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SAMUEL RICHARDSON.

thousand in this. Yet settlements are ex- teach her what is her duty; nor will she pected that often, to a mercantile man espe- want reminding of the tenor of her marriage cially, sink a fortune into uselessness; and vow to him. If she has not, she will find a pin-money is stipulated for, which makes a thousand ways to plague him, though she wife independent, and destroys love, by put know not one word beyond her motherting it out of a man's power to lay any obli- tongue, nor how to write, read, or speak gation upon her, that might engage gratitude properly in that. The English, madam, and and kindle affection. When to all this the particularly what we call the plain English, card-tables are added, how can a prudent is a very copious and very expressive lanman think of marrying? ... But should guage. your expostulations and reproof have no But, dear madam, does what you say in effect upon those who are far gone in fashion- the first part of the paragraph under my able folly, they may be retailed from their eye, limiting the genius of women, quite mouths to their nieces (marriage will not cohere with the advantages which, in the often have entitled them to daughters), last part, you tell me they have over us?when they, the meteors of a day, find them- | “Men do well," you say, "to keep women selves elbowed off the stage of vanity hy in ignorance:" but this is not generally inother flutterers; for the most admired womentended to be the case, I believe. Girls, I cannot have many Tunbridge, many Bath | think you formerly said, were compounded seasons to blaze in; since even fine faces of brittle materials. They are not, they often seen are less regarded than new faces, cannot be, trusted to be sent abroad to semithe proper punishment of showy girls fornaries of learning, as men are. It is neces. rendering themselves so impoliticly cheap. sary that they should be brought up to a

I am, Sir, your sincere admirer, &c. knowledge of the domestic duties. A young The Rambler, No. 97, Tuesday, February | man's learning time is from ten to twenty19, 1751.

five, more or less. At fifteen or sisteen a

girl starts into woman; and then she throws RICHARDSON TO LADY BRADSTAIGU ON

her purveying eyes about her: and what is LEARNING IN Women.

the learning she is desirous to obtain ?

Dear lady, discourage not the sweet souls DEAR Madam,--You do not approve of great from acquiring any learning that may keep learning in women. Learning in women them employed, and out of mischief, and may be either rightly or wrongly placed, that may divert them from attending to the according to the uses made of it by them. whisperings within them, and to the flatAnd if the sex is to be brought up with a teries without them, till they have taken in view to make the individuals of it inferior a due quality of ballast, that may hinder in knowledge to the husbands they may them, all their sails unfurled and streamers happen to have, not knowing who those Aying, from being overset at their first enhusbands are, or what, or whether sensible trance upon the royage of life. or foolish, learned or illiterate, it would be best to keep them from writing and rend To LADY BRADSILAIGI ON MEN AND Women. ing, and even from the knowledge of the

North-End, Dec. 26, 1751. common idioms of speech. Would it not Tell you sincerely, which do I think, be very pretty for parents on both sides to upon the whole, men or women, have the make it the first subject of their inquiries, greatest trials of patience, and which bears whether the girl, as a recommendation, them the best? You mean, you say, from were a greater fool, or more ignorant, than one sex to the other only?- What a questhe young fellow; and if not, that they tion is here! Which? Why women, to be should reject her, for the booby's sake? - sure. Man is an animal that must bustle and would not your objection stand as in the world, go abroad, converse, fight batstrongly against a preference in mother tles, encounter other dangers of seas, winds, wit in the girl, as against what is called and I know not what, in order to protect, learning: since linguists (I will not call provide for, maintain, in ease and plenty, all linguists learned men) do very seldom women. Bravery, anger, fierceness, occamake the figure in conversation that even sionally are made familiar to them. They girls from sixteen to twenty make.

i buffet and are buffeted by the world ; are If a woman has genius, let it take its impatient and uncontrollable. They talk of course, as well as in men; provided she honour, and run their heads against stone neglects not any thing that is more peculi- walls to make good their pretensions to it; arly her province. If she has good sense, and often quarrel with one another, and she will not make the man she chooses, who fight duels, upon any other silly thing that wants her knowledge, uneasy, nor despise happens to raise their choler; with their him for that want. Her good sense will shadows, if you please.

LADY MARY WORTLEY MONTAGU.

