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M'Culloch v. Maryland, 4 Wheat, 316, North Dakota, 250 U. S. 135, 148, 63 413, 414, 4 L. ed. 579, 603, 604; Fair- L. ed. 897, 902, P.U.R.1919D, 705, 39 bank v. United States, 181 U. S. 283, Sup. Ct. Rep. 502; Dakota Cent. Teleph. 287, 288, 45 L. ed. 862, 864, 865, 21 Sup. Co. v. South Dakota, 250 U. S. 163, 187, Ct. Rep. 648, 15 Am. Crim. Rep.. 135. 63 L. ed. 910, 4 A.L.R. 1623, P.U.R.

State ownership of roads confers no 1919D, 717, 39 Sup. Ct. Rep. 507; Lewis power to create conditions and terms Pub. Co. v. Morgan, 229 U. S. 288, 301, upon which the Federal government may 57 L. ed. 1190, 1197, 33 Sup. Ct. Rep. use them in discharge of its constitution. 867; Central Trust Co. v. Central Trust al functions.

Co. 216 U. S. 251, 251, 54 L. ed. 469, 471, Hendrick v. Maryland, 235 V. S. 610, 622, 59 L. ed. 385, 390, 35 Sup. Ct. Rep. | 30 Sup. Ct. Rep. 341, 17 Ann. Cas. 1066.

Kane v. New Jersey, 242 U. S. 160, Mr. Alexander Armstrong, Attorney 168, 61 L. ed. 222, 227, 37 Sup. Ct. Rep. General of Maryland, argued the cause, 30; Re Rahrer, 140 U. S. 545, 555, 556, and, with Mr. Lindsay C. Spencer, filed 35 L. ed. 572, 574, 575, 11 Sup. Ct. Rep. a brief for defendant in error: 865; Second Employers' Liability Cases When a state, by a law of general ap(Mondou v. New York, N. H. & H. R. plication, forbids any person to operate Co.) 223 U. S. 1, 54, 56 L. ed. 327, 347, an automobile upon its highways with38 L.R.A.(N.S.) 44, 32 Sup. Ct. Rep out first obtaining a license so to do, 169, 1 N. C. C. A. 875; Western U. and requires certain qualifications of the Teleg. Co. v. Richmond, 224 U. S. 160, applicant for such license as a condition 165, 56 L. ed. 710, 714, 32 Sup. Ct. Rep. precedent to the issuance thereof, an 449; Essex v. New England Teleg. Co. employee of the United States, who 239 U. S. 313, 60 L. ed. 301, 36 Sup. Ct. operates such automobile only in the Rep. 102.

course of his employment, can constituPlaintiff in error possessed the right tionally be required to comply with such secured to him by the Constitution and provisions. The state can constitutionlaws of the United States to engage in ally exact the payment of a license fee the employment here drawn in issue such as is required by the law under without compliance with the laws of discussion, whether such fee is conMaryland.

sidered as a reasonable fee for the servSlaughter-House Cases, 16 Wall. 36, ices of the state officials charged with 79, 21 L. ed. 394, 409; Hawker v. New the issuance of licenses, or as compen. York, 170 U. S. 189, 42 L. ed. 1002, 18 sation exacted by the state for the use Sup. Ct. Rep. 573.

of its road facilities. Principles upholding exertions of

Ops. Atty. Gen. of Wisconsin (Owens) state power affecting interstate com- vol. 2, 1913, p. 36; United States v. merce are not applicable to the case at Kirby, 7 Wall. 482, 19 L. ed. 278; bar.

