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(11) Amount of board and suel, if any, contributed for Public Schools, $152. (12) No. of incorporated Academies, .-Aggregate of months kept, .-Average No. of

Scholars, .-Aggregate paid for tuition, $ (13) No. of unincorporated Acadenties, Private Schools, and Schools kept to prolong Common

Schools, .-Aggregate of months kept, .--Average No. of Scholars, :-Aggre

gate paid for tuition, $ (14) Amount of Local Funds, $

--Income from same, $ Books USED.- :- Spelling-Webster's Elementary. Reading—Bible, English Reader, Easy Reader, Intelligent Reader, Easy Lessons. Grammar-Smith's. Geography-Olney's and Smith's. Arithmetic-Smith's and Daboll's.

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REMARK.—The town's proportion of the Surplus Revenue is applied to the support of schools. Amount, $1,141 00. Income, $68 46.

No REPORT from School Committee.

SCHOOL COMMITTEE.—ZECHARIAH DICKENSON, BENJAMIN BENNETT.

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SOUTHWICK,

(1) Population, 1,291. Valuation, $255,447 00.

Number of Public Schools, 9. (2) No. of Scholars of all ages in all the Schools In Summer, 259—In Winter, 287. (3) Average attendance in the Schools-In Summer, 212–In Winter, 233. (4) No. of persons between 4 and 16 years of age in the town, 349.—No. of persons under 4

years of age who attend School, :-No. over 16 years of age who attend School, (5) Aggregale length of the Schools, 82 mihs. 7 days.-In Summer, 48 14-In Winter, 33 21. (6) No. of Teachers in Summer-M. -F. 9.–No. of Teachers in Winter 5—M. -F. 4. (7) Average wages paid per month including board To Males, $22 00—To Females, $11 87. (8) Average value of board per month-of Males, $8 00 Of Females, $6 00. (9) Average wages per month exclusive of board—Of Males, $14 00—of Females, $5 87. (10) Amount of money raised by taxes for the support of Schools, including only the wages of

Teachers, board and fuel, $ (11) Amount of board and fuel, if any, contributed for Public Schools, $537 50. (12) No. of incorporated Academies, .-Aggregate of months kept, .- Average No. of

Scholars, -Aggregate paid for tuition, $ (13) No. of unincorporated Academies, Private Schools, and Schools kept to prolong Common

Schools, I.-Aggregate of months kept, 11.-Average No. of Scholars, 49.-Aggre

gale paid for tuition, $320. (14) Amount of Local Funds, $15,614 86.-Income from same, $930 88.

BUOKS USED.-Spelling-Webster's, Speller and Definer. Reading—Testament, Intelligent Reader, Child's Guide. Grammar-Smith's and Greenleaf's. Geography-Olney's, Peter Parley's and Village. Arithmetic-Sinith's. All others-Worcester's and Goodrich's Histories.

REMARK.—The town raised no money by taxes for the support of schools; but it expended $594 84 of the income of the local fund, and $147 of the income from the Surplus Revenue,—total, $741 84—for the support of schools.

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SELECTIONS FROM REPORT. * While there is nothing of unusual occurrence to encourage or discourage the people in town, from an effort to derive those great and permanent advantages to the community which our system of school instruction may be made to afford, yet we notice several things that ought not so to be. As to our schoolhouses, not more than half of them can be considered comfortable, convenient and pleasant, or not so much so as to afford an inducement to draw the scholars to them. We have not yet discovered any plan by which we can bring our schoolhouses equally near to every man's door in town, so but what some will feel that others are deriving greater

advantages than themselves. This feeling wrongfully operates to prevent the harmony, the concert in action, and the enterprise that ought to exist, before we can expect they will pay that attention to the location, the internal construction and repairs of the houses, necessary to render them inviting resorts for the scholars. Nor do we find this feeling is done away, as it might be, by the advantages that might be derived from our local funds and public moneys. Perhaps no town in the State, if in the country, is possessed as we are, of local funds and public money sufficient to pay the wages of teachers and procure fuel for all our district schools, and for our academy at least nine months in the year. We ought to have the best schoolhouses, good school apparatus, teachers, and every other facility for giving thorough education to our children. It is, and will be, far otherwise, while all feel that they have equal title, but not all equal privileges, and allow this feeling to lessen the interest felt, by parents and guardians. The actual result from the condition of our funds is believed to be, that we are less careful to secure to our children the worth of our money, by insisting on their punctual attendance, on a good supply of good school books, &c. than we should be, if our purses were taxed to pay a part of the expense.