161

Whilo women are meek, passive, good him, and be occasionally, if not indifferent, creatures, who, used to stav at home, set unpunctual, and delight in being missed, their maids at work, and formerly them- expected, and called to tender account for selves,-get their houses in order, to receive, his careless absences: and he will be less comfort, oblige, give joy to their fierce, fight- and less solicitous about giving good reasons ing, bustling, active protectors, providers, for them, as she is more and more desirous maintainers,—divert him with pretty pug's of his company. Poor fool! he has brought tricks, tell himn soft tales of love, and of who | her to own that she loves him: and will she and who's together, and what has been done not bear with the man she loves ? She, herin his absence,-bring to him little master, self, as I have observed, will think she must 80 like his own dear papa ; and little pretty act consistently with her declaration; and miss, a soft, sweet, smiling soul, with her he will plead that declaration in his favour, sampler in her hand, so like what her meek let his neglects or slights be what they will. mamma was at her years! And with these differences in education, nature, employments, your ladyship asks, whether the man or the woman bears more from each other? has the more patience ? Dearest lady! how

LADY MARY WORTLEY can you be so severe upon your own sex,

MONTAGU, yet seem to persuade yourself that you are

eldest daughter of Evelyn, Earl of Kingston defending them? What you say of a lover's pressing his

(afterwards Marquis of Dorchester, finally

| Duke of Kingston), by his wife the Lady mistress to a declaration of her love for him,

Mary Fielding, daughter of Williain, Earl is sweetly pretty, and very just; but let a

of Denbigh, born about 1690, and married man press as he will, if the lady answers

in 1712 to Edward Wortley Montagu, achim rather by her obliging manners than in words, she will leave herself something

companied her husband during his resito declare, and she will find herself rather

dence as ambassador to the Porte, 1716-18; inore than less respected for it: such is the

resided without her husband on the Continature of man 1-Å man hardly ever pre

nent, 1739-1761; returned to England, Octo

ber, 1761, and died August 21, 1762. Whilst sumes to press a lady to make this declaration, but when he thinks himself sure of

abroad she wrote many epistles, of which the

best collection will be found in The Letters her. He urges her, therefore, to add to his

and Works of Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, own consequence; and hopes to quit scores with her, when he returns love for love, and

edited by her great-grandson, Lord Wharnfavour for favour: and thus “draws the

cliffe, Lond., 1837, 5 vols. 8vo; 2d and best tender-hearted soul to professions which

edit. also 1837. See also her Letters from she is often upbraided for all her life

| the Levant, edited by J. A. St. John, Lond., after," says your ladyship. But these must

1838, fp. 8vo, and her Works, with Memoirs, be the most ungenerous of men. All I

Lond., 1803, 5 vols. 8vo. would suppose is that pride and triumph

By her exertions inoculation for the small

| pox was introduced into England. Pope is the meaning of the urgency for a declaration which pride and triumph make a man

| quarrelled with, and, of course, abused her. think unnecessary; and perhaps to know “ The letters of Lady Mary Wortley Montagu how far he may go, and be within allowed are not unworthy of being named after those of compass. A woman who is brought to own

Madame de Sévigné. They have much of the her love to the man, must act accordingly

French ease and vivacity, and retain more the

character of agreeable epistolary style than pertowards him ; must be more indulgent to

baps any other letters which have appeared in the him ; inust, in a word, abate of her own English language."-Dr. Hugh BLAIR: Lects, on significance, and add to bis. And have you Rhetoric and Belles-Letters, Lect. xxxvii. never seen a man strut upon the occasion, “A reader need only glance at Lady Mary's and how tame and bashful a woman looks letters to see that she was not less distinguished after she has submitted to make the acknowl

for wit than prone to indulge in sarcasm, in scanedgment? The behaviour of each to the other,

dal, and in a very free range of opinions of all

sorts. ... We have no doubt whatsoever that ore upon it and after it, justines the caution to of the things which drove Lady Mary from Engthe sex, which I would never have a woman land was the enmity she caused all around her by forget, -always to leave to herself the power the license of her tongue and pen. She was always of granting something: yet her denials may writing scandal: a journal full of it was burnt by be so managed as to be more attractive than her family ; her very panegyrics were sometimes her compliance. Women, Lovelace says (and

malicious, or were thought so, in consequence of

her character, as in the instance of the extraordibe pretends to know them), are fond of

| nary verses addressed to Mrs. Murray in connexion ardoors; but there is an end of them when with a trial for a man's life. Pope himself, with all a lover is secure. He can then look about the temptations of his wit and resentment, would