Opinion of Attorney-General CrittenNashville, C. & St. L. R. Co. v. Ala- don, 5 Ops. Atty. Gen. 554; United bama, 128 U. S. 96, 100, 101, 32 L. ed. States v. Hart, Pet. C. C. 392, Fed. 352, 354, 2 Inters. Com. Rep. 238, 9 Sup. Cas. No. 15,316; Searight v. Stokes, 3 Ct. Rep. 28; Minnesota Rate Cases How. 151, 170, 11 L. ed. 537, 546; Dickey (Simpson v. Shepard) 230_U. S. 352, v. Mavsville W. P. & L. Turnp. Road 402, 403, 409, 410, 411, 57 L. ed. 1511, Co. 7 Dana, 113; Hendrick v. Maryland, 1542, 1543, 1545–1547, 48 L.R.A.(N.S.) 235 U. S. 610, 59 L. ed. 385, 35 Sup. Ct. 1151, 33 Sup. Ct. Rep. 729, Ann. Cas. Rep. 140; Kane v. New Jersey, 242 U. 1916A, 18; Lake Shore & M. S. R. S. 160, 61 L. ed. 222, 37 Sup. Ct. Rep. Co. v. Ohio, 173 U. S. 285, 297, 43 L. ed. 30; Babbitt, Motor Vehicles, $ 200, 24 702, 706, 19 Sup. Ct. Rep. 465; Smith ed. p. 139; Gibbons v. Ogden, 9 Wheat. v. Alabama, 124 U. S. 465, 31 L. ed. 508, 1, 182, 189, 6 L. ed. 23, 67, 68; 1 Inters. Com. Rep. 804, 8 Sup. Ct. Rep. Slaughter-House Cases, 16 Wall. 36-63, 564; New York, N. H. & H. R. Co. v. 21 L. ed. 394-404; Barbier v. Connolly, New York, 165 U. S. 628, 41 L. ed. 853, 113 U. S. 27, 28, 28 L. ed. 923, 924, 5 17 Sup. Ct. Rep. 418; Chicago, R. I. & Sup. Ct. Rep. 357; Re Rahrer, 140 U. S. P. R. Co. v. Arkansas, 219 U. S. 453, 545-554, 35 L. ed. 572-574, 11 Sup. Ct. 55 L. ed. 290, 31 Sup. Ct. Rep. 275; Rep. 865; Hawker v. New York, 170 U. Hennington v. Georgia, 163 U. S. 299, S. 189, 42 L. ed. 1002, 18 Sup. Ct. Rep. 41 L. ed. 166, 16 Sup. Ct. Rep. 1086; 573; New York v. Miln, 11 Pet. 102, Atlantic Coast Line R. Co. v. Georgia, 103, 9 L, ed. 618; Hennington v. 234 U. S. 280, 58 L. ed. 1312, 34 Sup. Georgia, 163 U. S. 299, 308, 41 L, ed. Ct. Rep. 829; Northern P. R. Co. v. 166, 170, 16 Sup. Ct. Rep. 1086; Chicago & N. W. R. Co. v. Fuller, 17 Wall., state commerce cannot be relied upon as 560-570, 21 L. ed. 710-714; Morgan's furnishing an answer. They deal with L. & T. R. & S. S. Co. v. Board of the conduct of private persons in matters Health, 118 U. S. 455, 463, 465, 30 L. ed. in which the states as well as the general 237, 241, 242, 6 Sup. Ct. Rep. 1114; government have an interest, and which Nashville, C. St. L. R. Co. v. Ala- would be wholly under the control of bama, 128 U. S. 96, 99, 100, 32 L. ed. the states but for the supervening des352-354, 2 Inters. Com. Rep. 238, 9 tination and the ultimate purpose of the Sup. Ct. Rep. 28; Sherlock v. Alling, acts. Here the question is whether the 93 U. S. 99, 102, 23 L. ed. 819, 820; state can interrupt the acts of the genSmith v. Alabama, 124 U. S. 465, 31 eral government itself. With regard to L. ed. 508, 1 Inters. Com. Rep. 804, 8 taxation, no matter how reasonable, or Sup. Ct. Rep. 564; Atlantic Coast Line how universal and undiscriminating, the R. Co. v. Georgia, 234 U. S. 286, 291, state's inability to interfere has been re294, 58 L. ed. 1312, 1317, 1319, 34 Sup: garded as established since M'Culloch Ct. Rep. 829; Chicago, R. I. & P. R. v. Maryland, 4 Wheat. 316, 4 L. ed. 579. Co. v. Arkansas, 219 U. S. 153, 55 The decision in that case was not put L. ed. 290, 31 Sup. Ct. Rep. 275; Wil- upon any consideration of degree, but son v. Black Bird Creek Marsh Co. 2 upon the entire absence of power on the Pet. 245, 251, 252, 7 L. ed. 412, 414; part of the [56] states to touch, in Cooley v. Port Wardens, 12 How. 299, that way, at least, the instrumental13 L. ed. 996; Cushing v. The John ities of the United States (4 Wheat. Fraser (The James Gray v. The John 429, 430), and that is the law toFraser) 21 How. 184, 187, 15 L. ed. day. Farmers & M. Sav. Bank v. Min106, 108; Lane County v. Oregon, 7 nesota, 232_U. S. 516, 525, 526, 58 Wall. 71, 19 L. ed. 101; Stone v. Mis- L. ed. 706, 711, 34 Sup. Ct. Rep. 354. sissippi, 101 U. S. 814, 25 L. ed. 1079; A little later the scope of the propoOpinion of Attorney-General Gregory, sition as then understood was indicated May 7, 1917, unreported; Parkersburg in Osborn v. Bank of the United & 0. River Transp. Co. v. Parkersburg, States, 9 Wheat. 738, 867, 6 L. ed. 204, 107 U. S. 691, 699, 27 L. ed. 584, 587, 2 234: "Can a contractor for supplying a Sup. Ct. Rep. 732; Huse v. Glover, 119 military post with provisions be reU. S. 543, 548, 549, 30 L. ed. 487, 490, strained from making purchases within 7 Sup. Ct. Rep. 313; Monongahela Nav.any state, or from transporting the proCo. v. United States, 148 U. S. 312, 329, visions to the place at which the troops 330, 37 L. ed. 463, 469, 13 Sup. Ct. Rep. were stationed? Or could he be fined 622.

