Mr. Anderson.

Mr. Calverto
Mr. Farquhar.

Mr. Lushington.
Mr. Scott Russell.

Mr. Geach.
Mr. Fuller.

His Royal Highness Prince ALBERT.

The King of PORTUGAL.
The Royal Family, His Royal Highness the Duke of Oporto, and their

respective suites.
The Archbishop of Canterbury.

The Cabinet Ministers.
The Foreign Ambassadors and the Foreign Ministers.


Come the three corners of the world in arms,
And we shail shock them : nought shall make us rue,
If England to itself do rest but true.-Shakspeare.

BRITISH PROPERTY. (Copy of a despatch from the Foreign Office, in answer to an application made by the British Consul at Riga.]

Foreign Office, Feb. 16, 1854. The Earl of Clarendon has had under his consideration your despatch of the 26th ult., enclosing the copy of a letter from of Riga, requesting to be informed “what respect would be paid by British cruisers, in the event of war, to bona fide British property, the produce of Russia, if shipped on board neutral vessels." I am to acquaint you, in reply, that property of the description in question—the produce of Russia, and exported therefrom by and on account of a British merchant domiciled and trading there--although purchased before the war, and exported to England, would not be respected by Her Majesty's cruisers, unless in pursuance of a licence, or some special instructions from Her Majesty to the officers of her navy. By the law and practice of nations, a belligerent has a right to consider as enemies all persons who reside in a hostile country, or who maintain commercial establishments therein; whether these people be by birth neutral, allies, enemies, or fellow-subjects, the property of such persons exported from such countries is therefore res hostium, and, as such, lawful prize of war; such property will be considered as a prize, although its owner is a native-born subject of the captor's country, and although it may be in transition to that country; and its being laid on board a neutral ship will not protect the property. You will therefore inform whom it may concern that, in the event of war, the property will not be protected by the consular certificate, or by any other document, but will be liable to capture and condemnation as prize.

PROTECTION FROM RUSSIAN AGGRESSION. (Extract of a letter addressed to the British Diplomatic and Consular Agents.]

Foreign Office, Feb. 23, 1854. For these reasons Her Majesty's government have agreed with that of his Majesty the Emperor of the French to instruct their civil and naval authorities in foreign parts to consider their respective subjects as having an equal claim




to protection against Russian hostility; and for this purpose, either singly or in conjunction with each other, to act indifferently for the support and defence of British and French interests. It may be that, in a given locality, one only of the powers is represented by a civil functionary, or by a naval force; but in such a case the influence and the power of that one must be exerted as zealously and efficiently for the protection of the subjects and interests of the other as if those subjects and interests were its own.

I have, accordingly, to instruct you, sir, to act in conformity with this principle. You will consider it your duty to protect, as far as possible, against the consequence of the hostilities in which England and France may shortly be engaged with Russia, the subjects and interests of France equally with those of England; and you will make known without reserve to the French civil and naval authorities with whom you may have means of communication, any dangers to which the interests of either country may be exposed, or any opportunities with which you may become acquainted of inflicting injury on the common enemy.

Instructions to the same effect will be sent by the government of France to its civil and naval authorities in foreign parts, and Her Majesty's government concur with that of France in anticipating the most favourable results from this decided manifestation of the intimate union which prevails between them, and which it is their earnest desire should influence their agents in all parts of the world at a moment when they are about to engage in a contest with the empire of Russia for an object of such paramount interest to Europe as the inaintenance of the Turkish empire.

I am, &c.,



Office of Committee of Privy Council for Trade,

Whitehall, March 14, 1854. GENTLEMEN, – In reply to your letter of the 24th of February, requesting to be informed whether, in the event of war between this country and Russia, Russian goods imported from neutral ports would be considered contraband, or would be admissible into England ?

I am directed by the Lords of the Committee of Privy Council for Trade to inform you that, in the event of war, every indirect attempt to carry on trade with the enemy's country will be illegal; but, on the other hand, bonâ fide trade, not subject to the objections above stated, will not become illegal merely because the articles which form the subject matter of that trade were ori. ginally produced in an enemy's country.