162

LADY MARY WORTLEY MONTAGU.

bardly have written of her as he did had her rep- in the world the most agreeable. Whatovor utation for offence been less a matter of notoriety." ¡ you may now think (now, perhaps, you have -Leigh Hunt: Men, Women, and Books, vol. ii.

some fondness for me), though your love LADY MONTAGU TO E. W. Montagu, Esq.,

should continue in its full force, there are IN PROSPECT OF MARRIAGE.

hours when the most beloved mistress would

be troublesome. People are not forever (nor One part of my character is not so good, is it in human nature that they should be) nor t'other so bad, as you fancy it. Should disposed to be fond ; you would be glad to we ever live together you would be disap- ! find in me the friend and the companion. pointed both ways: you would find an easy To be agreeably the last, it is necessary to equality of temper you do not expect, and a / be gay and entertaining.' thousand faults you do not imagine. You

A perpetual solitude in a place where you think if you married me I should be passion

see nothing to raise your spirits at length ately fond of you one month, and of some wears them out, and conversation insensibly body else the next. Neither would happen.

falls into dull and insipid. When I have no I can esteem, I can be a friend ; but I don't

more to say to you, you will like me no know whether I can love. Expect all that

longer. Ilow dreadful is that view! You in complaisant and easy, but never what is will reflect, for my sake you have abandoned fond, in me.

the conversation of a friend that you liked, As to travelling, 'tis what I should do

and your situation in a country where all with great pleasure, and could easily quit things would have contributed to make your London upon your account; but a retire life pass in (the true volupte) a smooth tranment in the country is not so disagreeable quillity. I shall lose the vivacity which to me as I know a few months would make should entertain you, and you will have it tiresome to you. Where people are tied nothing to recompense you for what you for life'tis their mutual interest not to grow | have lost. Very few people that have setweary of one another. If I had all the per- tled entirely in the country but have grown sonal charms that I want, a face is too slight at length weary of one another. The lady's a foundation for happiness. You would be conversation generally falls into a thousand soon tired of seeing every day the same impertinent effects of idleness ; and the genthing. Where you saw nothing else, you | tleman falls in love with his dogs and his would have leisure to remark all the defects : horses, and out of love with everything else. which would increase in proportion as the I am not now arguing in favour of the town; novelty lessened, which is always a great you have answered ine as to that point. In cbarm. I should have the displeasure of

respect of your health, 'tis the first thing to seeing a coldness, which, though I could not be considered, and I sball never ask you to reasonably blame you for, being involuntary, I do anything injurious to that. But'tis my yet it would render me uneasy; and the opinion, 'tis necessary to be happy that we more, because I know a love may be revived, neither of us think any place more agreeable which absence, inconstancy, or even infi- | than that where we are. delity has extinguished ; but there is no returning from a dégoût given by satiety....

TO THE COUNTESS OF BUTE ON FEMALE TO THE SAME-ON MATRIMONIAL HAPPINESS.

EDUCATION. If we marry, our happiness must consist

LOUVERE, Jan. 28, N. S., 1753. in loving one another: 'tis principally my DEAR CHILD,-You have given me a great concern to think of the most probable method deal of satisfaction by your account of your of making that love eternal. You object eldest daughter. I am particularly pleased against living in London: I am not fond of to hear she is a good arithmetician; it is the it myself, and readily give it up to you, best proof of understanding: the knowledge though I am assured there needs more art of numbers is one of the chief distinctions to keep a fondness alive in solitude, where between us and brutes. . . . Learning, if it generally preys upon itself. There is one she has a real taste for it, will not only make article absolutely necessary-to be ever be | her contented, but happy in it (retirement). loved, one must be ever agreeable. There No entertainment is so cheap as reading, nor is no such thing as being agreeable without any pleasure so lasting. She will not want a thorough good humour, a natural sweet- new fashions, nor regret the loss of expenness of temper enlivened by cheerfulness. sive diversions, or variety of company, if she Whatever natural funds of gaiety one is born can be amused with an author in her closet. with, 'tis necessary to be entertained with To render this amusement complete, she agreeable objects. Any body capable of tast should be permitted to learn the languages. ing pleasure, when they confine themselves I have heard it lamented that boys lose so to one place, should take care 'tis the place many years in mcre learning of words: this

