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the front of the carriage march all the slaves concerned in spinning and working ; next to them come the blackened crew employed in the kitchen; then the whole body of slaves promiscuously unixed up with a gang of idlo plebeians from the neighbourhood; last of all, the multitude of eunucha, beginning with the old men and ending with the boys, palo and unsightly from the distorted deformity of their features; so that whichever way any one goes, seeing troops of mutilated men, he will detest tho memory of Semiramis, that aacient qucen who was the first person to castrate male youths of tender age; doing as it were a violence to nature, and forcing it back from its appointed course, which at the very first beginning and birth of the child, by a kind of secret law revealing the primitive foun. tains of secd, points out the way of propagating posterity.
18. And as this is the caso, those few houses which wero formerly celebrated for tho xerious cultivation of becoming studies, are now filled with the ridiculous amusements of torpid indolence, re-echoing with the sound of vocal music and the tinkle of flutes and lyres. Lastly, instead of a philosopher, you find a singer; instead of an orator, some teacher of ridiculous arts is summoned; and the libraries closed for ever, like so many graves; organs to be played by waterpower aro mado; and lyres of 60 vast a size, that they look like waggons; and Autos, and ponderous machines suited for the exhibitions of actors.
19. Last of all, they have arrived at such a depth of unworthiness, that when, no very long time ago, on account of an apprehended scarcity of food, the foreigners were driven in haste from the city; those who practised liberul accomplishments, the number of whom was exceedingly small, were expelled without a moment's breathing-time; yet the followers of actresses, and all who at that time pretended to bo of such a class, were allowed to remain ; and three thousand dancing-girls had not even a question puit to thom, but stayed unmolested with tho members of their choruses, and a corresponding number of dancing masters.
20. And wherever you turn your eyes, you may see a multitudo of women with their hair curled, who, as far as heir ago gocs, might, if they had married, been by this time the mothers of three children, sweeping the pavements with their foet till they are weary, whirling round in rapid
(Bk. XIV. CA. VI. gyrations, while representing innumerable groups and figures which the theatrical plays contain.
21. It is a truth beyond all question, that, when at one time Roine was the abode of all the virtues, many of the nobles, like the Lotophagi, celebrated in Homer, who detained mon by the deliciousness of their fruit, allured foreigners of free birth by manifold attentions of courtesy and kindness.
22. But now, in their empty arrogance, some persons look upon everything as worthless which is born outside of the walls of the city, except only the childless and the unmarried. Nor can it be conceived with what a variety of obsequions observance men without children are courted at Rome.
23. And since among them, as is natural in a city 80 great as to be the motropolis of the world, diseases attain to such an insurmountablo dogree of violenco, that all the skill of the physician is ineffectual evon to mitignto them; a certain assistance and means of safety has been devised, in the rule that no one should go to see a friend in such a condition, and to a few precautionary measures a further remedy of sufficient potency has been added, that inen should not readmit into their houses servants who have been sent to inquire how a man's friends who may
have been seized with an illness of this kind are, until they have cleansod and purified their persons in the bath. So that a taint is feared, even when it has only been soon with the eyes of another.
24. But nevertheless, when theso rules are observed thus stringently, some persons, if they be invited to a wedding, though the vigour of their limbs be much diminished, yet, when gold is offered in the hollow palm of the right hand, will go actively as far as Spoletum. These are the customs of the nobles.
25. But of the lower and most indigent class of the popuJace somo spend the whole night in the wine shops. Somo lie concealed in the shady arcades of the theatres ; which Catulus was in bis edileship the first person to
1 It was customary on mich solemnities, as also on the occasion of assuming the toga virilis, or entering on any important magistracy, to make small presents of money to the guests who were invited to celebrate the occasion. Of. Plin. Epist. x. 117.
raise, in imitation of the lascivious manners of Campania, or else they play at dice so cagerly as to quarrel over them; snuffing up their nostrils and making unseemly noises by drawing back their breath into their noses; or (and this is their favourite pursuit of all others) from sunrise to evening thoy stay gaping through sunshine or rain, examining in the most careful manner tho most storling good or bad qualities of the chariotcors and horscs.
26. And it is very wonderful to see an innumerablo multitude of people with great eagerness of mind intent upon the event of the contests in the chariot race. These pursuits, and others of like character, prevent anything worth mentioning or important from being done at Romo. Therefore we must return to our original subject.
§ 1. IIis licentiousness having now become more unbounded, the Cæsar began to be burdensome to all virtuous mon; and discarding all moderation, he harassed every part of the East, eparing neither those who had received public honours, nor the chief citizens of the different cities; nor the common people.