or taxed for doing so? We have not yet Mr. J. Purdon Wright also argued

heard these questions answered in the afthe cause for defendant in error.

firmative." In more recent days the

principle was applied when the governor Mr. Justice Holmes delivered the opin-regard of a state law concerning the use

of a soldiers' home was convicted for dision of the court: The plaintiff in error was an employee the inmates of the home as part of their

of oleomargarin, while furnishing it to of the Postoffice Department of the United States, and, while driving a gov- officer was not “subject to the jurisdic

rations. It was said that the Federal ernment motor truck in the transportation of the state in regard to those very tion of mail over a post road from Mt. Airy, Maryland, to Washington, was ar

matters of administration which are thus rested in Maryland, and was tried, con

approved by the Federal authority." victed, and fined for so driving without Ohio v. Thomas, 173 U. S. 276, 283, 43 having obtained a license from the state. L. ed. 699, 701, 19 Sup. Ct. Rep. 453. He saved his constitutional rights by It seems to us that the foregoing decimotion to quash, by special pleas, which sions establish the law governing this were overruled upon demurrer, and by motion in arrest of judgment. The facts

Of course, an employee of the United were admitted, and the naked question is States does not secure a general immuwhether the state has power to require nity from state law while acting in the such an employee to obtain a license by course of his employment. That was de-. submitting to an examination concerning cided long ago by Mr. Justice Washhis competence and paying $3, before ington in United States v. Hart, Pet. C. performing his official duty in obedience C. 390, Fed. Cas. No. 15,316; 5 Ops. Atty. to superior command.

Gen. 554. It very well may be that, The cases upon the regulation of inter- | when the United States has not spoken,

case.