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is no objection to a girl, whose time is not Do not fear this should make her affect the 80 precious: she cannot advance herself in character of Lady - or Lady - , or any profession, and has therefore more hours Mrs. — : those women are ridiculous, not to spare; and as you say her nemory is because they have learning, but because they good, she will be very agreeably employed bave it not. One thinks herself a complete this way. There are two cautions to be historian, after reading Echard's Roman given on this subject: first, not to think her- | History; another a profound philosopher, self learned when she can read Latin, or having got by heart some of Pope's unineven Greek. Languages are more properly telligible essays; and a third an able divine, to be called vehicles of learning than learn- on the strength of Whitefield's serions: ing itself, as may be observed in many thus you hear them screaming politics and schoolmasters, who, though perhaps critics controversy. in grammar, are the most ignorant fellows It is a saying of Thucydides, that ignoupon earth. True knowledge consists in rance is bold and knowledge reserved. Inknowing things, not words. I would no deed it is impossible to be far advanced in further wish her a linguist than to enable it without being more humbled by a convicher to read books in their originals, that are tion of human ignorance than elated by often corrupted, and always injured by trans- learning. At the same time I recommend lations. Two hours' application every morn- books, I neither exclude work nor drawing. ing will bring this about much sooner than I think it is as scandalous for a woman not you can imagine, and she will have leisure to know how to use a needle, as for a man enough besides to run over the English not to know how to use a sword. poetry, which is a more important part of a woman's education than it is generally supposed. Many a young damsel has been ruined by a fine copy of verses which she JOSEPH BUTLER, D.C.L., would have laughed at if she had known it had been stolen from Mr. Waller. ... The

born 1692, Preacher at the Rolls, 1718-1726, second caution to be given her (and which

Clerk of the Closet to Queen Caroline, 1736, is most absolutely necessary), is to conceal

Bishop of Bristol, 1738, Bishop of Durham, whatever learning she attains, with as much

1750, died 1752, will always be rememsolicitude as she would hide crookedness or

bered for his great work The Analogy of lameness: the parade of it can only serve to

Religion, Natural and Revealed, to the Condraw on her the envy, and consequently the

stitution and Course of Nature, to which are most inveterate hatred, of all he and she

added Two Brief Dissertations : 1. On Perfools, which will certainly be at least three

sonal Identity : 2. On the Nature of Virtue.

The first edition of the Analogy was pubparts in four of her acquaintance. The use

lished in 1736. The Works, with an Acof knowledge in our sex, beside the amusement of solitude, is to moderate the pas- |

count by Bishop Halifax, appeared. Oxford, sions, and learn to be contented with a small

1807, 2 vols. 8vo; same, Oxford, 1849, 2 vols. expense, which are the certain effects of a

8vo; Works, New York, 1845, 8vo. The studious life ; and it may be preferable even

Works contain The Analogy and Two Disto that fame which men have engrossed to

sertations, twenty-one Sermons, A Charge, theinselves, and will not suffer us to share.

and Correspondence between Dr. Butler and You will tell me I have not observed this

Dr. (Samuel] Clarke. rule myself; but you are mistaken: it is only "The author to whom I am under the greatest

evitable accident that has given me anv obligations is Bishop Butler, ... The whole of reputation that way. I have always care

this admirable treatise-one of the most remarkfully avoided it, and ever thought it a mis

able that any language can produce-is intended

to show that the principles of moral government fortune. The explanation of this paragraph

taught in the Scriptures are strictly analogous to would occasion à long digression, which I those everywhere exhibited in the government of will not trouble you with, it being my pres the world as seen in natural religion."-DR. FRANent design only to say what I think usefulcis WAYLAND: Moral Phil., p. 5; Intellec, Phil., p. to my granddaughter, which I have much at 338. heart. If she has the same inclination (I

“The most original and profound work extant should say passion) for learning that I was

in any language on the philosophy of religion.”-

SIR JAMES MACKINTOSH : 2d Prelim. Dissert. to born with, history, geography, and philoso Encyc. Brit. phy will furnish her with materials to pass “I have derived greater aid from the views and away cheerfully a longer life than is allotted reasonings of Bishop Butler than I have been able to mortals. I believe there are few heads to find besides in the whole range of our extant capable of making Sir Isaac Newton's cal authorship."-DR. T. CAALMERS : Bridgewater culations, but the result of them is not diffi- Trealise, Prof. cult to be understood by a moderate capacity.! Butler's Sermons also are very valuable.

