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Besides this obscurity, whoever wishes to acquire an elegant style, will be careful to avoid a too frequent repetition of the same word, ifit does not tend to give greater weight or perspicuity to the subject. The same syllable too closely and frequently repeated, cannot but be harsh to the ears, and therefore inelegant. Several words following each other with the same termination, should be carefully avoided. To this negligence must be referred a too great concourse or clashing of the same letter, which either must produce a disagreeable 'harshness in the sound, if a repetition of the same, consonants, as, rex Xerxes, or, if they are vowels, must cause such a hiatus as will produce some difficulty in pronouncing, as, magno operto' ore. Where it is possible to give a strict attention to the smooth concourse of the words, without endangering the force of the idea, when the preceding word terminates with a consonant, the next should begin with a vowel, and vice versâ. There are a few words, however, the succession of which is not arbitrary, but which has been fixed by the unvaried usage of • the ancients. Ac is not found before a, vowel, but always before a consonant: we do not say ac ego, but atque ego ; seldom neque autem, but neque verò.—It will also be very necessary to guard against poetical endings of a prose sentence, which, though not very culpable or disagreeable in themselves, yet will not fail to displease, as they carry an appearance of affectation and studied conceit. This fault, indeed, was much sooner observed by the ancients, who are supposed, in their common conversation, to have pronounced the language more according to metre, than it can be by us, who pronounce many syllables different from their quantity.
Every kind of ambiguity should also be carefully avoided, as, for instance, in the case of adjectives, where multorum, if used instead of multarum rerum, might be mistaken for the masculine gender.
The word vir is used when praise or excellence is intended; never when blame is expressed: Homo is used indiscriminately.
1. I am very intimate with Fabius, that most excellent and learned man. (To be intimate with ; familiariter uti.) 2. He put them in mind, that as Darius had a greater number of persons (majorem turbam hominum\, sohe had a greater number of mem.
The same distinction is generally made between the pronouns ille and iste; ille denoting praise, and iste blame or contempt.
1. Behold that liberty, which you have so ardently desired. 2. These things (cruelty and insolence) are to be áttributed to arms and victory, not to Cæsar.
Speaking of an obscure or contemptible person, the Latins generally make use of nescio quis for quidam. Though they also use nescio quid, not merely to vilify, but to magnify any thing.
1. What have you to dread, when you are defending your cause against some accuser, whose eloquence no one ever fearéd?
2. But then I affirm, that when to a good and excellent natural disposition the embellishments of learning (ratio doctrinæ) aro added, there results a something great and extraordinary (præclarum ac sin
Quispiam, quisquam, ullus and unquam are elegantly used after negatives, comparatives, after vir, and si, when there is any doubt, after an interrogation or prohibition, and the prcposition sine. Observe that quisquam, quispiam and ullus are thus distinguished from quivis and quilibet; the former are generally used in a negative or interrogative sense, the latter always in the affirmative.
1. Quispiam : Is there any person in the world (alicubi) of whom you think better?_ , 2. Quisquam : You deny that the tyrant has been more cruel to Syracuse, tham any ome of his predecessors (inter crudelissimos unquam antea fuit.) 3. ßet no man's offence make you lose your greatness of soul. 4. They themselves had delivered many great men, withvut the suspiciom of any ome. 5. Ullus : Scärcely have you left the other orators (with their leave let me speak it) anj merit that they can reap. Ullus should always be used instead of omnis after the preposition sine ; as, Without all doubt. 6. Unquam : Darius having in his flight drunk water, which was muddy, ând defiled with dead bodies, said that he had never drunk with greatér pleasure, . - (Observe, that, for the sake of brevity, the verb dico followed by non is hot inelegantly changed into the verb nego, as, negavi me esse,fac&urum, for dixi me non É esse).
Ne quis is elegantly used for ut nemo.
1. They discharged him from his office, that mo one should after wards commit the same crime with impunity. - * _
Nec quidquam is more elegantly said than et nihil.
./lnd physicians, generals and orators, although they understand perfectly the principles of their science (quamvis artis præcepta perceperint), can effect nothing very great or meritorious without experience or practice.
Ipse is often used for the adjective totus or integer, in defining numbers or space of time with great exactness.
1. I have been absent (desideror) three whole days.
2. I spent three vcho'e months in visiting and exploring a country, which some writers have described in so lively (ad vivum depinxerunt) a. Imman11er. - • .