As to other things,—respecting the proceedings of school committees, qualifications of teachers and the internal regulations of the schools, probably they do not differ materially from those in other towns in this vicinity. There is a too general deficiency in books, too much neglect of punctuality and too little interest felt in the success to be attained; and, as a general thing, a disproportioned attention paid to some branches of learning, far less conducive to the valuable purposes of life, than good reading, spelling and other first principles.

SCHOOL COMMITTEE.—THOMAS FLETCHER, Jos. M. FORWARD, P. W. STRONG.

SPRINGFIELD, .

Ş(1) Population, 9,234. Valuation, $1,594,529 00.

Number of Public Schools, 35. (2) No. of Scholars of all ages in all the Schools-In Summer, 1,529—In Winter, 1,649. (3) Average attendance in the Schools—In Summer, 1,322—In Winter, 1,485. (4) No. of persons between 4 and 16 years of age in the town, 2,247.-No. of persons under 4

years of age who attend School, 41.–No. over 16 years of age who attend School, 147. (5) Aggregate length of the Schools, 350 mihs.-In Summer, 191—In Winter, 159. (6) No. of Teachers in Summer-M. 6–F. 29.—No. of Teachers in Winter-M. 15–F. 21. (7) Average wages paid per month, including board— To Males, 830 00—To Females, $15 27. (8) Average value of board per month-of Males, $8 75–Of Females, $7 04. (9) Average wages per month, exclusive of board—Of Males, $21 25—or Females, $8 24. (10) Amount of money raised by taxes for the support of Schools, including only the wages of

Teachers, board and fuel, $6,221 71. (11) Amount of board and fuel, if any, contributed for Public Schools, $ (12) No. of incorporated Academies, 1.-Aggregate of months kept, 10.-Average number of

Scholars, 25.--Aggregate paid for tuition, $1,200 00. (13) No. of unincorporated Academies, Private Schools, and Schools kept to prolong Common

Schools, 8.-Aggregate of months kept, 10.-Average No. of Scholars, 31.-Aggre

gate paid for tuition, $ . (14) Amount of Local Funds, $24,665 00.-Income from same, $1,479 90.

BOOKS USED.-Spelling-Webster's Elementary. Reading-Child's Guide, Intelligent Reader, National Reader. Grammar-Smith's. Geography-Olney's, Smith's and Woodbridge's. Arithmetic-Smith's and Adams'. All others—Euclid, Davies? Algebra, Watts on the Mind, Lincoln's Botany, History U. S., Bible, Jones' Chemistry and Natural Philosophy.

REMARKS.-" The town voted, at its late annual meeting, to dispense with the High School, and to raise 25 per cent on the highest sum ever raised before for the benefit of the District Schools. The town also voted to employ a Superintendent of the Schools for the year to come, to act under the direction of the School Committee."

In answer to the question," what amount of money is raised by taxes for the support of schools," &c. the return states $6,221 71, but the sum set down, in the certificate, is $5,748 86. The reason of this difference does not appear.

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SELECTIONS FROM REPORT. * The committee are gratified to be able to state, that the schools, generally, have been somewhat superior to those of the year immediately preceding. In two districts, however, through the incompetence of the teachers of the winter schools, there has been an almost entire failure of success. Comparisons are likely to be regarded as invidious, and yet duty seems to require the committee to state, that some of the schools, in districts No. have very much surpassed the majority of the schools in the town, in the accuracy and extent of their acquirements. This is evidently owing to the superior education, skill and tact of the teachers of those schools. None but those who are acquainted with the circumstances and laws, under which the youthful mind makes the greatest attainments in knowledge, can conceive the immense advantage of having instructers in our schools who are masters of their profession, and who are ardently devoted to their work, rather than those ignorant, mercenary, time-serving pedagogues, who have

“Skulls that cannot teach, and will not learn." * Our form of civil government is republican. Our educational institutions, and especially our primary ones, should also be entirely republican in their character. The mode of raising funds by taxation, for the support of the Common Schools, recognizes this principle. All classes of citizens pay according to their valuation, and not according to the number of pupils they send to school. They are required to do this on the principle, that the rich should help to educate the children of the poor, because, under republican institutions, all classes must rise or fall together. The welfare of the whole requires, that the wealthy and influential should give their wealth and influence to promote the education of the commonalty. We need all the modifying and harmonizing influences of a system of school education which is strictly republican, to control and regulate those artificial distinctions in society, which affluence is ever tending to create. Hence, according to the theory of our civil and political in. stitutions, which declares the “ equality" of all men; and according to all sound views of what constitutes the nearest approximation towards perfection in the social state, the children of the President of the United States should be edu. cated in the same school, and on the same bench, as the children of the humblest individual, who gains a scanty subsistence by the sweat of his brow.

