just reached Coblentz, where he had joined his brother, Monsieur, was preparing for war; he answered the letter of Louis XVI. by giving reasons for his' refusal, and published a very violent proclamation against the assembly. On the 1st of January 1792, a decree of accusation was passed against hina by the first legislature, to whom a denunciation was made of the continuation of the payment of his appointment as colonel of the Swiss, and of the delivery of discharges signed by him to the soldiers of that nation. On the 19th of May following, another decree suppressed his constitutional appointment of a million, as brother to the king, and declared his creditors at liberty to seize the revenues of his apanage. At

plied: Isle-Dieu was evacuated, and the Count d'Artois brought back to Portsmouth. After this excursion, he lived for a long time in Edinburgh, in the castle of the ancient kings of Scotland. At the time of the famous campaign of 1799, he was to have gone into Switzerland, to join the army of Conde, who was just come from the heart of Russia. He came to London with that intention, and sent one of his agents to Suwarrow, who received him extremely well; but the Austro-Russian army had already been obliged to evacuate Switzerland, and thus was the plan of the second coalition beginning to fail. The Count d'Artois staid in London, whence he was said to direct the operations of the Chouans in Bretagne. In February 1800, he was reconciled to the family of Orleans, and appeared with them at court, where the king gave them an audience. After the preliminaries of Amiens, he went back to Edinburgh, then returned to London on the breaking out again of hostilities; and, in November 1804, went to Calmar, in Sweden, where he had an interview with his brother and his eldest son, who, in 1799, had married the daughter of Louis XVI.; then he returned to London, and was still there in 1806.

At the beginning of 1792, the prince returned to Turin, whence it was suspected that he corresponded with the malcontents of Lyons. A public act proved the debt contracted by Monsieur and him for making war on France. At the time of the invasion of Champagne, he commanded a body of cavalry composed of emigrants. After the death of Louis XVI. he was declared by his brother lieutenant-general of the kingdom of France, and they both published (from the castle of Ham, in Westphalia) a declaration announcing their pretension to the regency. The Count d'Artois then set out for Petersburgh, where Catherine received him with great ceremony. Before he quitted the corps of emigrants, this prince wrote a flattering letter to Marshal Broglio, sending him his medals, his diamonds, and his son's sword, to be sold for the advantage of the most necessitous persons. At the end of 1794, the English government appointed him an allowance, and he embarked, on the 26th of July 1796, at Cuxhaven for London. At this period, the death of Louis XVI.'s son gave him occasion to take a new title, that of Monsieur, which was given him at the court of England. He afterwards went on board an English frigate, which cruized a long time on the coasts of France, and landed,

of Juggernaut.

on the 29th September at Isle-Dieu, Rites observed at the Indian Temple protected by the squadron of Commodore Warren. During his stay at Isle-Dieu, the Count d'Artois sent instructions to the chiefs of the royalist armies of the Vendee and of Bretagne, and wrote to Charette to settle his landing with him; but the execution of this project depended in effect upon the English, whose intentions do not appear at that time to have been to place a prince at the head of the Vendeans.

(From Buchanan's "Christian Re"searches in Asia.")

Extracts from the Author's Journal in his
Tour to the Temple of Juggernaut in
Orissa, in the year 1806.

"Buddruck in Orissa, May 30, 1806.

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E know that we are approaching Juggernaut (and

Obstacles were consequently multi- yet we are more than 50 miles from

at) by the human bones which we have seen for some days strewed by the way. At this place we have been joined by several large bodies of pilgrims, perhaps 2000 in number, who have come from various parts of Northern India. Some of them, with whom I have conversed, say, that they have been two months on their march, travelling slowly in the hottest season of the year, with their wives and children. Some old persons are among them, who wish to die at Juggernaut. Numbers of pilgrims die on the road; and their bodies generally remain unburied. On a plain by the river, near the pilgrim's caravansera at this place, there are more than a hundred skulls. The dogs, jackals, and vultures seem to live here on human prey. The vultures exhibit a shocking tameness. The obscene animals will not leave the body sometimes till we come close to them."