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the subjection to local law would extend charges within the switching limits, where to general rules that might affect inci- the line-haul carrier competes with the dentally the mode of carrying out the switching line, and to refuse to absorb such employment,-as, for instance, a stat- charges when the switching line does not ute or ordinance regulating the mode of compete with the line-haul carrier, may be

forbidden by the Interstate Commerce Comturning at the corners of streets. Com. mission as being unjustly discriminatory v. Closson, 229 Mass. 329, L.R.A.1918C, and unlawful, under the Act of February 4, 939, 118 N. E. 653. This might stand on 1887, § 2, which prohibits any carrier from much the same footing as liability under charging or receiving from any person a the common law of a state to a person in greater compensation than it receives from jured by the driver's negligence. But another person for doing for him a like even the most unquestionable and most and contemporaneous service under substanuniversally applicable of state laws, such (For other cases, see Carriers, 111. e, in Digest

tially similar circumstances and conditions. as those concerning [57] murder, will Sup. Ct. 1908.) not be allowed to control the conduct Interstate Commerce Commission of a marshal of the United States, act- findings of fact judicial review. ing under and in pursuance of the laws

2. Findings of fact by the Interstate of the United States. Re Neagle, 135

Commerce Commission upon questions, the U. S. 1, 34 L. ed. 55, 10 Sup. Ct. Rep. upon the Commission, can be disturbed by

determination of which is by law imposed 658.

judicial decree only in cases where the Com. It seems to us that the immunity of mission's action is arbitrary, or tranthe instruments of the United States scends the legitimate bounds of its author. from state control in the performance of ity. their duties extends to a requirement (For other cases, see Interstate Commerce Com

mission, that they desist from performance until

Interstate Commerce Commission they satisfy a state officer, upon exam

order vagueness or uncertainty. ination, that they are competent for a

3. An order of the Interstate Commerce necessary part of them, and pay a fee Commission directing railway carriers enfor permission to go on. Such a require- tering a specified city to desist from absorbment does not merely touch the govern- ing switching charges on certain interstate ment servants remotely by a general rule carload freight, while refusing to absorb of conduct; it lays hold of them in their such charges on like carload shipments for specific attempt to obey orders, and re- a like and contemporaneous service under

and quires qualifications in addition to those substantially similar circumstances that the government has pronounced suf- conditions, such practices having been found ficient. It is the duty of the Depart- within the Act of February 4, 1887, § 2,

to be unjustly discriminatory and unlawful, ment to employ persons competent for and to establish on or before a specified their work, and that duty it must be pre-late, and thereafter to maintain, uniform sumed has been performed. Keim v. regulations and practices for the absorption United States, 177 U. S. 290, 293, 44 L. of charges for the switching of interstate ed. 774, 775, 20 Sup. Ct. Rep. 574.

carload freight at that city, and to collect Judgment reversed.

no higher rates or charges on such freight than they contemporaneously collect from

other shippers or receivers at that point for Mr. Justice Pitney and Mr. Justice a like and contemporaneous service under McReynolds dissent.

substantially similar circumstances and
conditions,- is not too vague and uncertain
to be enforceable.
(For other cases, see Interstate Commerce Com.

mission, in Digest Sup. Ct. 1908.]
SEABOARD AIR LINE RAILWAY COM.
PANY, Seaboard Air Line Railway,

(No. 27.) Southern Railway Company, and Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Company, Appts., Argued October 8 and 11, 1920.

Decided

November 8, 1920. UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, Interstate Commerce Commission, and Rich- Note.-As to duty of carrier to furmond Chamber of Commerce.

nish equal connecting facilities to other

carriers--see note to Pennsylvania Co. (See S. C. Reporter's ed. 57-63.) v. United States, 59 L. ed. U. S. 616.

On the right of a carrier to discrimCarriers discrimination absorbing

inate with respect to special or unusual switching charges.

service-see note to State ex rel. Ellis 1. The practice of railway carriers en:

v. Atlantic Coast Line R. Co. 12 L.R.A. tering a certain city to absorb switching | (N.S.) 506.

V.

