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“ to defend them fom the repeated injuries of “ these unfeeling robbers? A tribune who de“ serts his post is punished with death, and de“ prived of the honours of burial. With what

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*o Ammian. xvii. 3. Julian. Epistol. xv. edit. Spanheim. Such a condućt almost justifies the encomium of Mamertinus. Ita illianmi spatia divisa sunt, ut aut Barbaros domitet, aut civibus jura restituat; perpetuum profesus, aut contra hostem, aut contra vitias tertainen,

spirit

! spirit of the Romans, or to introduce the arts of c H. A. P. industry and refinement among their savage ene- XIX. mies, he could not entertain any rational hopes \-y: of securing the public tranquillity, either by the ! peace or conquest of Germany. Yet the vićtories of Julian suspended, for a short time, the inroads of the Barbarians, and delayed the ruin of the Western Empire. His salutary influence restored the cities of DescripGaul, which had been so long exposed to the evils o: of civil discord, Barbarian war, and domestic tyranny; and the spirit of industry was revived with the hopes of enjoyment. Agriculture, manufactures, and commerce, again flourished under the protection of the laws; and the curiae, or civil corporations, were again filled with useful and respectable members: the youth were no longer apprehensive of marriage; and married persons were no longer apprehensive of posterity: the public and private festivals were celebrated with customary pomp ; and the frequent and secure intercourse of the provinces displayed the image of national prosperity". A mind like that of Julian, must have felt the general happiness of which he was the author; but he viewed, with peculiar satisfaction and complacency, the city of Paris; the seat of his winter residence, and the object even of his partial affection”. That splen- did

sor Libanius, Orat. Parental. in Imp. Julian. c. 38. in Fabricius Bibliot bec. Graec. tom. vii. p. 263,264.

92 see Julian, in Misopogon, p. 340, 341. The primitive state of Paris is illustrated by Henry Walesius (ad Ammian. xx. 4.), his

brother Hadrian Walesius, or de Valois, and M. d’Anville (in their respective

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did capital, which now embraces an ample territory on either fide of the Seine, was originally confined to the small island in the midst of the river, from whence the inhabitants derived a fupply of pure and salubrious water. The river bathed the foot of the walls; and the town was accessible only by two wooden bridges. A forest overspread the northern fide of the Seine; but on the south, the ground, which now bears the name of the university, was insensibly covered with houses, and adorned with a palace and amphitheatre, baths, an aquedućt, and a field of Mars for the exercise of the Roman troops. The severity of the climate was tempered by the neighbourhood of the ocean; and with some precautions, which experience had taught, the vine and fig-tree were successfully cultivated. But, in remarkable winters, the Seine was deeply frozen ; and the huge pieces of ice that floated down the stream, might be compared, by an Asiatic, to the blocks of white marble which were extraćted from the quarries of Phrygia. The licentiousness and corruption of Antioch, recalled to the memory of Julian the severe and simple manners of his beloved Lutetia *; where the amusements of the theatre were unknown or despised. He indig. nantly contrasted the effeminate Syrians with the brave and honest simplicity of the Gauls, and al

respeciive Notitias of ancient Gaul), the Abbé de Longuerue Description de la France, tom. i. p. 12, 13. and M. Bonamy (in the Mem. de l'Academie des Inscriptivus, tom. xv. p. 656–691.). 9. Two o Aivkorozy. Julian, in Misopogon. p. 34o. Leucetia, or Lutetia, was the ancient name of the city which, according to the #2shion of the fourth century, assumed the territorial appellation

of Parisi. . most ** Julian, in Misopogon. p. 359, 362,

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237

most forgave the intemperance, which was the c H Ap

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T H E public establishment of Christianity.
may be confidered as one of those im-
portant and domestic revolutions which excite the
most lively curiosity, and afford the most valuable
instruction. The vićtories and the civil policy of
Constantine no longer influence the state of
Europe; but a confiderable portion of the globe
still retains the impression which it received from
the conversion of that monarch ; and the eccle-
siastical institutions of his reign are still connected,
by an indissoluble chain, with the opinions, the
passions, and the interests of the present genera-
tlOn. -
In the confideration of a subječt which may be
examined with impartiality, but cannot be viewed
with indifference, a difficulty immediately arises
of a very unexpected nature; that of ascertaining
the real and precise date of the conversion of Con-
stantine. The eloquent Lactantius, in the midst
of his court, seems impatient' to proclaim to the

world

* The date of the Divine Institutions of LaStantius has been accurately discussed, difficulties have been started, solutions proposed, and an expedient imagined of two original editions; the former published during the persecution of Diocletian, the latter unde, that of Licinius. See Dufresnoy, Prefat, p, v. Tillemoat, Mem. Ecclesiast.

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