course of France, and of the Duke of Lorraine, and of the policy of the Spaniard in entertaining that Duke in his service; by means whereof the country where the Duke's soldiers were quartered was better satisfied than with the Spanish forces, so that there was no tax levied for them, only they took free quarter, and sometimes a contribution upon the receiving of a new officer. And Woolfeldt said, that whereas all other Princes give wages to their officers and soldiers, the Duke gives no pay; but when he makes an officer, the officer pays money to the Duke for his commission; and that he knew a captain of horse who gave a thousand crowns for his commission, which the captain afterwards raised upon the country, and the Duke connived at it. He told how he was employed to treat with the Duke for the transportation of five thousand foot and three thousand horse into Ireland, to assist our King; which the Duke undertook on condition to have a hundred thousand crowns in ready money, and ships to transport his men from some haven in France, none of which could be effected. Advances After Woolfeldt went away, the French Resident France, asked Whitelocke whether France were comprised in the treaty with Holland. Whitelocke said he had no information thereof. The Resident replied, that his master would willingly entertain a good friendship and correspondence with England; and Whitelocke said, he believed England would be ready to do the like with France. The Resident said, he observed by their discourse that Whitelocke had been in France, and that the late King would have given him the command of a troop of horse in France; and he hoped that Whitelocke would retain a good opinion of that country, and be their friend. Whitelocke replied, that he was very civilly treated in France, and believed that he should have served the late King there, if, by a sudden accident or misfortune, he had not been prevented, and obliged to return for England sooner than he intended; and that he should be always ready (as he held himself engaged) to pay all respects and [service to that Crown, as far as might consist with the interest of the Commonwealth whom he served.

March 2, 1653.

Notwithstanding his great words against the Com- Senator monwealth and present treaty, yet Monsieur Schutt plains the was pleased to afford a visit to Whitelocke, and they negotiation! fell (amongst many other things) upon the following discourse:—

Schutt. My father was formerly ambassador from this Crown in England, where I was with him, which occasioned my desire to be known to you.

Whitelocke. Your father did honour to this country and to ours in that employment, and your Excellence honours me in this visit.

Sch. England is the noblest country and people that ever I saw: a more pleasant, fruitful, and healthful country, and a more gallant, stout, and rich people, are not in the world.

Wh. I perceive you have taken a true measure, both of the country and her inhabitants.

Sch. This is my judgement of it, as well as my affection to it.

Wh. Your country here is indeed more northerly,

but your people, especially the nobility, of a much-like honourable condition to ours; which may cause the more wonder at her Majesty's intention of leaving them, who are so affectionate to her.

Sch. Truly her Majesty's purpose of resignation is strange to foreigners, and much more to us, who are her subjects, most affectionate to her.

Wh. It is reported that she hath consulted in this business with the Senators, whereof you are one.

Sch. Three Senators are deputed to confer with the Prince of Sweden, upon certain particulars to be observed in the resignation; and I hope that your Excellence will consider the importance of that affair, and will therefore attend with the more patience the issue thereof, being necessary that the advice of the Prince be had in it.

Wh. Have the three deputed Senators any order to confer with the Prince about my business?

Sch. I believe they have.

Wh. I had been here two months before the Queen mentioned this design of hers to the Council, and have staid here all this time with patience, and shall so continue as my Lord Protector shall command me; and as soon as he requires my return I shall obey him.

Sch. The occasion of the delay hitherto was the uncertainty of the issue of your Dutch treaty; and at this season of the year it was impossible for you to return, till the passage be open.

Wh. I believe the alliance with England meriteth an acceptance, whether we have peace or war with Holland; and for my return, it is at the pleasure of the Protector.

They had much other discourse; and probably Schiitt was sent purposely to excuse the delay of the treaty, for which he used many arguments not necessary to be repeated; and he came also to test Whitelocke touching advice to be had with the Prince about this treaty, whereunto Whitelocke showed no averseness.

Whitelocke received his packet of two weeks from Treacher

x ous reports

England. In a letter from his wife he was advertised to England, that the Protector had spoken of his voyage to Sweden as if Whitelocke had not merited much by it, though he so earnestly persuaded it; and his wife wrote that she believed one of Whitelocke's family was false to

him; and upon inquiry she suspected it to be ,

who gave intelligence to the Protector of all Whitelocke's words and actions in Sweden, to his prejudice, and very unbeseeming one of his family. This Whitelocke, comparing with some passages told him by his secretary of the same person, found there was cause enough to suspect him; yet to have one such among a hundred he thought no strange thing, nor for the Protector to alter his phrase when his turn was served. And though this gave ground enough of discontent to AVhitelocke, yet he thought not fit to discover it, nor what other friends had written to him, doubting whether he should be honourably dealt with at his return home; but he was more troubled to hear of his wife's sickness, for whose health and his family's he made his supplication to the great Physician; and that he might be as well pleased with a private retirement, if God saw it good for him, at his return home, as the Queen seemed to be with her design of abdication from the heights and glories of a crown.

Part of the letters to Whitelocke were in cipher, being directions to him touching the Sound. He had fhll intelligence of all passages of the Dutch treaty, and a copy of the articles, from Thurloe; also the news of Scotland, Ireland, France, and the letters from the Dutch Resident here to his superiors in Holland, copies whereof Thurloe by money had procured. He wrote also of the Protector's being feasted by the City, and a full and large relation of all passages of moment. The Protector himself wrote also his letters to Whitelocke under his own hand, which were thus :—

Letter from "For the Lord Ambassador JVhitelocke.

theProtec- "My Lord,

"I have a good while since received your letters sent by the ship that transported you to Gothenburg, and three other despatches since. By that of the 30th of December, and that of the 4th instant, I have received a particular account of what passed at your first audience, and what other proceedings have been upon your negotiation; which, so far as they have been communicated to me, I do well approve of, as having been managed by you with care and prudence.

"You will understand by Mr. Secretary Thurloe in what condition the treaty with the United Provinces is, in case it shall please God that a peace be made with them, which a little time will show; yet I see no reason to be diverted thereby from the former intentions of entering into an alliance with Sweden, nor that there will be anything in the league intended with the Low Countries repugnant thereunto, especially in things wherein you are already instructed fully. And for the matter of your third and fourth private instructions, if the Queen hath any mind thereto, upon your transmitting particulars hither such consideration will be had thereof as the then constitution

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