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1. Such is thy hardmess of heart, the divine judgments will at la*t fall upon thy guilty head.
2. §.j, also, as well as other things, spring from the lowest beginnings : afterwards such as their own bravery and the gods assist get themselves great power and a great name. - *
3. Each person holds an inward and secret conversation with his own heart, and such us it highly concerns him to regulate properly.
And what deserves to be imitated, as being particularly elegant, is the use of qualis, without being preceded by talis ; as, ! You are blessed with such a child, that, if I had such a one, I should greatly rejoice : - - Felix es puero, qualis, si mihi esset, magnoperè gauderem. Especially as the senate and people of Rome had them such a leader, thut, had they now his fellow (qualis si nunc esset), the same fate
would overtake ihee, which then befell them. J. -
Quid mirum homines mori, quos sciamus mortales esse ? Quos used for cùm eos.
1. How is it possible $ should converse on the subject ofliterature, since you never paid the least attention to it ? 2. And certainly that conduct of mine is entitled to the highest commendation, in that I was unwilling that my fellow citizens should be exposed to a band of armed ruffians. 3. They rated and blamed the Belgæ, for haring surrendered themselves to the people of Rome, and abandoned the bravery of their progenitors (patriam virtutem projecissent). , • •
The relative qui, quæ, quod, is elegantly used after idem, instead of ac or cum ; as, - .
Nor had he the same master as his father : Nec eodem magistro, quo pater, usus est.
1. The wise mam is not confined withim the same bounds with the rest of the world. No age, no time, no place, limits his thoughts, but he pel1etrates and passes beyond them all. 2. At the same time vith the Aedui, the Ambarri also acquaint
Cæsar, that, their country bcing depopulateâ, they cannot easily keep
off the violence of the enemy from their towns. 3. This nation is not so wärlike as the neighbouring states; and it
does not make use of the same weapons in war as other nations.
Qui, quæ, quod, is also elegantly used for et is, et ego, et • tu, &c., for is verò, tu verò, &c., in the beginning of a sentence, or a member of a sentence, when it may be easily referred to what goes before ; as, , ' It happened in my absence, and had I been present: Me absente accidit, qui si adfuisscm ; for et ego, si, or si verò, &e. - 1. You have always given me wholesome advice ; and if I had always followed it, I should have been happy (eae felicissimis fuissem). 3. A friend was then at my house, and he told me that he feared it would not succeed (ut succederet.) (Vereor ne fiat expresses what we wish not to happen ; rereor ut fiat, what we wish to happen, but are afraid it may not.) . 3. I asked hiim this question ; and when 'he did not answer, I refused to do it.
Qui, quæ, quod, may also be used for quia, nam ego, tu, ' is, &c., when it is clear, from the context, that though the causal conjunction is not inserted, yet it may be easily inferred from the sense ; as, - * • You are truly reprehensible, for, when you stand in need of the friendship of all, you injure all : , * Verè reprehensione dignus es, qui, cùm omnium amicitiâ indigeas, omnibus noces ; for nam cùm tu omnium, &c. 1. For certainly it is not my part, since, as you are used to wonder I apply generally so much inidustry in writing, to commit myself so far as to appear to have been negligent in it, especially as thát would be the crime, not only of negligenc^, but also of ingratitude. 2. It was not the part of that general, since he knew that he was in the midst of enemies, to suffer his soldiers to go out of the camp unarmed, and to straggle about the fields.
Qui, quae, quod, is also often used for cùm in a narration.
1. Cæsar, knowing that the enemy would immediately abandom their camp, advanced with his forces against them.
2. The man, being of some authority, of a grave demeanour, advanced in years, and a father too, was struck dumb with astonishment at the barefaced proposal of this shameless man (obstupuit hominis inprobi dicto).
