take away from another (dat.) is both contrary to justice and against nature. He plucks the sword [from] the scabbard. Finally (that it was better praestäre) to be killed in battle than not to recover [their] former renown in war (gen.) and the liberty which they received (subj.) from [their] ancestors. Caesar, (having sent praemisso) his cavalry, follows [with] all his forces. These things being transacted, all Gaul being subdued, so great an opinion of this war (prevailed perlåta est, among ad) the barbarians, that ambassadors were sent (impf. subj.) to Caesar from the nations which (lived incolérent) beyond the Rhine, who promised (impf subj.) (that they would give him hostages, and submit to his commands se obsides datüras, imperata facturas). And now the day had shortened the (mid-day medias) shadows of things, and the sun was distant (equally ex æquo) [from] either (extremity of heaven metá). O Pyrāmus, she exclaimed, what calamity has taken thee from me (dat.)? He converted the earth (plur.) into the form of a sea, and took away (the harvests opes) [from] the husbandmen. I have received from Aristocritus three letters, which I have nearly obliterated with [my] tears. (Thou actest facis) absurdly, (to torment qui angas) thyself in mind (gen.).

To take away, auféro: to take away, deträho ; contrary to, (alienum a): he plucks, eripio : finally, postremè ; battle, acies: being transacted, gestus; being subdued, pacătus: a sea, fretum: to obliterate, deleo.


1. I am not in fault. 2. He 1. Waco culpa (abl.).

attends to philosophy. 3. I am not at leisure. 4. He stripped him of his goods.

1. To set out where the walls of a city should be. 2. To demolish a town.

1. To run through so many dangers, and to die. 2. To be free from the obligation of an oath. 1. To lose one's labour, not without a cause. 2. I would

2. Wacophilosophia (dat.).
3. Non vaco (3 pers, ego
dat.). 4. Exuo is bonum.
1. Urbs designo ara-
trum (abl.) or moenia de-
signo sulcus (abl.). 2. Im-
primomurus ( hos-
tilis (acc.) aratrum (acc.)
1. Fungor tot pericúlum,
et fungor fatum. 2. Sol-
vo religio sacramentum.
1. Opéra abütor, non
injuria (abl.). 2. Paucus

speak a little with thee, and will (abl. pl.) (te) volo, et pau

tell it briefly. cus (abl. pl.) do. 1. To come to be a man. 2. 1. Excédo ex ephèbus Hear me a little; I have just (pl.). 2. Ausculto paucus cause to be angry. (abl. pl.), jus (abl.) (irascor.) To go to law, and swear with Lis (acc. pl.) sequor, a safe conscience. et liquidus (abl. sing.) juro. To sit still and do nothing, Compressus (abl. pl.) and to grow stiff. manus (abl. f sedeo, et congélo otium (abl.) To have two strings to one's Duplex spes (abl.) utor, bow, and to guess right. et conjectura (abl.) conséquor.

Recapitulatory Exercise.

