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from which he had extracted a vast treasure of erudition treasure too often buried in the earth, too often paraded with injudicious and inelegant ostentation, but still precious, massivo and splendid.
6. There appeared the voluptuous charms of her to whom the heir of the throne had in secret plighted his faith. There, too, was she, the beautiful mother of a beautiful race, the St. Cecilia, whose delicate features, lighted up by love and music, art has rescued from the common decay. And there the ladies whose lips, more persuasive than those of Fox himself, had carried the Westminster election against palace and treasury, shone round Georgiana, Duchess of Devonshire.
7. The sergeants made proclamation. Hastings advanced to the bar, and bent his knee. The culprit was indeed not unworthy of that great presence. He bad ruled an extensive and populous country, had made laws and treaties, had sent forth armies, bad set up and pulled down princes. And in his high place he had so borne himself that all had feared him, that most had loved him, and that hatred itself could deny him no title to glory, except virtue.
8. He looked like a great man, and not like A person small and emaciated, yet deriving dignity from a carriage which, while it indicated deference to the court, indicated also habitual self-possession and self-respect, a high and intellectual forehead, a brow pensive, but not gloomy, a mouth of inflexible decision, a face pale and
serene, on which was written, as legibly as under the great picture in the council-chamber at Calcutta, “a mind calm amid difficulties."* Such was the aspect with which the great proconsul presented himself to his judges.
9. The charges, and the answers of Hastings were first read. This ceremony occupied two whole days, and was rendered
* The inscription under the painting is in Latin ;--Mens aequa in arduis. The phrase in quotations gives the meaning.
less tedious than it otherwise would have been, by the silver voice and just emphasis of Cowper, the clerk of the court, a near relation of the amiable poet.
10. On the third day Burke rose. Four sittings of the court were occupied by his opening speech, which was intended to be a general introduction to all the charges. With an exuberance of thought and a splendor of diction which more than satisfied the highly-raised expectation of the andience, he described the character and institutions of the natives of India, recounted the circumstances in which the Asiatic empire of Britain had originated, and set forth the constitution of the company and of the English presidencies.
11. Having thus attempted to communicate to his hearers an idea of eastern society as vivid as that which existed in his own mind, he proceeded to arraign the administration of Hastings, as systematically conducted in defiance of morality and public law. The energy and pathos of the great orator extorted expressions of unwonted admiration even from the stern and hostile chancellor, and for a moment, seemed to pierce even the resolute heart of the defendant. The ladies in the galleries, inaccustomed to such displays of eloquence, excited by the solemnity of the occasion, and perhaps not unwilling to display their taste and sensibility, were in a state of uncontrollable emotion. Handkerchiefs were pulled out; smelling bottles were handed round; hysterical sobs and screams were heard; and Mrs, Sheridan was carried out in a fit.
12. At length the orator concluded. Raising his voice till the old arches of Irish oak resounded, “ Therefore," said he, “ hath it with all confidence been ordered by the Commons of Great Britain, that I impeach Warren Hastings of high crimes and misdemeanors. I impeach him in the name of the Commons' House of Parliament, whose trust he has betrayed. I impeach him in the name of the English nation,
whose ancient honors he has sullied I impeach him in the name of the people of India, whose rights he has trodden under foot, and whose country he has turned into a desert. Lastly, in the name of human nature itself, in the name of both sexes, in the name of every age, in the name of
every rank, I impeach the common enemy and oppressor of all.”
ANALYSIS OF THE TRIAL OF WARREN HASTINGS.
Where did this piece first appear? Give its general character. Is it grave? comic? didactic? historic? imaginative? joyous ? sad ? pathetic? earnest ? impassioned? How many and which of these characteristics belong to it?
Is it dignified or otherwise ? Does it deal with important or trivial matters? With what tone then should it be read ? [This is an example of grave and dignified historical description, animated by a vigorous and glowing earnestness.
The author's mind is stirred by the magnificence of the scene he describes. English literature contains few passages more brilliant than this
. It requires, therefore, as a whole, a full, sonorous, and vigorous utterance, with medium pitch and speed.]