I am, Gentlemen, your obedient servant,

J. EMERSON TENNENT. Messrs. Martin, Levin, and Adler.

Office of Committee of Privy Council for Trade,

Whitehall, March 16, 1854. GENTLEMEN,„In reply to the inquiry contained in your letter of the 15th inst., whether, in the event of war being declared between this country and Russia, it will be allowable to import Russian produce, the property of British or neutral subjects, from neutral ports, I am directed by the Lords of the Committee of Privy Council for Trade, to refer you to the general principle laid down in my letter of the 14th, and to repeat that, in the case of articles originally produced in Russia, but since purchased from neutrals at a neutral port, and in the ordinary course of trade with such port, by British merchants, the fact of their having been originally produced in Russia will be immaterial.

I am, gentlemen, your obedient servant,

J. EMERSON TENNENT. Messrs. Martin, Levin, and Adler.



The reputation of Russian merchants to Lord Clarendon yesterday (March 20, 1854] consisted of Messrs. Weguelin, Brandt, Morgan, Mitchell, Tooke, Hill, Robinsou, and Hodgson. In answer to their inquiries, his lordship stated that the government are disposed to respect the persons and property of all Russian subjects residing as merchants in this country to the full extent promised by the Emperor of Russia towards British subjects, and that all necessary measures will be adopted to enable them to remain unmolested in the quiet prosecution of their business. With regard to licenses for special shipments during the war, it was stated that each case must be considered on its merits, but that the government will do all in their power, after concert with their naval allies, to protect the bona fide property of British subjects in Russia Finally, on the question as to the trade of neutral ports, his Lordship said that the desire is to avoid throwing any special obstacles in its way, and that certificates of origin will not be demanded. Produce shipped from the ports of Prussia or any other friendly or neutral country will consequently be considered prima facie as friendly cargo.Times.


Foreign Office, March 25, 1854. SIR, -I am directed by the Earl of Clarendon to state to you, that since his lordship had the pleasure of seeing, on the 20th instant, the deputation of merchants convected with the trade with Russia, his lordship bas further considered the question put to him by the deputation, whether Russian produce brought over the frontier by land to Prussian ports, and shipped thence by British or neutral vessels, will be subject to seizure by Her Majesty's cruisers, and to subsequent confiscation in the High Court of Adiniralty.

Lord Clarendon conceives that the question will turn upon the true ownership of, or the interest or risk in, and the destination of, the property which may be seized or captured ; and that neither the place of its origin nor the manner of its conveyance to the port whence it was shipped will be decisive, or even in most cases of any real importance.

Such property, if shipped at neutral risk, or after it has become bona fide neutral property, will not be liable to condemnation, whatever may be its destination; if it should still remain enemy's property, notwithstanding it is shipped from a neutral port, and in a neutral ship, it will be condemned, whatever may be its destination; if it be British property, or shipped at British risk, or on British account, it will be condemned, if it is proved to be really engaged in a trade with the enemy, but not otherwise. The place of its origin will be immaterial, and if there has been a bona fide and complete transfer of ownership to a neutral (as by purchase in the neutral market), the goods will not be liable to condemnation, notwithstanding they may have come to that neutral market from the enemy's country, either overland or by sea.

Lord Clarendon has, however, to observe that circumstances of reasonable suspicion will justify capture, although release and not condemnation may follow; and that ships with cargoes of Russian produce may not improbably be considered, under certain circumstances, as liable to capture, even though not liable to condemnation. I am, sir, your most obedient humble servant,


GENERAL REPRISALS AGAINST RUSSIA. At the Court at Buckingham Palace, March 29, 1854. Present, the Queen's

Most Excellent Majesty in council. Her Majesty having determined to afford active assistance to her ally, His Highness the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, for the protection of his dominions against the encroachments and unprovoked aggression of His Imperial WAR WITH RUSSIA.