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REWARDS AND PUNISHMENTS.

selves as miserable as ever we please. And

many do please to make themselves extremely That which makes the question concerning miserable, i.e., to do what they know beforea future life to be of so great importance to hand will render them so. They follow us, is our capacity of happiness and inisery. those ways the fruit of which they know, And that which makes the consideration of by instruction, example, experience, will be it to be of so great importance to us, is the disgrace, and poverty, and sickness, and unsupposition of our happiness or misery here- timely death. This every one observes to be after depending upon our actions here. the general course of things; though it is Without this indeed, curiosity could not but to be allowed we cannot find by experience sometimes bring a subject, in which we may that all our sufferings are owing to our own be so highly interested, to our thoughts; es- follies. pecially upon the mortality of others, or the Why the Author of Nature does not give near prospect of our own. But reasonable his creatures promiscuously such and such men would not take any further thought perceptions without regard to their behaabout hereafter, than what should happen | viour; why he does not make them happy thus occasionally to rise in their minds, if without the instrumentality of their own it were certain that our future interest no actions, and prevent their bringing any sufway depended upon our present behaviour;ferings upon themselves, is another matter. whereas, on the contrary, if there be ground, Perhaps there may be some impossibilities either from analogy or anything else, to | in the nature of things, which we are unacthink it does, then there is reason also for quainted with. Or less happiness, it may the most active thought and solicitude to be, would upon the whole he produced by secure that interest; to behave so as that such a method than is by the present. Or we may escape that misery, and obtain that perhaps divine goodness, with which, if I happiness in another life which we not only inistake not, we make very free in our specsuppose ourselves capable of, but which we ulations, may not be a bare single disposiapprehend also is put in our own power. tion to produce happiness ; but a disposition And whether there be ground for this last to make the good, the faithful, the honest apprehension certainly would deserve to be man happy. most seriously considered, were there no ANALOGY, Chap. II. other proof of a future life and interest than that presumptive one which the fore

CONSCIENCE. going observations amount to.

Now in the present state, all which we There is a principle of reflection in men enjoy, and a great part of what we suffer, by which they distinguish between, approve is put in our own power. For pleasure and and disapprove their own actions. We are pain are the consequences of our actions; 1 plainly constituted such sort of creatures as and we are endued by the Author of our to reflect upon our own nature. The mind nature with capacities for foreseeing these can take a view of what passes within itself, consequences. We find by experience he its propensions, aversions, passions, affecdoes not so much as preserve our lives, ex- tions, as respecting such objects, and in such clusively of our own care and attention to degrees; and of the several actions conseprovide ourselves with, and to make use of, quent thereupon. In this survey it approves that sustenance by which he has appointed of one, disapproves of another, and towards our lives shall be preserved ; and without a third is affected in neither of these ways, which he has appointed they shall not be but is quite indifferent. This principle in preserved at all. And in general we foresee man, by which he approves or disapproves hat the external things which are the objects his heart, temper, and actions, is conscience ; of our various passions can neither be ob for this is the strict sense of the word, though tained nor enjoyed without exerting our- sometimes it is used so as to take in more. selves in such and such manners: but by And that this faculty tends to restrain men thus exerting ourselves we obtain and enjoy from doing mischief to each other, and leads these objects in which our natural good con- | them to do good, is too manifest to need sists; or by this means God gives us the being insisted upon. Thus a parent has the possession and enjoyment of them. I know affection of love to his children: this leads not that we have any one kind or degree of him to take care of, to educate, to make due enjoyment but by the means of our own provision for them; the natural affection actions. And by prudence and care we leads to this: but the reflection that it is may, for the most part, pass our days in his proper business, what belongs to him, tolerable ease and quiet: or, on the contrary, that it is right and commendable so to do; we may, by rashness, ungoverned passion, this added to the affection becomes a much wilfulness, or even by negligence, make our more settled principle, and carries him on

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