more than one hundred pounds a year. He also prohibited its sale in England or Ireland until the custom should be paid and the royal seal affixed. Twenty thousand pounds were exported this year from Virginia to England, the whole crop of the preceding year.

In 1620, ninety young women were sent over from England to America and sold to the planters for tobacco, at one hundred and twenty pounds each. The price at first was one hundred pounds, which gradually increased to one hundred and fifty pounds. King James issued a proclamation restraining the disorderly trade in this obnoxious article. In the same year some English companies introduced the smoking of tobacco into Zittau, in Germany, and Robert Konigsman, a merchant, brought the tobacco plant from England to Strasburg.

In 1622, the annual import of tobacco into England from America, for the last seven years, was 142,085 pounds. In 1624, the Pope published a decree of excommunication against all who should take snuff in the church, because then already some Spanish ecclesiastics used it during the celebration of mass. King James restricted the culture of tobacco to Virginia and the Somer isles, and forbade its importation from any other quarter, considering England and Wales" as utterly unfyt in respect of the clymate, to cherish the same for any medicinal use, which is the only good to be approved in yt."

In 1631, smoking of tobacco was introduced into Misnia, by some Swedish troops.

In 1634, a tribunal, called the chamber of tobacco, was formed at Moscow, which prohibited smoking under pain of having the nose slit; and the Grand Duke defended the entrance of tobacco with the infliction of the knout for the first offence, and death for the second.

In 1659, the grand assembly of Virginía passed a law that all tobacco planted in that and the two succeeding years, should be destroyed, except such a proportion to each planter as should make in the whole 120,000 pounds, and that the creditors of the planters should receive 40 pounds for every 100 pounds due them.

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In 1724, Pope Benedict XIV. revoked the Bull of excommunication published by Innocent, because he had acquired the habit of taking snuff.

In 1732, tobacco was made a legal tender in Maryland, at one penny a pound.

In 1747, and the two years previous, there were annually exported to England from the American colonies, 40,000,000 pounds of tobacco, 7,000,000 of which was consumed in England. The annual revenue was about $4,500,000.

In 1753, the King of Portugal farmed out the tobacco trade for about $2,500,000. The revenue of the King of Spain from tobacco, amounted to $6,330,000.

In 1759, the duties on tobacco in Denmark, brought in $40,000.

In 1770, the Empress of Austria received a revenue from tobacco of $300,000.

In 1773, the duties on tobacco in the two Sicilies, amounted to $446,000.

In 1775, the annual export of tobacco from the United States, for the last four years, was one million pounds; for the last thirty years it averaged 40,000,000 pounds, of which 7,000,000 were consumed in Great Britain, and 33,000,000 in the other European countries.

In 1780, the King of France received from tobacco a revenue of about $7,250,000.

In 1752, the annual export of tobacco during the preceding seven years' war of the Revolution, had been 12,378,504 pounds. Of the total seven years' exportation, 33,974,949 pounds were captured by the British.

In 1787, the quantity imported into Ireland was 1,877,579; in 1829, 4,124,742 pounds.

In 1789, the quantity exported from the United States, together with the two previous years, averaged about 90,000,000 pounds.

In 1820, the quantity of tobacco grown in France had doubled in three years, being 32,887,500 pounds. In 1828, the revenue on tobacco in the State of Maryland was $27,275.

In 1830, the revenue on tobacco and snuff in Great Bri

In 1653, smoking began in the canton of A penzell, in Swit-tain was nearly $13,000,000. zerland. At first the children ran after those who smoked in the streets. They were likewise cited before the council and punished, and the inn-keepers were ordered to inform against such as should smoke in their houses.

In 1661, the police regulation of Berne, in Switzerland, was made, which was divided according to the ten commandments. In it, the prohibition to smoke tobacco, stands under the rubric," thou shalt not commit adultery," and was continued in force until the middle of the last century.

In 1669, the crimes of adultery and fornication, were punished in Virginia by a fine of from 500 to 1000 pounds of tobacco.

In 1670, and the two following years, smoking of tobacco was punished in the canton of Glaurus, by a fine of one crown Swiss money.

In 1834, the value of tobacco used in the United States, was estimated at $16,000,000; of which $9,000,000 were supposed to have been for smoking Spanish cigars ; $6,500,000 for smoking American tobacco and chewing; and $500,000 for snuff.