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Many thousands of pilgrims have accompanied us for some days past. They cover the road before and behind as far as the eye can reach. At nine o'clock this morning, the Temple of Juggernaut appeared in view at a great distance. When the multitude first saw it, they gave a shout, and fell to the ground, and worshipped. I have heard nothing to-day but shouts and acclamations by the successive bodies of pilgrims. From the place where I now stand, I have a view of a host of people like an army, encamped at the outer gate of the town of Juggernaut; where a guard of soldiers is posted to prevent their entering the town, until they have paid the pilgrim's tax. I passed a devotee to-day, who laid himself down at every step, measuring the road to Juggernaut by the length of

"In sight of Juggernaut,

June 12, 1806.

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"Outer Gate of Juggernaut, June 12, 1806.


“A disaster has just occurred. As I approached the gate, the pilgrims crowded from all quarters around me, and shouted, as they usually did when I passed them on the road, an expression of welcome and respect. I was a little alarmed at their number, and looked round for my guard. A guard of soldiers had accompanied me from Cuttack, the last military station; but they were now about a quarter of a mile behind, with my servants and the baggage. The pilgrims cried out that they were entitled to some indulgence, that they were poor, they could not pay the tax; but I was not aware of their design. At this moment, when I was within a few yards of the gate, an old Sanyassee, or holy man, who had travelled some days by the side of my horse, came up, and said, Sir, you are in danger; the people are going to rush through the gate when it is opened for you. I immediately dismounted, and endeavoured to escape to one side; but it was too late. The mob was now in motion, and with a tumultuous shout pressed violently towards the gate. The guard within, seeing my danger, opened it, and the multitude rushing through, carried me forward in the torrent a considerable space; so that I was literally borne into Juggernaut by the Hindoos themselves. A distressing scene followed. As the number and strength of the mob increased, the narrow way was choaked up by the mass of people; and I apprehended that many of them would have been suffocated, or bruised to death. My horse was yet among them. But suddenly one of the side posts of the gate, which was of wood,

gave way, and fell to the ground. And perhaps this circumstance alone prevented the loss of lives. Notice of the event was immediately communicated to Mr Hunter, the superintendant of the temple, who repaired to the spot, and sent an additional guard to the inner gate, lest the people should force that also; for there is an outer and an inner gate to the town of Juggernaut; but both of them are slightly constructed. Mr Hunter told me that similar accidents sometimes occur, and that many have been crushed to death by the pressure of the mob. He added, that sometimes a body of pilgrims, consisting chiefly of women and children and old men, trusting to the physical weight of their mass, will make, what he called, a charge on the armed guards, and overwhelm them; the guards not being willing, in such circumstances, to oppose their bayonets."

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"Juggernaut, June 14, 1806. ...."I have seen Juggernaut. The scene at Buddruck is but the vestibule to Juggernaut. No record of ancient or modern history can give, I think, an adequate idea of this valley of death; it may be truly compared with the valley of Hinnom. The idol called Juggernaut, has been considered as the Moloch of the present age; and he is justly so named, for the sacrifices offered up to him by self-devotement, are not less criminal, perhaps not less numerous, than those recorded of the Moloch of Canaan. Two other idols accompany Juggernaut, namely, Boloram and Shubudra, his brother and sister; for there are three deities worshipped here. They receive equal adoration, and sit on thrones of nearly equal height."

....." This morning I viewed the Temple; a stupendous fabric, and truly commensurate with the exten,


sive sway of the horrid king.' As other temples are usually adorned with figures emblematical of their religion, so Juggernaut has representations (numerous and varied) of that vice which constitutes the essence of his worship. The walls and gates are covered with indecent emblems, in massive and durable sculpture. I have also visited the sand plains by the sea, in some places whitened with the bones of the pilgrims; and another place, a little way out of the town, called by the English, the Golgotha, where the dead bodies are usually cast forth; and where dogs and vultures are ever seen."