All private or select schools, then, are manifestly contrary to the genius of our institutions, and militate against the best interests of society. They withdraw from the Common Schools a vast amount of interest, and patronage, and influence, which is indispensably necessary to give to such schools the highest degree of efficiency and usefulness. No efforts of individuals, or of the Board of Education, or of the Legislature, can ever elevate the Common Schools to their proper position, so long as a large share of the children of our citizens are withdrawn from them, and educated in schools supported by private munificence. The committee feel as sensitively, perhaps, as any persons in the town, the danger, to which the manners and morals of their own children are exposed, by placing them in even those Common Schools which are the best regulated. But they have yet to learn, that the Private Schools are free from demoralizing influences, or that they are, after all, very much superior to the district schools in that respect. Take what course we may, we cannot, if we would, and we would not if we could, bring up our children in exhausted receivers. Children who should be educated, were it possible, apart from all commerce with the world, would possess that sickly, effeminate, greenhouse character, which would ill prepare them to act their part with success in the severe competitions of practical and busy life.

Less than $8,000 are expended in the thirty-seven Public Schools in this town, and it is believed, that, at least, half that sum, or $4,000, are yearly es

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pended in the eight Private Schools. If, then, by a magnanimous regard to the welfare of the Common Schools, and to render effective the exertions now making to elevate their character and increase their usefulness, the few Private Schools in the town should, by common consent, be discontinued, and the patronage 'now bestowed on them'should be devoted to the Public Schools, we might bave, perhaps, the most efficient Common Schools in the State. Twelve thousand dollars per annum, judiciously expended upon the Common Schools in this town, would probably give them a character, which would leave little to be 'desired. **

To render the schools in the highest degree efficient, a general re-modeling of the schoolhouses is indispensable. There is not a schoolhouse in the town, which is constructed on the most approved principle. In some of the rural districts, the schoolhouses ought to be rebuilt; in others, the houses would answer the purpose by a different arrangement of the seats, desks, &c. But in the large villages, where there are two or three hundred pupils in a district, and all of them attend school in the same building, there is a serious defect in the present arrangement. In four districts, there are four different schools in each, taught by separate teachers, in separate rooms, in the same house. In at least three of the schools, in each of these four districts, there are, for instance, two, three, or four classes in geography. In three rooms, in the same building, three recitations in geography are perhaps going on at one and the same moment; when those classes have finished, three others are called up to recite in the saine study; and when these have finished, three more are called to recite in the same branch. This is true, also, of many of the recitations in grammar, arithmetic, and other branches. Now here is a prodigious waste of time and expense, in hiring three teachers to attend, simultaneously, to recitations in the same branch, when one teacher could do it much better, were these three schools put into one, and were each teacher required to attend exclusively to some two or three branches, which are specially confided to the oversight of each of them respectively. If our largest schoolhouses could be so re-modeled, that the three most advanced schools could be put into one room, under the care of a head master, who should be competent in the highest branches taught in the district schools, and who should be aided by a sufficient number of assistant teachers, each of whom should be specially qualified to instruct in certain given branches, it would avoid the unnecessary and expensive course now purslied, of having three teachers engaged at the same time, in doing that which one teacher, thoroughly qualified, would do better. Adjoining the principal school-room, there should be two or three small recitation rooms, and the several classes, when they are successively prepared to recite, should be removed to them, so as not to interrupt the studies of the rest. Á school of 250 or 300 pupils can be conducted on this plan, much more economically and effectively, than to have them divided into three or four independent schools. With a master at the head of the school, who is an experienced disciplinarian, and a thorough going instructer, and with subordinate teachers, who, by long study and practice, have perfected themselves in certain given branches, the government of the school would be comparatively strict and paternal, and in the instruction incomparably more effectual.