In 1838, the annual consumption of tobacco in the United States was estimated at one hundred million pounds, valued at twenty million dollars cost to the consumers, being seven pounds to each individual of the whole population.

In 1840, it was ascertained by a committee appointed to and report statistical information on the subject, that procure about one million five hundred thousand persons were en

gaged in the manufacture and cultivation of tobacco in the United States; one million of whom were in the States of

In 1676, the whole custom on tobacco from Virginia, col-Virginia, Maryland, Kentucky and Missouri. Allowing the lected in England, was $600,000. In the same year two Jews first attempted the cultivation of tobacco in the mar

gravate of Brandenburg; but which, however, was not brought

to bear till 1681.

In 1689, Jacob Francis Vicarius, an Austrian physician, invented the tubes for tobacco pipes, which have capsules containing bits of sponge; however, about the year 1670, already pipes were used having glass globules appended to them, to collect the oily moisture exuding from the tobacco.

In 1690, Pope Innocent XII. excommunicated all who should be guilty of taking snuff or tobacco in the church of St Peter at Rome.

In 1697, great quantities of tobacco already were produced in the palatinate of Hesse.

In 1709, the yearly exports of tobacco from America for the last ten years, were 28,858,666 pounds; of which 11, 260,659 pounds were annually consumed in Creat Britain, and 17,598,0.7 pounds in the countries of Europe.

In 1719, the Senate of Strasburg prohibited the culture of tobacco from an apprehension that it would diminish the growing of corn.

population of the whole country to be seventeen millions, it will be seen that nearly one-tenth are in some way engaged in the cultivation or manufacture of this article. The value

of the export during that year was nearly $10,000,000. [Northern Light.

Albany, September, 1841.

Effect of Enterprise.

The Directors of the Great Western Railroad made a report to the Legislature of Massachusetts last winter, in which they gave encouragement that this stupendous work would be finished to the State line, thirty miles from the Hudson river, during the month of May, 1842. Last Saturday week the work was completed, and for the first time the cars ran direct from Boston to the Hudson river, a distance of about 160 miles! This has been accomplished eight months in advance of the time stipulated, a circumstance without a parallel in the history of railroads, and will cause a saving of about $200,000 to the stockholders.-North American.


Steamship Clarion and Anthracite Coals. This packet ship, provided, as our readers are aware, with an auxiliary steam power and the Erricson Propeller, made a trial excursion in the Bay last Saturday, the result of which may be considered of some importance in connexion with the progress of American steam navigation.

It has long been urged by grave authorities, that nature has interposed an effectual barrier to prevent the United States from competing with Great Britain in steam navigation, owing to the scarcity and inferior quality of our bituminous coals. The absurdity of this opinion was strikingly

illustrated in the trial alluded to.

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Revolutionary Reminiscence.

It has been stated in several of the papers that Mr. Squiers, of Ashford, Connecticut, who died a few weeks since, was the last of the survivors of the battle of Bunker Hill. This is not correct. Philip Bagley, Esq. of this town, now eightysix years of age, and enjoying a healthful old age, in the full possession of all his faculties, was in that battle. Being in our office the other day, we procured from him some facts which we have thrown together for the benefit of those of our readers who love to indulge in these old reminiscences of the times of devoted and unselfish patriotism.

Mr. Bagley was a private soldier in Capt. Sawyer's comThe public generally are not aware that the Clarion's boilers have been constructed for burning anthracite coals pany, and Col. Frye's regiment of Massachusetts minute men, having enlisted in this regiment, in December 1774.only, and that artificial draught is employed in order to dis- He left Haverhill, on the Merrimack, at 1 o'clock on the pense with the usual tall and cumbrous smoke-pipe. Hith-19th of April and arrived at Cambridge, at 10 o'clock the erto some difficulty has been experienced in keeping up a next day. Nothing worthy of notice, he says, transpired suflicient supply of steam in the Clarion;" but by the ad- until the evening, of the 16th of June. On that evening, dition of a small steam cylinder for working the blower ap Col. Frye's regiment, together with Col. Dodge's of Conplied to the boiler, this difficulty has now Leen most com- necticut, crossed the neck, and went on to Bunker Hill, pletely removed, and nothing could be more perfect than the where the British troops had previously halted on their recontrol which the engineer had over the steam during the trial. By simply turning a stop-cock attached to the small treat from Concord, in April. After remaining there about cylinder, the quantity and pressure of the steam in the boil- an hour, both regiments proceeded to Breed's Hill. Here they commenced breaking grounds for their entrenchments, ers were raised at pleasure. between 10 and 11 o'clock at night, working all night so Considering the small quantity of stowage room required secretly and silently that the Glasgow sloop of war, lying in by anthracite coals, its cleanliness, powerful heating quali- the river at a short distance, did not discover them. At day tics, and the perfect absence of smoke, we hazard nothing in light they were discovered and a fire was opened upon them asserting, after what we witnessed on board the "Clarion," from Copp's Hill and from the shipping. The Glasgow soon that so far from the United States laboring under any disad-hauled up the stream, in order to rake the Neck with her vantage respecting coals for steam navigation, we possess, in our inexhaustible stores of anthracite coals, an absolute advantage over our transatlantic neighbors. And in warfare we have an advantage of the most vital importance.