APPEAL. from the District Court of lingerenden which make up the new and

the States Eastern line. District of Virginia to review a de- Chicago & N. W. R. Co. v. Osborne, cree dismissing the petition in a suit 52 Fed. 912; Re Through Routes & to enjoin the enforcement of an order Through Rates, 12 Inters. Com. Rep. of the Interstate Commerce Commission 166; Kansas City Southern R. Co. v. regulating the absorption of switching C. H. Albers Commission Co. 223 U. S. charges. Affirmed.

573, 56 L. ed. 556, 32 Sup. Ct. Rep. 316. See same case below, 249 Fed. 368. This court has defined the phrase The facts are stated in the opinion. "like and contemporaneous service." Messrs. Claudian B. Northrop and

Party Rate Case (Interstate Com

merce Commission v. Baltimore & 0. R. Frank W. Gwathmey argued the cause and filed a brief for appellants:

Co.) 145 U. S. 263, 36 L. ed. 699, 4 InSection 2 of the Interstate Commerce Union P. R. Co. v. United States, 117

ters. Com. Rep. 92, 12 Sup. Ct. Rep. 844; Act has no application whatever except U. S. 355, 29 L. ed. 920, 6 Sup. Ct. Rep. where the haul is over the same line, the same distance, under the same cir: 772; Union P. R. Co. v. United States,

104 U. S. 663, 26 L. ed. 881; Texas & P. cumstances of carriage. Wight v. United States, 167 U. S. 512,

R. Co. v. Interstate Commerce Commis518, 42 L. ed. 258, 259, 17 Sup. Ct. Repsion, 162. U. S. 197, 231, 40 L. ed. 940,

951, 5 Inters. Com. Rep. 405, 16 Sup. 822; Interstate Commerce Commission v. Alabama Midland R. Co. 168 U. S. N. R. Co. 207 U. S. 205, 52 L. ed. 171,

Ct. Rep. 666; Bitterman v. Louisville & 144, 166, 167, 42 L. ed. 414, 423, 18 Sup: 28 Sup. Ct. Rep. 91, 12 Ann. Cas. 693. Ct. Rep. 45; 2 Ann. Rep. --I. C. C. (1888) p. 89; Lancashire & y. R. Co: See also Interstate Commerce Commisv. Greenwood, L. R. 21 Q. B. 217, 55 sion v, Baltimore & O. R. Co. 3 Inters. L. T. N. S. 58.

Com. Rep. 192, 43 Fed. 37; United States The Wight Case is conclusive of the v. Chicago & N. W. R. Co. 62 C. C. A.

465, 127 Fed. 785 case at bar.

Wight v. United States, 167 U. S. 512, Mr. Blackburn Esterline, Special As42 L. ed. 258, 17 Sup. Ct. Rep. 822. sistant to the Attorney General, argued

Each station is a point of departure the cause, and, with Solicitor General or arrival; not entire city, district, or Frierson, filed a brief for the United community.

States: Denaby Main Colliery Co. v. Man- The findings of the Commission are chester, S. & L. R. Co. L. R. 11 App. conclusive that the traffic on which the Cas. 97, 55 L. J. Q. B. N. S. 181, 54 switching charges are absorbed or nonL. T. N. S. 1, 50 J. P. 340, 6 Eng. Ry. absorbed is handled in the Richmond & C. Traffic Cas. 133; Murray v. Glasgow switching district under similar circum& S. W. R. Co. 11 Se. Sess. Cas. 4th stances and conditions. series, 205; Lancashire & Y. R. Co. v. Atchison, T. & S. F. R. Co. v. United Greenwood, L. R. 21 Q. B. 215, 55 L. T. States, 231 U. S. 736, 58 L. ed. 460, 34 N. S. 58; Chicago Stock Yards Cases Sup. Ct. Rep. 316; Baltimore & 0. R. (Interstate Commerce Commission 1. Co. v. United States, 215 U. S. 481, 494, Chicago, B. & Q. R. Co. 186 U. S. 320, 54 L. ed. 292, 297, 30 Sup. Ct. Rep. 164; 46 L. ed. 1182, 22 Sup. Ct. Rep. 824; Cincinnati, 11. & D. R. Co. v. Interstate Interstate Commerce Commission

Commerce Commission, 206 U. S. 142, Stickney, 215 U. S. 98, 54 L. ed. 112, 154, 51 L. ed. 995, 1001, 27 Sup. Ct. Rep. 30 Sup. Ct. Rep. 66).