Ye have before [your] eyes Catiline, that most audacious of men. And now the (high summa) tops of the villages (at a distance procul) smoke. The friendship of Orestes and Pyládes (acquired adepta est) immortal fame (among posterity apud postèros). The greatest of benefits are those which we receive from our parents. (No beast nulla belluarum) is wiser than the elephant. There is no one of us without fault. Ripheus (also et) falls, (who qui unts) was the most just (among in) the Trojans, and (the strictest in integrity servantissimus acqui). Orgetórix was by far the noblest and richest (among apud) the Swiss. O harp! the ornament of Phoebus, and acceptable at the banquets of supreme Jupiter. (Some pars) think [that] a thousand verses like mine (gen.) might be spun out in a day. Diogénes, being asked at what age a wife may be taken, said, “By young men not as yet, by old men never.” He drew a ditch of twenty feet with perpendicular sides. The goats themselves shall bring home their udders, distended with milk. Aurora opened the purple doors and (the courts atria) full of roses. And around the Trojan matrons [stand] dishevelled [as to their] hair, (according to custom de more). What is more shameful or more base than an effeminate man Caius Laelius, when an ill-born fellow said to him [that] he was unworthy of his ancestors, replied, “But, by Hercules, thou art not unworthy of thine.” The authority of the senate [has been] betrayed to a (most virulent acerrimo) enemy; your power [has been] betrave". the republic (has been set to sale venális fuit) at home and abroad. It is more laborious to conquer one's self than an enemy. (The more quo) ignorant any one [is], (the more eo) impudent. The longer Simonides considered the nature of God, the more obscure the thing appeared to him. This condition [was] so much the more grievous to them, by how much it was the later. He pays to me the money with his own hand. To every one his own verses are the most beautiful. We have seen the breast (of thee tuum), a simple man. He drew two weapons out of his arrow-bearing quiver, of different workmanship: the one drives away love, the other causes love. He acquired to himself the greatest glory. I hate a wise man, who is not wise to himself. In all things, the agreement of all nations is (to be thought putanda) the law of nature. It is [the duty] of soldiers to obey their general. It is [the part] of a magnanimous man, [in] agitated affairs, (to pardon conserväre) the multitude, [and] to punish the guilty. Propitious [virgin], pity, I pray, the son and the sire; for thou canst [effect] all [things]. (It is the part of a Roman Românum est) to act and to suffer bravely (adj. neut. plur.). He condemns his son-in-law of wickedness. He was charged with this crime in the assembly by his enemies. He assassinates Polydorus, and by violence (possesses potitur) his gold (abl.). Thou art accustomed to forget nothing (but nisi) injuries (acc.). (Wherefore quippe) all, forgetting their wives (gen.) and children, and (their distant longinqua, a domo) warfare, (regarded ducébant) the Persian gold, and the wealth of the whole East, as now their own plunder (acc.); nor (did they think of meminérant) the war and the dangers, but of [these] riches. No man can serve pleasure and virtue (at the same time simul). (But most of the youth catérüm juventus plerāque especially marime of the nobility nobilium) favoured (impf. sing.) the undertakings of Catiline. I envy not indeed the good fortune or condition of any citizen or fellow-soldier; nor do I wish, by depressing another, (to exalt extulisse) myself. They often advise her that she should moderate [her] love, (dat.) and apply consolation to [her] inattentive (lit. deaf) mind. AEneas commands [his] associates to bend [their] course, and to turn [their] prows [towards] land; and joyous ł. enters succădit) the shady river. Compare ye this peace (with cum) that war. We have (est put for habed ) ripe apples. o a pipe (composed compacta) of seven unequal (reeds ciciitis). The sea is a destruction to greedy mariners. To these [men] ease, riches, (desirable optanda.) to others, were a burden and misery. Hunger teaches a man many [things]. Can I teach thee letters? How many more men have been destroyed by the violence of men, that is, by wars and seditions, than by every (other reliqué) calamity! Never shall he disconcert me (by his measures consilio), never (shall he baffle perrertet) me by any artifice! Thrice had Achilles dragged Hector round the Trojan walls, and was selling the breathless corpse for gold. The eager man bought it (for as much as tanti quanti) Pythius wished. Hephæstion was dead (whom quem unum) Alexander, (as quod) might be easily understood, had valued very highly. All are rich, say the Stoics, who can enjoy (the air calo) and the earth. Go from the city, Catiline, free the republic from fear; go, if thou waitest for that word, into banishment. Use [thy] ears more frequently than thy tongue. He rescued me [from] death (dat.). This speech (being ended habita), he dismissed the council. Caesar ordered the gates to be shut, and the soldiers to depart from the town, lest the inhabitants should receive any injury from the soldiers by night. These things being transacted, all Gaul (being pacified pacătă), so great an opinion of this war prevailed among the barbarians, that ambassadors were sent to Caesar from the nations which lived beyond the Rhine, (who qua) promised that they would give him hostages, (and submit to his commands imperáta facturas).

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He was condemned for Proditionis est dam treason. Small things are com- nātus. Parva magnis pared with great. conseruntur.

. "Whatever is the accusatire after an active verb must be the nominative to it after a passive verb, whilst the other case is retained un

He will be beloved by us. A nobis diligētur. Non I am not understood by any intelligor ulli. One. What will become of my De fratre quid fiet? brother ?


He [Alcibiádes] was educat- Edisco' perf. in domus ed in the house of Pericles, in- Pericles, erudio a Socrástructed by Socrates. To him tes. Hic, honor gen, ergö, [Thrasybulus], by way of re- coróna a populus datus spect, a crown was given by the sum. people.

Perdiccas is slain at the river Perdiccas apud flumen

der the government of the verb, and cannot become its nominative; as,

A CT. PASS. Do tibi LIBRUM. Datur tibi LIBER. Narras FABULAM surdo. Surdo FABULA narratur. Capitis EUM condemnărunt. Capitis ILLE est condemnatus. PATERAM vino implevit. Vino PATER A est impleta.

When there are two accusatives, that of the person becomes the nominative; as, A Ct. PAss. Docebat PUERos grammaticam. Purki docebantur grammaticam. It is therefore to be remembered, that nothing but that which is in

the accusative after the active verb, whether denoting a person or a thing, can be the nominative to the verb in the passive voice; as,

A.C.T. PASS. Persuadeo hoc tibi. Hoc tibi persuadetur, not Tu persuaderis. Hoc tibi dixi. Hoc tibi dictum est, not Dictus es.

In the expression Tu dictus es, tu denotes the subject of discourse, or the person of whom, not the person to whom, information is given. Hence it is, that, if a verb does not govern the accusative in the active voice, it can have no passive, unless impersonally; thus we say, Resisto tibi, and cannot, therefore, say Tu resisteris, but Tibi resistitur. See more on this subject in Grant's Institutes, p.210.

To this we may add, that the nominative to the active verb must be the ablative with a or ab after the passive verb; as,


Arma fecit VULCANUs Achilli. Arma facta sunt Achilli a Vulcano. Romulus condidit Roman. Roma condita est a Romulo.

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