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When, at length, we shall be in possession of such data, the various papers presented in this section indicated that we shall be in a position not only to educate the individual child to the maximum efficiency in that intellectual level to which he belongs but also by reason of the correct adjustment of his organism to his environment he will be free from the various strains due to inhibition, repression, etc., which react adversely upon the state of mental health.
It was predicted that when the data above referred to had been secured great changes, amounting to a revolution, would take place in our educational methods. It was also hinted that such revolution would be accompanied by a large increase in the funds spent for educational purposes. Great stress was laid on the value of pschyopathic clinics as aids in securing the required data, and the necessity of having such clinics for the study of school children was referred to.
The Binet-Simon Scale. Of interest in this connection was the symposium held on Friday, August 29, on the Binet-Simon scale for determining the intelligence.
A number of interesting papers were presented. Among them were papers by Prof. W. H. Pyles on "The value to be derived from giving mental tests to all school children; by Josiah Morse, of the University of South Carolina, on “A comparison of white and colored school children, measured by the Binet-Simon scale of mental intelligence;" and by Lewis M. Terman, associate professor of education, Leland Stanford Junior University, Stanford, Cal., on “Revision of the Binet scale."
Dr. Morse's paper showed, generally speaking, that a greater proportion of white city children passed the Binet-Simon tests in the higher grades. On the other hand, a comparison between city colored children and white children in mill villages showed no great differences in their respective intelligences. Dr Morse admitted, in view of these results, that there must be an environmental, apart from a racial, factor.
It seems to the writer that it is of importance, in Southern States, where such tests are conducted, to determine the rate of hookworm infection in both races. It is to be expected, on the whole, that colored city children would show a higher rate of hookworm infection than white city children. This would be significant in view of the adverse influence of hookworm infection upon mental develop ment.
The general concensus of opinion of the symposium was to the cffect that the Binet-Simon scale was satisfactory as a means of grouping children in the lower school grades with respect to their mental development. The scale, however, was thought to be defective in the higher tests for classifying older children and adults. Some stress was laid on the changes in intellectual activity caused by the advent of puberty. It was held that birth of sex instincts was accompanied not with a general rise in level of mentality but with a radiation of mental activity, fanwise, along a variety of different channels.
It seems to the writer that there was a general misconception in this symposium of what the scale devised by Binet and Simon really is. The majority seemed to consider this scale to be a measure of the intellectual capacities. By its correct use, they thought, children could be sorted according to their innate mental abilities.
This is a misconception of the Binet scale arising, it is thought, by reason of a difference in the connotation of the word “intelligence' in French and English. In French the primary significance of this word is “ mentality' and not intellectual excellence. Binet himself is not quite definite as to the precise connotation he gives to the word, but uses it in a way more significant of “degree of mental development" than of other meanings.
A great number of our educators, however, seem to use "intelli...gence" synonymously with "intellectual excellence."
Yet it would seem to the writer that the Binet scale is by no
means a measure of intellectual capacity but rather one of mental o maturity or of the intellectual level which has been attained, for
mental growth is characterized by the attainment of successive levels, while intellectual capacity seems to be the ability to form numerous associations on the intellectual planes as they are attained. Binet's studies were mainly directed along the lines of determining at what average ages children attain these successive levels, and his tests are mainly devised to test if the levels in question have actually been attained.
We have thus, in his system, a measure of mental maturity. If it is desired, however, to discover the degree of perfection of mental activity within the content of the several intellectual levels, special studies must be undertaken and special tests devised in order to attain precise results.
These inadequacies of the Binet scale, however, by no means invalidate its findings as a means of comparison between the state of physical development, age, and mental maturity, nor do they diminish its usefulness in determining degrees of mental retardation.
Another phase of hygiene to which great prominence was given in the congress was that of sex hygiene. The open meeting held on this subject Wednesday afternoon, August 27, at Elmwood Music Hall was attended by the largest gathering of the congress.
A most able and scholarly paper was presented by ex-President Elet, president of the congress and chairman of this section. This paper constituted an admirable summing up of the subject. The steder recognized that no sudden improvement in sex conditions, tie prezence of renereal diseases, and morality could ever be ob
The improvement must be gradual and the results secured by s cvuination of measures. So one specific remedy could be sue
Segregation and the teachings of the church have both been The Wout avail. The speaker thought that the general diffusion in vi irowienie the requirement of certificates of health as a prelimnary ! marriagethe segregation of criminals and defectives, greater sun;"elv spesier attention to physical exercise in the lives of ning - boys, and instruction in the public schools, all comUnet, we in the end, effect satisfactory results.