018; Interstate Commerce Commission Switching is a part of railroad trans

V. Chicago, R. I. & P. R. Co. 218 U. S. portation, and drayage is not and never

88, 110, 54 L. ed. 946, 958, 30 Sup. Ct has been.

Rep. 651; Interstate Commerce Com

mission v. Illinois C. R. Co. 215 U. S. Illinois C. R. Co. v. De Fuentes, 236 | 452, 470, 477, 54 L. ed. 280, 287, 290, U. S. 157, 59 L. ed. 517, P.U.R.1915A, 30 Sup. Ct. Rep. 155; Interstate Com840, 35 Sup. Ct. Rep. 275; Interstate merce Commission v. Louisville & N. R Commerce Commission v. Detroit, G. H. Co. 227 V. S. 88, 57 L. ed. 431, 33 Sup. & M. R. Co. 167 U. S. 633, 42 L. ed. Ct. Rep. 185; Interstate Commerce Com306, 17 Sup. Ct. Rep. 986.

mission v. Union P. R. Co. 222 U. S. When two or more railroads form a 541, 547, 56 L. ed. 308, 311, 32 Sup. Ct. through route at a through rate, a new Rep. 108; Illinois C. R. Co. v. Interand independent line is constituted state Commerce Commission, 206 U. S. which is not the same line as either of 441, 454, 457, 466, 51 L. ed. 1128, 1133,

V.

1

1134, 1138, 27 Sup. Ct. Rep. 700; Los ington Stock-Yards Co. v. Keith, 139
Angeles Switching Case (Interstate U. S. 128, 135, 35 L. ed. 73, 76, 11 Sup.
Commerce Commission v. Atchison, T. Ct. Rep. 469; North Pennsylvania R.
& S. F. R. Co.) 234 U, S. 294, 58 L. ed. Co. v. Commercial Bank, 123 U. S. 727,
1319, 34 Sup. Ct. Rep. 814; Louisville & 734, 31 L. ed. 287, 290, 8 Sup. Ct. Rep.
N. R. Co. v. United States, 238 U. S. 1, 266; Interstate Commerce Commission
59 L. ed. 1177, 35 Sup. Ct. Rep. 696; v. Chicago, B. & Q. R. Co. 186 U. S.
O'Keefe v. United States, 240 U. S. 294, 320, 46 L. ed. 1182, 22 Sup. Ct. Rep.
60 L. ed. 651, 36 Sup. Ct. Rep. 313; 824, 4 Elliott, Railroads, 2d ed. SS
Pennsylvania Co. v. United States, 236 1521, 1522, and cases cited.
U. S. 351, 59 L. ed. 616, P.U.R.1915B, This court has several times con-
261, 35 Sup. Ct. Rep. 370; Pre-cooling strued § 2 of the Interstate Commerce
Case (Atchison, T. & S. F. R. Co. v. Act.
United States) 232 U. S. 199, 58 L. ed. Interstate Commerce Commission v.
568, 34 Sup. Ct. Rep. 291; Procter & Baltimore & 0. R. Co. 145 U. S. 263,
G. Co. v. United States, 225 U. S. 282, 281, 36 L. ed. 699, 705, 4 Inters. Com.
56 L. ed. 1091, 32 Sup. Ct. Rep. 761; Rep. 92, 12 Sup. Ct. Rep. 844; Texas &
Texas & P. R. Co. v. Interstate Com-P. R. Co. v. Interstate Commerce Com-
merce Commission, 162 U. S. 197, 233, mission, 162 U. S. 197, 218, 40 L. ed.
40 L. ed. 940, 952, 5 Inters. Com. Rep. 940, 947, 5 Inters. Com. Rep. 405, 16
405, 16 Sup. Ct. Rep. 666; United States Sup. Ct. Rep. 666; Wight v. United
v. Louisville & N. R. Co. 235 U. S. 314, States, 167 U. S. 512, 42 L. ed. 258, 17
59 L. ed. 245, 35 Sup. Ct. Rep. 113; Sup. Ct. Rep. 822; Interstate Commerce
United States v. Merchants & Mfrs. Commission v. Alabama Midland R. Co.
Traffic Asso. 242_U. S. 178, 61 L. ed. 168 U. S. 144, 166, 167, 42 L. ed. 414,
233, 37 Sup. Ct. Rep. 24.