2. At last by ono singlo sentenco he ordered all tho principal persons at Antioch to be put to death; being exasperated because when he recomended that a low price should be established in the market at an unseasonablo time, when the city was threatened with a scarcity, thoy answered him with objections, urged with more force than he approved ; and they would all have been put to death to a man, if Honoratus, who was at that time count of the East, had not resisted him with pertinacious constancy.
3. This circumstance was also a proof, and that no doubtful or concealed one, of the cruelty of hie nature, that he took delight in cruel sports, and in the circus he would rejoice as if he had made some great gain, to see six or soven gladiators killing ono another in combats which have often been forbidden.
4. In addition to these things a certain worthless woman inflamed his purpose of inflicting misery; for sbe, having obtained admission to the palace, as she had requested, gave
him information that a plot was secretly laid against him by a fow soldiers of the lowest rank. And Constantina, in her oxultation, thinking that her husband's safety was dow fully secured, rowarded and placed this woman, in a carriage, and in this way sent her out into the public street through the great gute of the palace, in order, by such a temptation, to allure others also to givo similar or more important information.
5. After these events, Gallus being about to set out for Hierapolis, in order, as far as appearance went, to take part in the expedition, the common people of Antioch entreated him in a suppliant manner to remove their fear of a famine which for many reasons (some of them difficult to explain it was believed was impending: Gallus, however, did not, as is the custom of princes whose power, by the great extent of country over which it is diffused, is able continually to remedy local distresses, order any distribution of food to be made, or any supplies to be brought from tho neighbouring countries ; but he pointed out to thom a man of consular rank, nained Theophilus, the governor of Syria, who happened to be standing by, replying to the repeated appeals of the multitude, who were trembling with apprehensions of the last extremities, that no one could possibly want food if the governor were not willing that they should be in want of it.
6. Those words increased the audacity of the lower classcs, and when the scarcity of provisions became more severo, urged by hunger and frenzy, they set fire to and burnt down the splendid house of a man of the name of Eubulus, a man of great reputation among his fellow. citizens; and they attacked the governor himself with blows and kicks as one especially made over to them by the judgment of the emperor, kicking him till he was half dead, and then tearing him to pieces in a miserable inanner. And after his wretched death every one saw in the destruction of this single individual a type of the danger to which bo was himself exposed, and, taught by this recent example, feared a similar fate.
7. About the same timo Serenianus, who had previously been duke of Phænicia, to whose inactivity it was owing,
1 Tho Latin is Dux. It is about this period that the titlo Duko and Count, which wo bavo already had, arveo, indicating howovor at first
as we have already related, that Celse in Phænicia was laid waste, was deservedly and legally accused of treason, and no ono saw how he could possibly be acquitted. He was also manifestly proved to have sent an intimate friend with a cip (with which he used to cover his own head) which had been enchanted by forbidden acts to the temple of prophecy,' on purpose to ask expressly whether, according to his wish, a firm enjoyment of the whole empire was portended for him.
8. And in these days a twofold misfortune occurred : first, that a heavy penalty had fallen upon Theophilus who was innocent; and, secondly, that Serenianus who descrved universal execration, was acqnitted without tho general feeling being ablo to offer any effectual romonstrance.
9. Constantius then hearing from time to time of theso transactions, and having been further informed of some particular occurrences by Thalassius, who however had now died by the ordinary course of nature, wrote courteous letters to the Cæsar, but at the same time gradually withdrow from him his support, pretending to be uncasy, least as the leisure of soldiors is usually a disorderly time, the troops might be conspiring to his injury: and ho desired him to content himself with the schools of the Palatine," and with those of the Protectors, with the Scutarii, and Gentiles. And he ordered Domitianus, who had formerly been the Superintendent of the Treasury, but who was now promoted to be a prefect, as soon as he arrived in Syria, to address Callus in persuasive and respectful language, exhorting him to repair with all speed to Italy, to which province the emperor had repeatedly summoned him. not territorial possessions, but military commands ; and it is worth noticing that the rank of Count was the higher of the two.
· Constantine, on his conversion to Christianity, had issucd an edict forbidding the consultation of oracles; but the practice was not wholly abandoned till the timo of Theodosius.
: Schools was the nome given at Romo to buildings where men wcro wont to meet for any purpose, whether of study, of traffic, or of the practico of any art. The schools of the Palatino were the station of the cohorts of the guard. The " Protectors or Guards" were a boily of soldiers of higher mnk, receiving also higher pay; called also "Domes. tici or household troops," as especially set apart for tlie protection of tho imperial polaco and person. The "Scutarii" (shield-knrors) belonged to the Palatino schools ; and the Gentiles woro troops enlisted from among thoso nations which wero still accountod barbarous.