Steamers burning bituminous coal can be "tracked sea at least seventy miles before their hulls become visible by the dense columns of black smoke pouring out of their pipes, and trailing along the horizon. It is a complete telltale of their whereabouts, which is not the case with those burning anthracite coal, as the latter kind sends forth no smoke. Therefore all steamers like the "Clarion" and "Kamschatka," are decidedly superior to all others in time And we regret very much that our two new war steamers, the Missouri and Mississippi," have been constructed to burn foreign bituminous coals only! We regret very much that the "Board of Construction" had so little foresight. But this en passant.

of war.

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Having had the advantage of conversing with some thorough-bred engineers who were on board the Clarion, we cannot avoid noticing the performance of the propeller during the trial. The speed of the engine being accurately tried, it was found to give 4,700 revolutions to the propeller in

running over a space of 14 miles. Now, the propeller being
63 feet in diameter; and its spiral plates being set at an an-
gle of 46 degrees at the circumference, its progressive move-
ment through the water will be precisely 20 feet for each re-
had therefore the resistance of the water been per-
fect, the vessel could only have passed over a space of 95,-
900 feet.

But 14 miles is equal to 73,900-thus it will be seen that only 2-9ths was lost by slip on the receding of the watera remarkable fact, considering the large midship section of the "Clarion," compared with the small dimension of the propeller.

Respecting the consumption of fuel in the "Clarion," it has now been fully ascertained 320 pounds per hour is the average, which is less than that required by a British steamer of forty horse power.-New York Herald.

Oldest Man in New England. Deacon John Whitman was born in Bridgewater, March 25, 1735. and entered upon his one hundred and seventh year last Friday, (March 26th.) His bodily health is good, and he is able to walk out without a cane. His mental faculties have failed him, and he has lost his eye-sight. He has been a temperate man all his life; not having tasted ardent spirits for the last fifty years.

shot, and prevent reinforcements from reaching the bill.—
Notwithstanding the shot and shells continued to pour in
upon them, the Americans continued to work upon their en-
trenchments, and but one man was killed by the cannonade.
Sentries were stationed to watch the flash from the gun, and
on their calling out "shot!" the men would lie down flat
upon the ground, and then rise and resume their work. This
continued until the British troops landed at Charlestown,
when the Americans were compelled to leave the spade and
pick-axe, and resort to their guns.
British troops, on landing, halted till the second had crossed
the river, when both formed, and advanced up the hill, un-
der cover of the fire from Copp's Hill, and from the sloop of
war and the gun boats.

The first division of the

As is well known to every reader, the Americans reserved

their fire, until the British were within a hundred yards, when they opened so deadly a fire upon them, that they twice repulsed them, and it was not until the third rally that the British succeeded in surrounding the lines, so as to rake the breast work, and compel the Americans to retreat.

Fifty years after this memorable battle, Mr. Bagley was present, with Lafayette, and other survivors of the revolution, at the laying of the corner stone of the Monument, and on the 10th of September, 1840, he was there again at the Great Whig Convention, in the full vigor of manhood, and he hopes yet to live to see the top stone laid upon the monumental pile.-Newburyport Herald.

Gold Mines in Georgia.

We have been favored by a friend with the following extract of the letter received a day or two since, from a gentleman of high respectability residing in the Cherokee Country. Sixes, we are informed, is an old Indian town, where several lots of land were found to have very rich surface, deposit and vein mines of gold. Some four years since we understand $12,000 was taken from a branch on its margin, and many other lots near by were found to be valuable.