The pronoun is is most frequently used for talis, followed by ut or qui ; as, non is sum quem contemnas. i*
1. I am not such a maii, that I should utter a falsehood.
2. I have seem such a monster, that if I should see another as terrible, I should die with horror. - - .
3. We must use such liberality as may profit friends, and hur.
Imo ome. 4. Many were condemned of treason ; but such.was the king's clem
ency, that only three were executed (ultimo supplicio affecti fuerunt). .
Idem is most frequently used for item, porro, etiam, simul, and tum-tum; as, quod idem maestitiam reprehendit, idem jocum.
1. For we f e that there have been , those, who at the same time could speak yith dignity and elegance (ornatè ac graviter), at the same timne with artful evasion and subtilty.
2. He used that kind of food which was most sweet and wholesome, and at the same time most easy to digest (ad concoquendum).
Instead of rendering the English word all by omnis, it will sometimes be necessary to use omninò, sometimes nullus non, or quisque, and sometimes the relative qui, quæ, quod.
1. There were in all but two ways, by which they could possibl go out of their country ; one througb the Sequani, harrow and Ä cult; the other through our province, much easier and readier (expeditiusque).
and hospitälity. 3. Because the townsmen offered so little money to redeem the town, they began to demolish all the noblest buildings (splendidissima
2. The queen most bountifully entertained him with all courtesy
For the English all of them, all of whom, the best Latin writers use illi omnes, qui omnes.
The English word every may also be variously rendered by singuli, quisque, when it implies each ; sometimes by singuli repeated ; by alius, alius, when it implies a diversity; each in their separate cases ; as, Trahit sua quemque voluptas; singulis legionibus singulos legatos. Every, before a word of time, or used distributively, may likewise be
- :-:-, - rendered by in, with an accusative case.
1. The strength of all sciences, like the old man's fagot, consists mot in every sing'e stick (in singulis quibusque virgultis), but in all of them united in the band. 2. To every thing there is a season, and it is the duty of every mam touse histimie profitably tohimseirahdothérs (utiliter et sibi et aliis uti). 3. In every corner of the court, there was ti court (plural). 4. He changes his waverimg mind every hour (un horas). 5. No one gave less tham eighteen bushels every acre,
The word some, also, when repeated, or followed by the word other, is rendered by alius alius, or hic and ille.
1. Of the things objected to him, some, he acknowledged, some he extenuated, somne he excused by reason of human frailty, and the greater part he flatly demied.
2. Certainly the inclination of princes to some mem, and their aversion to others, may seem fatal.
3. Some think one thing, some amother.
One another is also rendered by hic and ille, by alter alter, alius alius, and quisque : as, one man delights in one style of speaking, another in another : alius alio dicendi genere gaudet.
1. It was agreed, that there should be free commerce (liberum inde invicem commercium fore), till the one primce should denounce war against the other.
2. There is one kind of deportment due to a father, and another to w son; ome to our own countrymam, and another to a stranger; one to a friend or benefactor, and another to an enemy who has injured us.
Instead of is expressed in Latin :
Ist. Before a substantive, by pro with an ablative, loco or vice with a genitive.
1. Cato alone is to me instead, qf a humdred.
2. Men who read Lucilius instead qf Horace, and Lucretius instead qf Virgil. , •
3. You have so endeared yourself to me by your kindness, that you shall always be to me instead qf a brother.
When a succession or change of place is expressed, inctead qf is rendered by in locum. - 1. When men are about to engage in battle, how could they shake off the fear of so many toils and pains, and even of death itself, if, instead qf them, piety and fortitude, and the image of honour, was not
present to their minds ? 2. He sent me instead af another.
2dly, before a verb,
If the subject is a thing that ought to be done, instead of is expressed by cùm with the subjunctive of debeo ; as,
Instead qf studying, he plays : Ludit cùm studere deberet. - -
1. Instead qf showing his £titudo for the favours he has received,
he wholly neglects his friends. • - 2. Instead qf observing a strict discipline, the soldiers of the enem
are now dispersed over the whole country (in agris dispalati vagantur).
If the subject is a thing that might be done, instead of is expressed by cùm with the subjunctive of possum ; as, Instead of playjag, he studies : Studet cùm ludere posset.
1. Instead qf be%aking himselfto rest, after the fatigues and labours ofthe day, he "sed tQ retire into his closet, where fie generally devoted several hours of the night to study and meditation.
2. Instead of sheltering himself under a tree, he encounters (nudum caput oljicit) the whole fury of the storm.