The function of tre schools ceasel to be wholly ecclesiastical, becoming something more than that of preparation for the priest

2.001. The national self consciousness now so prominent ir

Gerany sprang into existence tren.

Beginning of

Charlerasne, Alcuin an:l rany others 10:

national Selo

sired earnestly to for a great expire in strict,


harmony with the church. It was clear to Alouin

that for the realization this ai? tiie comunon people woult

l.ave to be rescuei froni barlaris ard taught by a Christian

eiucation to thoroughly appreciate the value of t.e Cristian

citizenship. Alcuin's plars receive i tle i.carty approbation

of tuberor Charles the Great, as the folorire extracts from

his famous proclaiction will shom: "As it is our desire to i..-

prove the corditions of the Churoli, ve make it our task to re

store viti. watchful zeal, the study of letters, a task almost forgotten trough the neglect of our ancestors. He would there

fore enjoin to our subjects, so far as they nay be able to

study tre liberal arts." At another time: "Let there there


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fore be chosen for this work men who are able and willing to

learn, and also desirous of instructing others, and let theri

arply themselves to the worl: witli a zcal equallirc t?e carrest

ness witłw.iol. we recommend it to them."


Unter the influence of this pressure and of concertion of the function of schools the mo

nastic schools were rapidly re, orei and ent?uset witti new life

art activity. Their nuriber increased. But by far the most in

portant step in the lirection of improvement, was the alrission

of layren to these schools. There was much prejudice among the

clerry against this, but tie loors opene i to out-siders never

so cautiously at first, soon sturę oben a little farther anıl

never afterwards Cloed entirely upon t e.


A line start vas vale in the direction of

improvements but botl: inpulse ani result large

ly vanished unier the weal successers Or Charles the Great.


The schools again ieteriorated, to be revived in turn ty 2.0

lasticisi, 0 Ferassence ani later or ty tie Reformation.

Curriculi in

The curricula in these schools variecl a

the Schools of

trile vit. thn fluotuation of the ideal. Ir

ti:o Midile Ares, its essentials auchcorsi ted of the mastery of

the Latin tongue, comitting tic psalter to nenory, reading, writing, a little arithmetic, art church music.

The iieti.oris vero in accordance wit the ideals of the

times, Just enough aritmetic was taugit for computation 01

the church calender; music for carrying on te religious cere

monies, latin was the main stapie. To ralce tl.e pupils experts

in the tongue depan ter its enforc:1 use at all ties. Tis in

connestion "iti t?:c; tiendorizing or portions of the Holy "rit

male then realy linguists. To șive aditional practice, Foar

authors, especially the poets were carefully stuliei--not for they sail so much!, as for their way of saying it. This

phase of study was tenor inatei rhetoric.

Influence of

The ideals of Feudalis:i remini us of those


of ancient Persia coupled with the pysical

ideal of Athens. They consisted of success in chase, tournament

ani battle, of writing verses, singing ballals, and mal irf love

to ladies. For this purpose tie youth were taught riiing,

swiming, archery, fencins', 'untirr, goss playinę, music, an'z rłyning. "ile these themselves were not antagonistic to tre

schools of t.e ties, they tenleri to produce the impression

that stuiy or bools was erfeninate ani in tis may Feulalis

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brought about an alliance between the theolory of the medieval

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given the vernacular and ovan branches. In consequence of

this, schools in these places listed away from latin which lil

not there regain its pre-eirer ce urtil the Renascence.

Influence of

The revival of learning produced the

the Rena

wanistic ideal. Its art.ererts Fount riore


pleasure in autors o portrayei incinerts

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