[Savannah Repub. HICKORY FLATS, Cher. Co. October 1, 1841. S

The gold mine of Gerald's continues to be pretty good; they have taken some 800 dwts. from it, one piece weighing 18 dwts. About the Sixes they continue to take it with great success-three hands frequently make from 50 to 100 dwts. in a day.

Agriculture of New York.

The following is an extract from an article published in the last number of "The Northern Light," on the agriculture of New York, by John A. Dix, Esq.

The degree in which agriculture ministers to our wants and to our prosperity, may be best comprehended by comparing it with other pursuits in our own State; and by comparing it with the agriculture of other countries, we may be the better able to determine whether it has attained the perfection, of which it is susceptible. The comparison must necessarily be brief; but the facts which it will enable us to bring together and exhibit in connexion, cannot fail to be interesting, if not useful.

By referring to the account of the statistics of this State in the 6th number of the Northern Light, page 95, it will be seen that of 623,157 persons engaged in various departments of industry, 456,475 are employed in agriculture; while in manufactures and trades there are 102,576; in commerce 28,395; and in navigation, ocean, lake, river and canal but 15,601. More than two-thirds of the persons employed in the principal branches of industry, and more than one-sixth of our entire population, are engaged in tilling the earth. The persons enumerated are presumed to be such as are of sufficient age for actual labor, and not the whole number (young and old) belonging to families sustained by agricultural employments; or in other words, not the entire agricultural class, which must constitute a much larger proportion of the entire population. Thus in France the agricultural class is estimated at two-thirds of the entire population, but the number of persons actually en gaged in the labors of agriculture must, of course, be much less, for in a population of 33,540,910 in France in 1836, 18,774,676 were children or unmarried. So in the State of New York, of a population of 2,429,476 in 1840, 955,593 were under 15 years of age. The persons, therefore, enumerated as engaged in agriculture in this State must be of sufficient age for labor;-whereas in France the entire class engaged in agriculture, including both young and old, must be included in the estimate.

In Great Britain the enumeration is more specific than in France or New York. The number of persons engaged as occupiers of land or laborers, of twenty years of age and upwards, amounts to 1,233,057 in a population of 16,539,318. It is impossible to institute a comparison between the State of New York and France as to the proportion of the population respectively engaged in agriculture, as the enumerations are not made on the same basis. But between New York and Great Britain the comparison would furnish a nearer approximation to fairness, as our enumeration includes persons of sufficient age to labor, and that of Great Britain includes persons of 20 years of age and upwards.— Taking the estimates as they are, the number of persons, of the ages referred to, engaged in agriculture is one in about 13 2-5 of the entire population of Great Britain, while in New York the number of persons so engaged is one in about 5 1-3 of the population.

The total product of our agricultural industry, compared with our entire population, affords a not less gratifying result.

Our population in 1840 was 2,429,476. The crop of wheat, barley, oats, rye, buckwheat and Indian corn (see Northern Light, number 6, page 95) amounted to 51,376,908 bushels, or about 21 1-7 bushels for each inhabitant. The population of Great Britain in 1831 was Deduct Scotland

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16,539,318 2,365,114

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is an excess, therefore, comparing our product with that of England, of nearly eleven millions of bushels; or, in other words, the production of cereal grains in the State of New York exceeds that of England by about one quarter, when considered in reference to the population of the two countries. Nor is the basis of the comparison favorable to us. The population of England and Wales, as above given, is according to the enumeration of 1831, whereas the crop is taken from the estimate of a subsequent year; and in 1838 the population was estimated at 16 millions. In our product, Indian corn and buckwheat constitute important items, but they are not to be found in the English returns. The former is not raised at all in England as a crop, and the latter is rarely seen, though in a few cases it is allowed to ripen in small quantities, and in others it is cut down while in flower as a manure. On the other hand beans, which are an important crop in England, and are grown under the plough, are not included in our returns. But striking out Indian corn from our returns, a crop second only to wheat, and constituting more than one-fifth of our whole annual product of cereal grains, and we still show an annual crop of 40,294,746 bushels, equal within a fraction, to the product of England, considering the difference of population.