423, 18 Sup. Ct. Rep. 45; Interstate The phrase, “under substantially Commerce Commission v. Delaware, L. similar circumstances and conditions,” | & W. R. Co. 220 U. S. 235, 252, 253, 55 as written in § 2, refers to matters of L. ed. 448, 457, 31 Sup. Ct. Rep. 392; carriage, and does not include compe- Lehigh Valley R. Co. v. United States, tition.

243 U. S. 444-446, 61 L. ed. 839-841, Delaware, L. & W. R. Co. v. Inter- | 37 Sup. Ct. Rep. 397; Interstate Comstate Commerce Commission, 166 Fed. merce Commission v. Detroit, G. H. & 499; Interstate Commerce Commission | M. R. Co. 167 U. S. 633, 644, 42 L. ed. v. Alabama Midland R. Co. 168 V. S. 306, 310, 17 Sup. Ct. Rep. 986; St. Louis 144, 166, 42 L. ed. 414, 423, 18 Sup. Ct. Southwestern R. Co. v. United States, Rep. 45; Interstate Commerce Commis- 245 U. S. 136, 139, 62 L. ed. 199, 206, sion v. Delaware, L. & W. R. Co. 220 38 Sup. Ct. Rep. 49. U. S. 235, 253, 55 L. ed. 448, 457, 31 Findings of fact by the Commission Sup. Ct. Rep. 392; Lehigh Valley R. Co. are conclusive. v. United States, 243 U. S. 444-446, Procter & G. Co. v. United States, 61 L. ed. 839–841, 37 Sup. Ct. Rep. 397; 225 U. S. 282, 297, 298, 56 L. ed. 1091, Pennsylvania R. Co. v. International 1096, 1097, 32 Sup. Ct. Rep. 761; United Coal Min. Co. 97 C. C. A. 383, 173 Fed States v. Louisville & N. R. Co. 235 U. 1; Wight v. United States, 167 U. S. S. 314, 320, 59 L. ed. 245, 250, 35 Sup. 512, 42 L. ed. 258, 17 Sup. Ct. Rep. 822. Ct. Rep. 113.

Mr. Charles W. Needham argued the cause, and, with Mr. P. J. Farrell, filed

[59] Mr. Justice Day delivered the a brief for the Interstate Commerce opinion of the court: Commission:

In this case a petition was filed in the The switching of cars performed by district court of the United States for and for the line carrier in the receipt the eastern district of Virginia to enjoin and delivery of freight is service essen- an order of the Interstate Commerce tial to, and embraced within, the under-Commission concerning the absorption taking to transport the property. of switching charges on the lines of the

Los Angeles Switching Case (Inter- Seaboard Air Line Railway Company, state_Commerce Commission v. Atchi- the Seaboard Air Line Railway, Southson, T. & S. F. R. Co.) 234 U. S. 294, ern Railway Company, and Atlantic 310, 58 L. ed. 1319, 1327, 34 Sup. Ct. Coast Line Railway Company within the Rep. 814; Illinois C. R. Co. v. De switching limits of these roads as estabFuentes, 236 U. S. 157, 59 L. ed. 517, lished at Richmond, Virginia. P.U.R.1915A, 840, 35 Sup. Ct. Rep. 275;

The Commission's order was made Hutchinson, Carr. 3d ed. $ 711; Cov- | upon a petition of the Richmond Cham

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