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all kinds, the square college cap be worn, only that clergymen walking any considerable distance to church, may wear, in so walking, their hats with their gowns instead, in which case they shall keep their caps at the church, and take them when they get
that all Bishops and Priests wear, in undress, their hats turned up behind, and tied, such as are usually called shovel hats, and that of Deacons merely tied up at the sides. In all which particulars concerning apparel, our meaning is not to attribute any holiness or special worthiness to the said garments, but for decency, gravity, and order, as is before specified. But whereas some persons, either through ignorance, or sophistry, may argue against the purple and fine linen, from the parable of the rich man and Lazarus, or from the royal colours of purple and scarlet, we reply, by anticipation, that, on those very accounts, together with others, we contend for the propriety of our selection. Dives was not condemned for the colour, or fineness, of his dress, but because, with means to procure expensive clothing, and daily sumptuous fare, his selfishness made him overlook the wants of his less fortunate fellows. One use, therefore, among others which we hope may be made of the purple and fine linen of our Bishops is, that they may never put it on without remembering their fearful responsibility if they fail in their duties of preaching and practising benevolence and hospitality. Also of the royal colours of purple and scarlet, we hope our Clergy will avail themselves to always think of the fidelity due to the King of kings, who, if they endure to the end, will, for their reward, anoint them kings, as well as priests, to him for ever. (Rev. i. 6.) And, if adversity is ever the lot of the Church collectively, or of any one of her individual Ministers, we hope the remembrance of the example of patience given them by their Divine Lord, when a robe of scarlet, or purple, was put on him in cruel derision, will make them more determined to preserve that "patience” in the which, by the aid of the Holy Spirit, they shall assuredly be allowed to “ possess their souls.” (Luke xxi. 19.)* Also we enjoin that all Dignitaries of cathedrals shall, under pain of suspension, if not Doctors in Divinity, take such degree as soon as University rules allow.
LXXV.-Sober Conversation in Ministers. Altered so as to say, “ neither shall they board, nor lodge permanently, in any such places," and not so strictly to forbid cards, and other innocent amusements, such as, by universal (almost) consent, Bishops and Clergymen are allowed to indulge in private society I remember, during the time of George the Third's unhappy illness, hearing of three of our Prelates occasionally playing
* My first intention was, in this Canon, to say nothing of the Episcopal, and other distinctions by Medals; but, as several of the Bishops might strongly object to the resumption of wigs, and as, if resumed, they may, so injudiciously, as I think, while the Bar retains them, be again discontinued, I have thought it right not to rely on this distinction.
commerce" and "snip, snap, snorum,” with the Princesses; and the Bishop of Norwich used to be a great whist player.
LXXVI.—Ministers at no time to forsake their calling. As in Prayer Book.
LXXVII.-None to teach School without Licence. LXXVIII.- Curates desirous to teach, to be licensed before others.
LXXIX.- The Duty of Schoolmasters. These three Canons to be altered, in accordance with the repeal of the Corporation and Test Acts, and made to apply only to Schools connected with the Church, or to be expunged altogether.
THINGS APPERTAINING TO CHURCHES.
LXXX.-The great Bible and Book of Common Prayer to be had
. Altered about “at the charge of the parish,” and say “of the Minister."
LXXXI.- A Font of Stone for Baptism in
every Church. As in Prayer Book.
LXXXII.-- A decent Communion Table in every Church. Dele about the Ten Commandments, and substitute something else ; and dele about the charge of the parish.
LXXXIII.- A Pulpit to be provided in every Church. Dele about the charge of the parish.
LXXXIV.-A Chest for Alms in every
Church. Altered about the parish, and alter about “superstitious uses.”
LXXXV. Churches to be kept in sufficient Reparation. Verbally altered, and dele about excommunicated persons, or say “be kept from partaking of the Communion."
LXXXVI.-Churches to be surveyed, and the Decays certified to the
High Commissioners. Altered verbally.
LXXXVII.-A Terrier of Glebe-lands, and other Possessions be
longing to Churches. Altered verbally.
LXXXVIII.- Churches not to be profaned. Altered verbally.
CHURCHWARDENS OR QUEST-MEN, AND SIDE-MEN
LXXXIX.-The choice of Churchwardens, and their Accounts.
Altered, in consequence of preceding alterations. I am not sure that justice requires that the parishioners should have any choice in the Elections, if church-rates are abolished: nor do I see that, where there is a select vestry, it is of any utility to give it a voice in the matter. Perhaps, however, if the choice is solely in the Minister, the Bishop, or the Crown, may as well have the power of naming one, upon sufficient cause, whether from any previous conduct of the Minister, or character of the Churchwarden named by the Minister, appearing to them. And I think, at all events, that Church wardens should be communicants, and bona fide members of the Church. XC.-The choice of Side-men, and their joint Office with
Churchwardens. Altered in accordance with the toleration of other sects, and as in observations upon preceding Canon.