The population of France in 1836 was 33,540,910. The crop of wheat, rye, meslin, (rye and wheat mixed.) barley, oats and Indian corn, was, in 43 departments in the northeast and south-east of France, 84,595,773 hectolitres, which at 3 bushels for 1,090 43 hectolitre, amount to 238,243,004 bushels. This fact is taken from the report of the Minister of Agriculture and Commerce, for 1840, which embraces about one-half the territory and population of France. The agricultural statistics of the other half have not yet been obtained. If the product above stated be doubled, it will give for the whole kingdom a product of 476,486,008 bushels of cereal grains or about 14 1-4 bushels to each inhabitant.This is somewhat more than two-thirds of our product and not quite seven-cighths of the product of England, considering them relatively to population. The three countries, therefore, stand thus:

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The division line is the meridian of Paris, which severs the kingdom into two nearly equal parts, both in respect to territory and population, leaving on each side also 43 de

The crop of wheat, barley and rye, oats and beans in Eng-partments, 86 being the whole number in France. land and Wales (see Northern Light, number 4, page 57,) is 29,450,000 quarters, which at 8 bushels the quarter is 235,600,000, or about 16 3-5 bushels for each inhabitant. If our product of cereal grains had been in the same proportion to our population as that of England, it would have been but 40,381,634 bushels instead of 51,376,908. There

†The number of mules in Great Britain is so small that they are not taken into the account in the statistical returns of the kingdom.

In making up this amount for France, we, of course double the number actually obtained in one-half of the kingdom, supposing the two portions to be equal.

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with her our farms are large and imperfectly cultivated.These are defects which we might profitably correct now,

1 to 1 1-10 inhab. without waiting till we are impelled to it by the necessity of

1 to 3 17-100

1 to 3 9-10

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providing for a greatly increased population. The same labor and expense devoted to the cultivation of one half the surface occupied, would, in many cases, be a source of econo

- 2 1-5 for each inhab. my and profit, as well as comfort.

- 2 2-5

or one sheep for every 1 1-10 inhabitant.


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In live stock, therefore, we are in advance of Great Britain, except in respect to sheep, and in this respect we fall but little behind her. This fact is calculated to excite some surprise, as Great Britain has long occupied so high a rank among wool-growing countries. A comparison with France exhibits us far in advance of that kingdom in live stock, considering the countries relatively to population.

The aggregate agricultural product of a country is not, for obvious reasons, to be relied on as a criterion of the condition of its agriculture. We must see what proportion the product bears to the surface under cultivation, and the number of persons employed. Unfortunately we have not the means of testing the productiveness of our agriculture by the first of these standards. The extent of our cultivated surface is not exhibited by the returns we have received of our agricultural statistics as ascertained by the census of 1840. The area of the State of New York comprises 45,658 square miles. This includes rivers and small lakes, which may cover i600'square miles, making the territorial surface in round numbers 44,000 square miles, or 28,160,000 acres. Of this surface 9,655,426 acres, somewhat more than one-third, had in 1835 been improved, (i. e. settled,) though it was supposed that not more than one-half (or one-sixth of our whole area) was under profitable cultivation. The area of England and Wales is 57,812 square miles, or 36,999,680 acres. The land under tillage in England and Wales, including 1,650,000 acres under fallow, is 13,650,000 acres. The number of acres under tillage and fallow in this State does not probably exceed 5,000,000 acres. Our annual crop of cereal grains ought to be at least onethird of that of England and Wales to be equally productive -or about 78 millions of bushels, whereas it is less than 52 millions, or less than one fourth. We do not pretend to give this comparison as an accurate one, as the basis of the

estimate is not to be relied on.

But in respect to the number of persons employed, a nearer approximation to the truth may be attained. In England and Wales, as we have seen the number of persons of 20 years of age and upwards engaged in agriculture is 1,233,057. Dividing the crop of cereal grains by this number, it will give 191 1-100 bushels for each person employed in agriculture. Dividing our crop by the number of persons so employed, it will give 112 1-2 bushels for every such person, or not quite 6 to 10 compared with the annual crop of cereal grains in England and Wales, relatively to the number of persons employed in producing it.

