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Mr. Norton. This chart presents briefly some facts relating to one or the other provisions in the bill. [Producing another chart.)

PHYSICAL

DISABILITIES AND CASUALTIES

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WORLD WAR

NO % MEN EXAMINED '5991,123 100 MEN ACCEPTED 4650,500 77.6 MEN REJECTED 1340,625 .

224

KILLED AND WOUNDED 248,170

4.1

These figures concern soldiers of the United States, and were oficially issued by the Government. “ Men rejected refers to those rejected for military service because of physical disabilities. Pive times as many men were rejected for physical disabllity as were killed or wounded.

It relates to physical inefficiency or the improvement of the physical welfare of our people.

In the draft there were practically 5,991,000 men examined. Of the number examined, 4,650,000 were accepted for some type of service. A good many of these were accepted only for limited service and could not go overseas, but that many were actually accepted for the Army and Navy.

PHYSICAL INEFFICIENCY

The two following tables give some of the outstanding facts resulting from the physical examinations of the draft: TABLE I.Rejections for physical disabilities and casualties.

[United States Army, World War)

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These figures, furnished by The Adjutant General, September, 1922, are described as “the most reliable yet compiled.

Table II.--Physical rejections, by States, December 15, 1917, to September 11, 1918

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United States.
Alabama.
Arizona.
Arkansas.
California
Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware..
District of Columbia
Florida.
Georgia.
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana.
Iowa.
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana.
Maine..
Maryland.
Massachusetts.
Michigan..
Minnesota.
Mississippi.
Missouri
Montana.
Nebraska.
Nevada.
New Hampshire.
New Jersey
New Mexico.
New York.
North Carolina.
North Dakota.
Ohio..
Oklahoma.
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island.
South Carolina.
South Dakota.
Tennessee
Texas
Utah
Vermont
Virginia..
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin.
Wyoming-

3, 208, 446

69, 284

8, 979 58, 928 67, 772 30, 087 38, 631

7, 003 12, 538 32, 780 84, 191 15, 871 225, 127 74, 356 78, 272 48, 669 75, 024 66, 142 22, 646 38, 392 108, 356 115, 412 81, 862 55, 615 115, 030 31, 547 41, 646

2 949, 419

15, 567

4, 038 12, 368 26, 637 12, 318 15, 910 2, 404 3, 469 8, 121 22, 664

4, 621 61, 620 20, 545 17, 908 10, 521 16, 668 15, 571

22. 47 44. 97 20.98 39. 30 40. 94 41. 18 34. 33 27. 68 24. 77 26. 92 29. 11 27. 37 27. 63 22. 87 21. 62 22.22 23. 54 34. 81 31. 65 42. 58 38. 72 24. 02 22. 01 27. 01 26. 60 21.82 30.87 96.43 33. 50 22. 41 39. 05 26. 86 22. 48 27. 71 17. 18 30. 90 30. 70 46. 32

3, 482 12, 258 93, 964

11,983 315, 536 75, 498 25, 151 166, 177

65, 374 23, 996 246, 884 15, 395 40, 197 25, 806 70, 367 131, 586 13, 844 10, 761 68, 177 37, 581 51, 473 90, 517

7,881 12, 155 46, 140 44, 686 19, 663 12, 239 31, 081 8, 388 9, 091 1, 075 4, 465 31, 475

2,687 123, 225 20, 283

5, 653 46, 035 11, 229

7, 414 75, 783

7, 131 12, 106

6,088 19, 048 29, 724 4,092 4, 705 19, 031 16, 781 11, 426 25, 938 1, 751

23. 59 27.07 22. 59 29. 55 43. 72 27. 92 44. 65 22. 19 28. 65 21, 15

8, 279

1 Second Report of the Provost Marshal General to the Secretary of War, p. 417.

: The majority of these, 16.25 per cent of those examined,"possessed physical defects of such degree as to prevent them from rendering military service of any kind."

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There were of that number 1,340,000, or 22 per cent, who were rejected as being liabilities to the Army in any capacity: that is, they were sent back home as of no value to a fighting army. Some of these 4,650,000 were only of limited value (indicating on chart], but these 1,340,000 were of no value according to the physicians.

Mr. Robson. Where are the exemptions! A great many were accepted?

Mr. Norton. They are outside of this group, they were not examined at all. They were on the list to be examined if the war continued, but they were never actually examined; 6,000,000 were. These figures show the relationship between rejections for physical inefficiency and the killed and wounded. In other words, physical inefficiency was a much more effective fighter against the United States than all the German shells and mustard

Mr. DougHTON. There were 240,170 killed and wounded ?
Mr. NORTON. Yes, sir.
Mr. DOUGHTON. How many were killed ?

Mr. Norton. I have not the figures in my head. I think forty or fifty thousand.