The committee hope that the time will ere long arrive, when the town will employ a Superintendent of the schools, who, under the advice and direction of the school committee, shall devote himself exclusively to the improvement of them. No school committee, with their time almost wholly occupied with other duties, can be expected to inspect the numerous schools in this town, scattered over so wide a territory, as thoroughly as the 'law requires, and their interests demand.

A town as large, and as able as this is, will, it is believed, find its account in employing a Superintendent of the schools,—a man who is eminently fitted to the work,—who takes a deep interest in the intellectual and moral improvement of the rising generation,—who is highly intelligent, on the whole subject of popular education, who will deliver lectures in all the districts, upon the subject, make the best selection of school books and teachers, and who, in short, will devote his whole time to awaken and diffuse a deeper interest in behalf of the education of our youth, and to give to the schools that character,

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which shall meet the wants of the community. In closing their report, the committee cannot avoid expressing the conviction, that the work of perfecting our Common School system is truly Herculean, and that it is second in importance to none other, under the fostering care of the town. They, therefore, bespeak for it the serious attention, and the more liberal patronage, of all their fellow citizens. If it be true, as has been said, that “the man who shall make two spires of grass to grow where but one grew before, will be a benefactor to his country,” what measure of public gratitude is due to him, who is instrumental in producing an increase of intelligence, and sound morality, and pure religion, in the minds and hearts of the thousands of youth, who now inbabit, and who are yet to inhabit, this populous and flourishing town.

SCHOOL COMMITTEE.-DORUS CLARK, JEFFERSON CHURCH, SANDFORD Lawton.

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TOLLAND,

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(1) Population, 570. Valuation, $124,943 00.

Number of Public Schools, 7. (2) No. of Scholars of all ages in all the Schools-In Summer, 97–In Winter, 120. (3) Average attendance in the Schools—In Summer, 80—In Winter, 101. (4) No. of persons between 4 and 16 years of age in the town, 179.–No. of persons under 4

years of age who attend School, .-No. over 16 years of age who attend School, (5) Aggregate length of the Schools, 63 mths.-In Summer, 35—In Winter, 28. (6) No. of Teachers in Summer-M.-F. 7.—No. of Teachers in Winter-M. 1-F. 6. (7) Average wages paid per month, including board To Males, $21 00—To Females, $ 14 00. (8) Average value of board per month-Of Males, $700.-Of Females, $600. (9) Average wages per month, exclusive of board-Of Males, $14 00—Of Females, $800. (10) Amount of money raised by taxes for the support of Schools, including only the wages of

Trachers, board and fuel, $250. (11) Amount of board and fuel, if any, contributed for Public Schools, $432. (12) No. of incorporated Academies, -Aggregate of months kept, .-Average number of

Scholars, .--Aggregate paid for tuition, $ (13) No. of unincorporated Academies, Private Schools, and Schools kept to prolong Common

Schools, 1.-Aggregate of months kept, 3.-Average No. of Scholars, :-Aggre

gate paid for tuition, $78. (14) Amount of Local Funds, $

-Income from same, $ Books USED.-Spelling-Webster's and Town's. Reading-Rhetorical Reader, Parley's History and National Preceptor. Grammar-Smith's and Murray's. Geography-Smith's, Olney's and Huntington's. Arithmetic-Smith's, Botham's and Colburn's. Al others-Blake's Philosophy, Chemistry and Testament.

REMARKS.-Eighty-four dollars, the income of the Surplus Revenue, is appropriated, in addition to the amount raised by taxes, for the support of schools.

The average number of scholars in the Private School is not given.

SELECTION FROM REPORT We have the pleasure to state, that our schools have been under the best discipline; and the scholars have made the greatest progress that, perhaps, they have ever done in any preceding year. And the reason is very obvious. We have paid particular attention to the qualification of those, whom we have employed to instruct our children and youth in the various branches taught in our Common Schools. True, they have demanded higher wages, than we have heretofore been accustomed to give; but the profits have far overbalanced the extra wages; and we are now thoroughly convinced, that cheap workmen are the dearest in the end, in almost any employment. By having well qualified teachers, the ambition of the scholars has been raised to a high degree; and their attention has been taken up with their studies when out of school, as well as when under the immediate care of the teacher. The committee have been peculiarly gratified, on their visits, to see their engagedness, and to witness their progress, from time to time, in the various branches in which they have been engaged.'* * *

SCHOOL COMMITTEE.-ROGER HARRISON, Geo. W. GRANGER.

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