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"Juggernaut, June 18, 1806. "I have returned home from witnessing a scene which I shall never forget. At 12 o'clock of this day, being the great day of the feast, the Moloch of Hindoostan was brought out of his temple amidst the acclamations of hundreds of thousands of his worshippers. When the idol was placed on his throne, a shout was raised by the multitude, such as I had never heard before. It continued equable for a few minutes, and then gradually died away. After a short interval of silence, a murmur was heard at a distance; ali eyes were turned towards the place, and, behold, a grove advancing. A body of men, having green branches. or palms, in their hands, approached with great celerity. The people opened a way for them; and whea they had come up to the throne, they fell down before him that sat thereon, and worshipped. And the multitude again sent forth a voice like the sound of a great thunder." But the voices I now heard were not those of melody, or of joyful acclamation; for there is no harmony in the praise of Moloch's worshippers. Their number indeed brought

brought to my mind the countless multitude of the Revelations; but their voices gave no tuneful hosanna or hallelujah; but rather a yell of approbation, united with a kind of hissing applause. I was at a loss how to account for this latter noise, until I was directed to notice the women; who emitted a sound like that of whistling, with the lips circular, and the tongue vibrating: as if a serpent would speak by their organs, uttering human sounds."

"The throne of the idol was placed on a stupendous car or tower, about 60 feet in height, resting on wheels which indented the ground deeply, as they turned slowly under the ponderous machine. Attached to it were six cables, of the size and length of a ship's cable, by which the people drew it along. Thousands of men, women, and children, pulled by each cable, crowding so closely, that some could only use one hand. Infants are made to exert their strength in this office; for it is accounted a merit of righteousness to move the god. Upon the tower were the priests and satellites of the idol, surrounding his throne. I was told that there were about 120 persons upon the car altogether. The idol is a block of wood, having a frightful visage painted black, with a distended mouth of a bloody colour. His arms are of gold, and he is dressed in gorgeous apparel. The other two idols are of a white and yellow colour. Five elephants preceded the three towers, bearing towering flags, dressed in crimson caparisons, and having bells hanging to their caparisons, which sounded musically as they moved."

"I went on in the procession, close by the tower of Moloch, which, as it was drawn with difficulty, grated on its many wheels harsh thunder. After a few minutes it stopped; and now the worship of the god be

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gan. A high priest mounted the car in front of the idol, and pronounced his obscene stanzas in the ears of the people, who responded at intervals in the same strain. These songs,' said he, are the delight of the god: his car can only move when he is pleased with the song.' The car moved on a little way, and then stopped. A boy of about 12 years was then brought forth to attempt something yet more lascivious, if peradventure the god would move. The child perfected the praise' of his idol with such ardent expression and gesture, that the god was pleased, and the multitude, emitting a sensual yell of delight, urged the car along. After a few minutes it stopped again. An aged minister of the idol then stood up, and with a long rod in his hand, which he moved with indecent action, completed the variety of this disgusting exhibition. I felt a consciousness of doing wrong in witnessing it. I was also somewhat appalled at the magnitude and horror of the spectacle; I felt like a guilty person, on whom all eyes were fixed, and I was about to withdraw. But a scene of a different kind was now to be presented. The characteristics of Moloch's worship are obscenity and blood. We have seen the former; now comes the blood."

"After the tower had proceeded some way, a pilgrim announced that he was ready to offer himself a sacrifice to the idol. He laid himself down in the road before the tower as it was moving along, lying on his face, with his arms stretched forwards. The multitude passed round him, leaving the space clear, and he was crushed to death by the wheels of the tower. A shout of joy was raised to the god. He is said to smile when the libation of the blood is made. The people threw cowries, or small money, on the body of the victim,


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