Mr. Doughton. I understood about 50,000 were killed.

Mr. Norton. The point is that many of our men are not fitted for peace as well as war; these figures show that in a striking manner.

Mr. Doughton. Now, we are discussing an educational side. You say the men were rejected. They were rejected for what? ?

Mr. Norton. For physical inefficiency, physical disability. Did I answer your question?

Mr. HASTINGS. You see this bill provides for physical education.

Mr. DOUGHTON. I am asking whether or not this has anything to do with literacy or illiteracy.

Mr. NORTON. No; it has nothing to do with illiteracy. It concerns physical fitness. One of the sections of the bill would deal with physical efficiency--their proper physical education. Is education submerged?-Some appropriations for the Department of the Interior,

1923 Bureau of Pensions

$254, 246, 362. 67 Reclamation Service.

14, 800, 021. 01 Construction and maintenance of Alaska railroad.

4, 510, 210. 00 Protection and survey of public lands and timber

1, 175, 000. 00 Investigating mine accidents.

378, 000. 00 Support of Indians in Arizona

185, 000. 00 Bureau of Education ...

161, 990. 00 These figures are from the Treasury Department's Digest of Appropriations, 1923. The figures given for the Bureau of Education do not include appropriations made for "education of natives in Alaska," nor similar outside work. It also does not include a sum of approximately $50,000 for printing and supplies, which is available, but not specifically appropriated for bureau use.

Now, this chart has to do with the position of the Bureau of Education, at the present time submerged in one of our very important departments.

The contention of school people throughout the country is that as long as you have these tremendous interests, represented by hundreds of millions of dollars: The Bureau of Pensions, with a budget of $250,000,000 annually; the Reclamation Service, with a budget of $14,000,000; the construction and maintenance of Alaska road, $4,000,000, and these other appropriations under the Interior De

partment; these enormous amounts are bound to receive the attention of the Secretary of the Interior. The Bureau of Education with $161,000, a relatively insignificant amount, is unlikely to receive very much attention from the Secretary of the Department of the Interior.

Look at the report of any Secretary of the Interior and you will find he devotes five or six lines to education in his report. The Bureau of Education is submerged and has been throughout its history in the Department of the Interior.

Our belief is that not until you take education out of its submerged position and make it a department will it receive the recognition that it deserves. Those are some of the facts that stand out.

This last table or chart summarizes some of the outstanding facts pertinent to the educational situation in this country.

They might be called national educational liabilities: I speak of some of the outstanding facts.

We had 1,340,000 men rejected as unfit for military service. If they are unfit for military service they are probably unfit for the greatest efficiency in peace-time service.

A committee appointed by Herbert Hoover, after a very careful investigation by some of the greatest authorities in the country, estimated recently $1,800,000,000 as the yearly economic loss in the working population alone from preventable disease and death. These first two facts go together [indicating). At the same time they stated that if we went at this problem thoroughly we could take care of it and have a billion dollars surplus. One of the provisions of the bill is a forward-looking step in the direction of bringing up the physical condition of the people of the United States.

We have 5,000,000 confessed illiterates, with no schooling whatever. I showed the figures on that a little while ago. One of the provisions of the bill would encourage an attack of that problem directly wherever it exists. That (indicating] is admittedly a conservative estimate, nearly a billion dollars is lost each year; we are that much poorer each year, due to the fact that people can not read and write. That was an estimate made by former Secretary Lane.

Mr. Robsion. How do you get that now?

Mr. NORTON. I believe he used some such method as this: He inquired among concerns as to the value of a man's labor, and with particular reference to his literacy, and then he arrived at a certain figure. I do not remember all the details. I believe it is given in one of his reports, though. Then he multiplied that by the number of illiterates, as given by the census, and he arrived at some such figure as this--that we would be $825,000,000 better off economically each year if we had no illiteracy.

Mr. Robsion. But what about having a supply of labor anyway, and would not that create more fellows for jobs, should not that be taken into consideration too?

Mr. Norton. Well, I believe you will always get more work done, more products and more commodities produced from an intelligent individual, one who is able to read and write.

Mr. Robsion. But the trouble is you can not count it all being a loss because Congress is now very much concerned with the question of overproduction along certain lines, trying to find a market for goods.

NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL

LIABILITIES

1340,625 MEN REJECTED AS

UNFIT FOR MILITARY

SERVICE 1800,000,000 YEARLY ECONOMIC LOSS FROM PREVENTABLE DISEASES

AND DEATH 5000,000 CONFESSED LLITERATES 825,000,000 YEARLY ECONOMIC

LOSS DUE TO LLITERACY 1060,858 CHILD WORKERS

BETWEEN THE AGE OF IOANDI5 1,437,000 CHILDREN BETWEEN

THE AGES OF 7 AND 13 NOT
ATTENDING ANY KIND OF
EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION”

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