Thè relative qui, quae, quod, is often used for a substantive, especially after the verbs sum and habeo, when the sense seems to demand such a variation ; as, I have a request to make to you : Est quod te rogem. 1. If thou bring thy gifts to the altar, and there rememberest that thy brother hath aught against thee, (that is, a complaint, tlat qf vchich he may complain,) leave there thy gift before the altar, and thy way ; first be reconciled to thy bròther, and them come and offer thy gift. 2. I have an accusation against thee, that thou hast deserted thy first love. - - - -
Qui, quae, quod, may, in some instances, be used for the English particle qfter ; as, –
The fourth year qfter he had come : Quarto quo venerat cum mo. •^ . -
It must be observed, that though the English wery often omits the relative, yet the ellipsis must always be supplied in Latin.
1. The man I sauo yesterday told me of your disaster.
2. Go into the villáge over against you (qui vobis e regione est), aná bring away all the provisions you cum collect, that wë may set sail again immediately. ;
As it is sometimes difficult to determine, when an accusative with the infinitive is to be used, after the English conjunction that, and when it is better to turn that into quòd or , ut with a nominative followed by an indicative or subjunctive, it will be proper to attend to these few observations.
Ut is always used, and never the accusative with the in-* finitive, after ita, sic, talis, or is for talis, tantus, adeò; after verbs of causing or effecting, persuading, impelling, exhorting, advising, compelling, entreating, beseeching, decreeing,
commanding, except jubeo ; and after verbs of telling, writing, and ar nouncing, when they, carry with them the force of a command ; and also after accidit, fit, contingit.
1. He persuaded me to write.
2. Ibeseech you to come.
3. I happened to see you.
4. He comm^ nded me to come.
5. Your neigi,bour is plunged into such profligacy and luxury, that words cannot describe his desperate condition.
But let it be observed, that when moneo denotes information, and' not advice, it is always joined with the infinitive ; as, - He apprized him by a trusty messenger, that it was in ' agitation to break down the bridge. In the same manner persuadeo, though generally followed by ut, when it signifies to convince, is always followed by an infinitive ; as, ' I wish you thoroughly to convince yourself, that no one is dearer to me. Observe also, that the articles of every agreement, or condition of a bargain, are expressed by ut. Afier verbs denoting a doubt or opinion, the Latins elegantly use fore or futurum esse, followed by ut or qui, with the subjunctive, instead of the future of the infinitive; as, I doubt not that there will be many who...... Non dubito fore plerosque, qui.....
1. I hope that he will return into your favour. 2. 1 do not doubt that many will ihink this mode of writing trifling and insignificant, and altogether unworthy of the characterSofthosé great personages. 3. I never thought that a power, which seemed so firmly established, would so soom fall to the ground (tam citò in ruinam præcipitaretur) This form seems to have been originally made use ofin verbs which wanted a supine, and consequently a future of the infinitive, and to have been afterwards adopted more universally on account of the elegance of the variation.
After the verbs to will, to wish, to desire, to suffer, and after æquum est, oportet, necesse est, sequitur, either ut or the accusative with the infinitive may be used indifferently.
1. I desired that my father should write.
2. A mam must die.
3. It is right this should be done.
4. Hence it folloncs, that no man can make a great progress in literature without genius.
Actives should be changed into passives, or quòd and ut should, if possible, be used where two accusatives with an infinitive might create an ambiguity, which of the two was the case of the infinitive; as, patrem te amare dicunt. Here it is doubtful, whether you love the , father, or the father you. We should therefore say, either patrem a te amari, or a patre te amari. •
Quòd may be used when it implies the cause or- reason of what goes before, when it might easily be changed into ' quia; and after verbs of certain affections, as of rejoicing, grieving, &c., quòd may be safely used, as well as the accusative with the infinitive ; as, - I am glad that you are returned safe. Quòd redieris incolumis, or te rediisse incolumem gaudeo. 1. After the troubles of mind, and the pains you have endured, I cannot but rejoice that you are so well. ' (Quòd, here implying the cause or reason that I rejoice, may be equally used, or the accusative with the infinitive.) 2. I have received letters from home, and am overwhelmed with the deepest sorrow, that my father is so ill (quòd in morbo sit pater).