Majesty, the Emperor of all the Russias, Her Majesty, therefore, is pleased
to order that general reprisals be granted against the ships and goods of the
Emperor of all the Russias, and of his subjects or others inhabiting within
any of his countries, territories, or dominions, so that Her Majesty's fleets and
ships shall and may lawfully seize all ships and goods belonging to the
Emperor of all the Russias, or his subjects, or others inhabiting within any
of his countries, territories, or dominions, and bring the same to judgment in
Buch Courts of Admiralty within Her Majesty's dominions, possessions, or
colonies, as shall be duly commissionated to take cognizance thereof. And to
that end Her Majesty's Advocate-General, with the Advocate of Her Majesty
in her office of Admiralty, are forthwith to prepare the draft of a commission,
and present the same to Her Majesty at this board, authorizing the commis-
sioners for executing the office of Lord High Admiral to will and require the
High Court of Admiralty of England, and the Lieutenant and Judge of the
said Court, his Surrogate or Surrogates, as also the several Courts of Admiralty
within Her Majesty's dominions, which shall be duly commissionated to take
cognizance of, and judicially proceed upon, all and all manner of captures,
seizures, prizes, and reprisals of all ships, and goods, that are or shall be taken,
and to hear and determine the same; and, according to the course of admiralty
and the law of nations, to adjudge and condemn all such ships and goods as
shall belong to the Emperor of all the Russias or his subjects, or to any others
inhabiting within any of his countries, territories, or dominions : and they are
likewise to prepare and lay before Her Majesty, at this Board, a draft of such
instructions as may be proper to be sent to the said several Courts of Admiralty
in Her Majesty's dominions, possessions, and colonies, for their guidance
From the Court at Buckingham Palace, March 29, 1854.











DECLARATION AS TO NEUTRALS. Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, having been compelled to take up arms in support of an ally, is desirous of rendering the war as little onerous as possible to the powers with whom she remains at peace.

To preserve the commerce of neutrals from all unnecessary obstruction, Her Majesty is willing, for the present, to wave a part of the belligerent rights appertaining to her by the law of nations.

It is impossible for Her Majesty to forego the exercise of her right of seizing articles contraband of war, and of preventing neutrals from bearing the enemy's


despatches, and she must maintain the right of a belligerent to prevent neutrals from breaking any effective blockade which may be established with an adequate force against the enemy's forts, harbours, or coasts.

But Her Majesty will wave the right of seizing enemy's property laden on board a neutral vessel, unless it be contraband of war.

It is not Her Majesty's intention to claim the confiscation of neutral property, not being contraband of war, found on board enemy's ships, and Her Majesty further declares that, being anxious to lessen, as much as possible, the evils of war, and to restrict its operations to the regularly organized forces of the country, it is not her present intention to issue letters of marque for the commissioning of privateers.

Westminster, March 28, 1854.



By 0. C., March 29, 1854, that no ships belonging to any of Her Majesty's subjects, be permitted to enter and clear out for any of the ports of Russia, until further order; and Her Majesty is further pleased to order, that a general embargo or stop be made of all Russian ships whatsoever, now within or which shall hereafter come into any of the ports, harbours, or roads, within any of Her Majesty's dominions, together with all persons and effects on board the said ships : provided that nothing herein shall extend to any ships specified or comprised in a certain order of Her Majesty in council, dated this March 29, for exempting from capture or detention Russian vessels under special circumstances; and Her Majesty is pleased further to order that the utmost care be taken for the preservation of every part of the cargoes on board any of the ships, so that no damage or embezzlement whatever be sustained.



At the Court at Buckingham Palace, March 29, 1854. Present, the Queen's

Most Excellent Majesty in Council. Her Majesty, being compelled to declare war against His Imperial Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, and being desirous to lessen as much as possible the evils thereof, is pleased to order that Russian merchant vessels, in any ports within Her Majesty's dominions, shall be allowed until May 10 next, six weeks from the date hereof, for loading their cargoes and departing from such ports ; and that such Russian merchant vessels, if met at sea by any of Her Majesty's ships, shall be permitted to continue their voyage if, on examimation of their papers, it appear that their cargoes were taken on board before the expiration of the above term. Provided, that nothing herein shall extend to Russian vessels having on board any officer in the military or naval service of the enemy, or any article prohibited or contraband of war, or any despatch of or to the Russian government. And it is hereby further ordered by Her Majesty, that


Russian merchant vessel which, prior to the date of this order, shall have sailed from any foreign port bound for any port in Her Majesty's dominions, shall be permitted

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