XCI.-Parish Clerks to be chosen by the Minister. Altered about wages, so as, in time, the minimum to be £100 a year, and for the preference to be given to Candidates in Deacon's orders; and all Clerks, whether in orders or not, to wear a gown (like non-graduate Clergymen) and band, and, in church, a surplice over it, except on those solemn days mentioned about cathedrals.*
• There here seems to be wanting a Canon about Sextons, Bell-ringers, and others employed in churches.
ECCLESIASTICAL COURTS BELONGING TO THE
ARCHBISHOP'S JURISDICTION, &c.
XCII. to CXXVI. (both inclusive.)
JUDGES ECCLESIASTICAL AND THEIR SURROGATES.
CXXVII. and CXXVIII.
CXXIX. to CXXXIII. (both inclusive.)
CXXXVIII. These forty-seven Canons, relating to the ecclesiastical law and courts, and it being so almost universally agreed that the whole system of ecclesiastical law courts ought to be immediately changed, it is useless, at present, to remark upon them, it being much easier to make new ones than mend these. One most monstrous feature ought to be mentioned—the great expense of Bishops doing their duty in prosecuting delinquent clergymen, which is tantamount to holding out a premium to Prelates to neglect it. Archdeacon Berens's plan of courts, somewhat similar to courts martial, seems to me well worth trying.
AUTHORITY OF SYNODS.
CXXXIX. CXL. and CXLI.-Convocations and Synods. These three Canons, in any thing like their present shape, are, now that toleration of other sects is allowed, obviously as absurd as those before remarked upon. I suggest the following instead.
There shall be a general Convocation of all the provinces, to meet at the beginning of every session of Parliament, to discuss such original questions, as his Majesty, by the advice of Parliament, has permitted ; and also to hear and to decide appeals from the Synods of particular provinces,-appeals not to be allowed, however, except by the sanction of a certain proportion of the Synods, as in the first meeting of general Convocation may be agreed upon. The Synod for each province shall meet in the archiepiscopal city some time, to be fixed by the Primate thereof, when Parliament is not sitting; to sit for not exceeding fourteen days. In general, to save time, both in the general Convocation and the Synod, they shall all sit as one house; but
a certain number of Prelates, as the first Convocation shall agree upon, being dissatisfied with any particular decision, they shall be entitled to demand that the Bishops retire, and form themselves into an upper house as to that question, and, after due deliberation, either affirm or negative the first decision. The composition of each Convocation shall be as follows :-Upon the Feast of the Apostle St. James, or the eve before, the Bishop, who ex officio shall always be a member, shall nominate one Archdeacon or Chancellor, the Prebendaries one Prebendary, the beneficed clergy of the diocese one beneficed Minister, and the Curates one Curate ; to which shall be added one master, and one fellow from each of the Universities, the former named by the Vice Chancellor, the latter elected by the fellows of the different colleges therein. The Synod shall be formed in a similar manner, including only a representation of any university within that especial province. Excepting the Archbishop, or Bishop, the same individual shall not be elected for both Synod and Convocation the same year, as that would perhaps draw him too much away from other duties. Also, for the same reason, the Convocation shall endeavour to dispose of the more grave questions upon their first meeting, after which, those who come froin a distance, shall be allowed to vote by proxy the remainder of the session, unless any unforeseen case of great importance arises, and the members present deem a full attendance necessary, in which case a sufficient warning shall be given. When the session of Parliament is over, the Convocation shall be prorogued till the next session, previously appointing, however, a Committee, or Commission of twelve Members, residing in or near London, to present Addresses from the Provincial Synods, and for other lawful purposes as the Convocation may appoint. The principal Prelate present shall be President each day of both Convocation and Synod, the former to be opened and closed by the King or his Commissioners.
ADDITIONAL CANON ABOUT THE CONVOCATION.
The Convocation, and Synods, attending Divine Service. The General Convocation shall attend Divine Service at St. Paul's Cathedral in the usual state, together with his Majesty's Minister for Ecclesiastical Affairs,* on the first Sunday of their
* I have all along assumed a Minister of ecclesiastical affairs, proposed by various writers, among others in Blackwood, a few years ago, (if I remember right.) There are two modes of accomplishing this; one by the creation of a Secretary of State for Ecclesiastical Affairs, the other by having a Lord High