From this comparison it results that our aggregate annual crop of grains greatly exceeds that of England and Wales, considered in reference to population: but considered in reference to the number of hands engaged in producing it, we are greatly behind that country. This indicates with us a less improved state of husbandry-a fact which has long been well understood. The prevalent tendency in old countries is to a greater sub-division of the soil among the class of occupiers, the same tendency prevails with us, but to a much more limited extent; and so it will be, as long as we have immense tracts of unoccupied land within our own boundaries, and in the new States and Territories west of us.Where lands are abundant, the system of husbandry is naturally superficial and careless. An agricultural population, restricted as to the surface it occupies, must compensate itself by improved modes of culture, increased labor, and a more generous application of fertilizing agents. This is the condition of England; and it has produced a perfection in her agriculture, with which few districts of the habitable globe will bear a comparison. If we compare ourselves

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But, on the whole, the view we have presented of our agriculture is highly gratifying, both in respect to the rank it holds in the scale of our domestic industry, and in respect to the comparison it bears with the agriculture of two of the principal countries of the old world. Yet there is a vast deal to be done to bring it to perfection, to develop fully the powers of the soil, and give it all the productiveness of which it is capable.

Illinois Tobacco.

It will be seen by the annexed article from the Chicago American, that a new section of country is beginning to be devoted to the cultivation of tobacco:

We congratulate our citizens upon the great accession to our resources just beginning to develop itself. Our readers generally, we presume are not aware that tobacco is now grown to a considerable extent in northern Illinois. This, we believe, is its second season. The counties of Winnebago and Ogle have the credit of adding tobacco to the other great staples of the northern portion of the State. Large quantities are raised in and near Bloomingville in the former county. Mr. Martin, late of Alabama, now residing about two miles from Rockford, recently cut a leaf from one of his stalks measuring three feet in length by two in breadth. Most of the farmers in the above mentioned counties have engaged in the cultivation of this crop. From two to ten raise it to its culture. So far it has produced from one thouacres is the quantity of land appropriated by those who sand five hundred to two thousand five hundred pounds to the acre. The net profits on each acre are calculated at raised in these counties has been already harvested and is from seventy to one hundred dollars. Much of the tobacco now drying under sheds which have been erected for that purpose. With regard to our soil as adapted to its cultivation, both are declared to be as suitable as any portion of the Union. It grows luxuriantly as may be readily inferred from the size of the leaf to which we have alluded. Southern men engaged in the cultivation of this tobacco say that our soil and climate are decidedly favorable to its growth. With regard to its quality it may be considered good to say the least. Cigars have already been manufactured from it, and a friend of ours who is both a lover and a judge of the weed says they are superior to the common American article. We anticipate with no small degree of pride the time when we shall add Tobacco to our "Chicago Market."

Silk Culture.

Robert Sinclair, of Baltimore, a member of the Society of Friends, raised in his cocoonery the present season, as a commencement, one hundred bushels of cocoons, which he has sold very advantageously. Mr. Allen of Brockport, in this State, who devoted 8 acres of his farm the present year to the silk culture, has raised a very large crop of silk, and is so well satisfied with his success that he is now ploughing up 14 acres more for planting mulberry trees. Several of his neighbors have with trifling attention raised 50 to 60 bushels of cocoons each, and in all cases at less expense than the bounty allowed by the State.-N. Y. Sun.

A Large Cargo.

The steamboat Louisa left our wharf yesterday, for New Orleans, with about as large and probably the largest cargo which has ever been carried from this port by one vessel.-She took in tow the two relief boats, and on them and in her hold she had exceeding 900 tons of freight, chiefly flour and lead, besides a large drove of horses. She will also take in more freight between this and the mouth.-St. Louis Republican.

Effect of the Monopoly on the Coal trade of the

We have frequently had occasion to call attention to the melancholy fact, that the coasting coal trade of the Tyne has been, of late years, from some cause or other, most completely paralyzed. It is painful for us to recur to the subject, but our duty-our desire to defend and promote the interests of this great district—compels us to do so. We blame the spirit of monopoly for all the mischief. The present parties engaged in the coal trade are, perhaps, less guilty than the contrivers and fosterers of the scheme which has been so productive of evil; but the time is arrived when the serious, and, to this neighborhood, vital question, must be considered, whether the attempt at monopoly can be longer persevered in with safety. We subjoin a table of a most important kind, which we have formed from official docu



have been persevered in or permitted, either in the shape of a "limitation of vend," or a submission to duties and charges could ever succeed in imposing upon rival ports. There which neither folly from within nor influence from without must be a new leaf turned over by both corporation and coal trade, or—we need not, we think fill up the blank).

Gateshead (Eng.) Observer.