Peneral sense of the section was that the facts of reproduction BR 3x hygiene should be taught in the public schools by graded ལྔ་ལ༣. .
Illumination of Schoolrooms. It seemed to the writer that one of the most interesting and valuable sections of the congress was devoted to the consideration of this topic. Nevertheless, the attendance was poor.
One of the important questions discussed was that of overhead versus lateral illumination. One great objection to overhead illumination in the past has been the ocular fatigue induced by the excessive glare from white or polished surfaces reflected directly upward into the eyes from an unaccustomed direction. The absence of this condition in lateral illumination from the left has led to the general advocacy of this form of illumination. On the other hand, owing to the fact that illumination falls off in proportion to the square of the distance, laterally illuminated rooms are insufficiently illuminated on the extreme right when the lighting at the left is sufficient. On the other hand, with sufficient illumination on the right of the room, the seats on the left are likely to have an excess.
The overhead method of illumination, however, can be made satisfactory by means of ribbed glass, which diffuses the light in angular directions. This prevents undue upward reflections from white and polished surfaces.
The pernicious influence of glare from calendered paper and blackboards was also emphasized. Light-colored, mat-surface blackboards and cream-colored unglazed papers were advocated. Dr. Gstettner, of Vienna, pointed out the loss of illumination in schoolrooms caused from light absorption by the black surface of blackboards and showed, from the results of photometric measurements, the improvement
lighting conditions following the use of light-colored blackboards and dark crayons.
An interesting paper on the extent of loss of ocular efficiency in direct, semidirect, and indirect systems of artificial illumination was read by Prof. Ferree, of Bryn Mawr College, Pa.
The speaker found that work in direct systems of artificial illumination is accompanied by a rapid fall in ocular efficiency; that in the semidirect system, where a part of the light falls directly on the work and a part is reflected from the ceiling and walls, the loss of ocular efficiency is nearly the same as that produced by direct illumination; while with indirect illumination, where no light falls directly upon the work, but all is reflected from ceilings and walls, the loss of ocular efficiency is hardly greater than with the use of diffuse daylight illumination.
Intestinal Parasites in Children.
Of interest in the session devoted to "The exciting and contributing causes of disease and physical defects in school children" was a paper read by Dr. J. A. Ferrell, of the Rockefeller Sanitary Commission, on “Intestinal parasites, the rural school a factor in spreading their infection." This
paper gave a summary of the findings of the commission in the case of 46,794 children found harboring intestinal parasites. Of these, 22,782, or 48 per cent, had hookworm infection; 7,991, or 20 per cent, had ascarides; 2,915, or 6 per cent, had Trichocephalus dispar; 1,246, or 2 per cent, had dwarf tapeworm; 134, or .02 per cent, had strongyloides; and 46, or .009 per cent, had Oxyuris vermicularis.
Of interest is Dr. Ferrell's statement that many of the cases of ascaris infection presented marked symptoms of retardation and anemia.
PELLAGRA IN MISSISSIPPI.
By C. H. LAVINDER, Surgeon, United States Public Health Service.
Pellagra has been reported to be on the increase in certain localities in Mississippi. On a recent visit to the State to ascertain to what extent this reported increase existed the following interesting statistical tables were kindly furnished to me by Dr. F. L. Watkins, deputy State registrar, Jackson, Miss.
As will be seen from the tables, certain of the county health officers failed to make the required reports. However, the tables give some idea of the prevalence and geographic distribution of pellagra in the State by race and counties. The information contained in these tables is believed to be more complete than that in the possession of any other State in which pellagra exists to any great extent. In previous communications I have expressed regret over the fact that so little definite information relative to the occurrence of cases of pellagra has been made a matter of record in the territory in which the disease prevails and voiced the hope that the States affected would at an early date take the necessary measures to supply this much needed information by requiring the notification of cases. . Mississippi, so far as I am aware, is one of the first, if not the first, State to give such complete and valuable data upon this disease. The records of the prevalence and distribution of pellagra being compiled by the State of Mississippi are deemed worthy of commendation.
Cases of pellagra reported in Mississippi during first 6 months of 1913.
11 5 20
1 54 19 (1) 3
7 1 (1). (1)
lij (1).......... 1 County health officer failed to make a report.