First Paragraph. What is meant by being “worthy of such a trial”? Whose trial was it ? For what was he tried ? Before what tribunal ? What "place" is here meant ? When was the building erected ? Who was
56 William Rufus”? Had this structure been long built then? Is it now standing ? Explain the expression,“ resounded with acclamations at the inauguration of thirty kings.” Name the thirty kings. What is the inauguration of a king ? What is it to resound? What are acclamations ? When and for what
Bacon 6 sentenced”? For what was Bacon famous? In what sense had the hall “ witnessed” the trial ? What is a sentence? When was Somers “absolved,” and on what charge ? What is absolution"? Who was “Strafford”? What had he done and what became of him? What party was “awed and melted by his eloquence”? What is it to be awed ? melted ? “inflamed”? Wherein was this party “victorious”? What is meant by “a just resentment”? What
was the “high court of justice”? What " Charles" is referred to here? What is it to “ confront”? What is a "placid courage”? What is it to “redeem one's fame” ? What had been Charles's reputation? Was it made better or worse by his conduct at his trial?
Give the etymology and meaning of resounded, [for method, refer to the analysis of the Gray Old Man of the Mountain, page 70], acclamation, inauguration, witnesses, sentence, absolution, eloquence, moment, victorious, party, inflamed, resentment, confronted, justice, placid, courage redeemed
Observe the sentences, as to whether they consist chiefly of conditional or positive statements. What inflection should be used here chiefly ?
[For the emphases, carefully read the sentences, keeping in mind the meaning, and determine what thought requires prominence in every case. [Sce analysis of the Gray Old Man of the Mountain, first stanza, page 71.] The emphases should often be distributed over a group of words, and not limited to single ones. To emphasize single words in such cases, makes the reading harsh and angular. [See Introduction, Emphasis, III.]
Second Paragraph. Show what is meant by "civil pomp;' by "military pomp.' Mention an illustration of each. What is meant by the statement that they were not wanting”? Say the same thing in another and more direct form. What
grenadiers”? What is meant by the avenues being “lined" with them? Who were the “peers”? What is “ermine”? What is meant by being “robed in gold and ermine”? Who were the “heralds "? What is meant by the “ garter king-atarms”?
Why called “garter”? Origin of this word as here used ? Meaning of « vestments of state ”? How is this meaning of "state" connected with its ordinary meaning. For what purpose did the judges attend? [Give the answer in your own words.] What are “points of law”? What is meant by the “upper house”? Does the “upper house” change? How? What is meant by “solemn order”? What was “their usual place of assembling"? To what place did they walk? What has this latter place already been called ?
What use was ordinarily made of it ? What is meant by "junior baron”? What is it to be “ennobled” in this sense? What was there peculiar about this “defense of Gibraltar” ? In what year was it? What important event in America occurred not far from the same time? What is it to close the procession”? What is meant by the “earl marshal of the realm "? "the great dignitaries"? Who was the "king" here referred to ? How many years after this did he reign? What is meant by the “Prince of Wales”? Who was so called at this time? What is meant by “fine person”? noble bearing"? Show how the words person and bearing come to have the meaning assigned to them here? What is it to be " conspicuous"? What made the prince so? Which part of this procession appears to have been most honorable ?
Etymology and meaning of military? civil ? avenues ? grenadiers ? streets ? cavalry? peers ? marshaled ? judges ? vestments ? advice ? state ? points ? solemn? order ? usual? assembling? tribunal ? junior ? baron ? present ? recently? ennobled ? memorable ? defense ? armies? procession ? closed? realm? dignitaries? princes? conspicuous? person? bearing?
[ This paragraph is much like the preceding in respect to infections. ] Determine the emphases as before.
Third Paragraph. What “walls” are meant here? Why “gray” and “old” ? What is meant by their being “hung with scarlet”? What are the “ galleries”? What building in the United States corresponds in use to the one here spoken of ? Has that
galleries ”? Who occupy them? Why should an audience “excite the fears” of an orator ? Why his “emulation”? What was there about this audience more than another to produce these effects ? What « realm is here meant ? What are its principal parts”? Was it true of this empire that it was "great," "free," " enlightened," "prosperous”? What is meant by “grace”? What things were “ gathered together"? What is meant by this? In what form were “ wit and learning” gathered together? Was it in the form of books? Name some of the representatives of every science," and show what each one represented.