Leavenworth's Canal Steam Tugger. During the past week [says the Albany Journal] "Leavenworth's Canal Steam Tugger" has been in operation upon the Erie Canal in this vicinity, using neither paddle, screw, or submerged water wheels, but is propelled by means of a rotary anchor. The machinery is put into a Lake Boat of the largest class, the engine, &c., occupying the forward cabin only. When propelled at the speed of seven miles an hour, although so large a boat, and drawing two feet six inches of water, she causes no surge to injure the banks of the canal.

She has taken two heavy loaded boats of more than one United Kingdom. Newcastle. Sunderland. Stockton hundred tons freight, over five miles an hour, and with twothirds of her power took three scows and two lake boats, Year. Tons. Tons. Tons. Tons. with two hundred and fifty tons freight, four miles an hour, 1820 4,554,308 2,004,759 1,102,327 Jil. and is capable of taking eight boats with four hundred tons 1821 4,376,695 1.831,650 1,050,443 Nil. freight four miles an hour, upon the enlarged canal, without *1,224 extra exertion. By this method a train of boats may be Nil. towed for less than half the expenses of towing with horses. Nil. She passes the locks without the least difficulty, and has no connexion with the tow-path.-Sun.

1822 5,066,253



1823 5,066,292 1,958,109


1824 5,000,000



1825 5,080,265




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1827 5,091,046

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1828 5,248,006 1,921,467 1,350,354 1829 5,854,378 1,956,829

10,754 32,182 66,051




Death of Gov. Owen of North Carolina. Just as our paper is preparing for press, the painful intelligence has reached us of the death of Gov. John Owen, which occurred at Pitsboro', Chatham county, on Saturday

No returns called for by Parliament in these years. morning the 9th inst., at 7 o'clock.

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The above table tells a sad tale of the Tyne. It shows that, although the general coal trade of the kingdom had increased during the 21 years ending 1840, from 14 millions to 7 millions of tons, or about 65 per cent., the trade of the Tyne only exhibited the insignificant improvement of about a quarter of a million upon two millions of tons, or not much more than 12 per cent.

The Tyne, as we said some weeks ago, has always been most shamefully treated. There was in former days the "Richmond shilling," payable only on coals shipped from the Tyne, but from that impost our river was at last relieved. Then, there is still the town duty payable to the corporation | of Newcastle, which we have already shown exceeds in amount the total of duty received by her Majesty on the whole coal trade of her dominions; and there are other duties and vexations (upon which, ere long, probably, we shall feel called upon to comment) which weigh upon the trade of the Tyne, and from which its competitors, close at home, are entirely exempt.

The coal trade of Newcastle seems to have been doubly unfortunate. It has been a prey to blind managers on the one hand, and to sharp-sighted overreachers on the other.Had common prudence and common watchfulness prevailed, in days gone by, either in the councils of the coal trade or of the corporation of Newcastle, it is impossible that the system of which we complain could have been so long suffered to continue-it is impossible that "restrictions" on sale could

These were the first shipments from Stockton :-and it is curious enough, that in 1770 there were landed in that port 4,096 chaldrons; in 1780, 222 chaldrons; and in 1790, 220 chaldrons.

Governor Owen filled for two years the Executive Chair of his native State, and would have been re-elected to that high station, by acclamation, if the use of his name had been permitted; but, in this matter be resisted all the efforts of his friends. He repeatedly represented the county of his resi dence, in the State Legislature, and filled other stations of trust and honor; and in all situations, his pleasing manners and uniform urbanity rendered him one of the most popular of our public men.

His illness, we learn, was rather lingering, but borne with a mild and cheerful fortitude.-Raleigh Reg.


In this city, Gen. CALLENDER IRVINE, Commissary General of Purchases.

J. Washington Tyson, late Surveyor of this Port succeeds him, and J. G. Watmough has been appointed in Mr. Tygon's place.

The Trial of Alexander McLeod, has resulted in his acquittal-and it is stated in the papers that he sailed in the Acadia for England. In our next No. we shall insert the charge of the Judge.

JOHN M. SCOTT, Esq., has been elected Mayor of Phila delphia, and was yesterday sworn into office.

The UNITED STATES COMMERCIAL AND STATISTICAL REGISTER, is published every Wednesday, at No. 76 Dock street. The price to subscribers is Five Dollars per annum, payable on the 1st of January of each year. No subscription received for less than a year.→ Subscribers out of the principal cities to pay in advance.

Where, and at 76 Dock St., Subscriptions will be received.

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