sovereignty of the popes; the restoration and decay of the Western empire of Charlemagne; the crusades of the Latins in the East; the conquests of the Saracens and Turks; the ruin of the Greek empire. the state and revolutions of Rome in the middle age. The historian may applaud the importance and variety of his subject; but, while he is conscious of his own imperfections, he must often accuse the deficiency of his materials. It was among the ruins of the Capitol that I first conceived the idea of a work which has amused and exercised near twenty years of my life, and which, however inadequate to my own wishes, I finally deliver to the curiosity and candour of the public.

June 27, 1787.



(N.B. The Roman numerals indicate the volumes; the Arabic figures the pages; the letters M., G., and S., the notes of Dean Milman, M. Guizot, and Dr. Smith respectively.]



ABAN, the Saracen, heroism of his widow in avenging his death, vi. 309. ABBAs, uncle of Mahomet, captured at the battle of Beder, vi. 249, note S.; his posterity, 281. ABBAsAH, sister of Harun al Rashid, account of, vi. 405, note S. ABBAssiDEs, or descendants of Abbas, history of the first caliphs collected or forged under their reign, vi. 275, note; their machinations against the house of Ommiyah, 390; establishment of their dynasty, 393. ABDALLAH, son of Abdol Motalleb, father of Mahomet, vi. 217. ABDALLAH, Ibn Saba, founds the sect of “The Return, vi. 272, note S. ABDALLAH, son of Jaafar, his expedition against the fair of Abyla, vi. 314; rescued by Caled, ib. ABDALLAH, son of Said, invades Africa, vi. 343; his history and character, ib. ABDALLAH, son of Zobeir ; his character, and wars against the house of Ommiyah, vi. 349. ABDALMALEK, caliph, resumes the conquest of Africa, vi. 350; refuses to pay the Greek tribute, 377; establishes a national mint, ib.; account of his coinage, ib. and note M. ABDALRAHMAN, or ABD ERRAHMAN, son of Caled, leader of the Saracens against Constantinople, vi. 375, note S.; expeditions into France, 386 and note S.; defeats Eudes Duke of Aquitain, 387 ; defeated by Charles Martel, and slain, 389. ABDALRAHMAN, sole surviving Ommiade, establishes that dynasty in Spain, vi. 393. ABDALRAHMAN III., caliph of Spain,


constructs the city and palace of Zehra, vi. 396; number of his happy days, 397. ABDELAziz, son of Musa, reduces the Mediterranean coast of Spain, vi. 361; his treaty with the Gothic Prince Theodemir, 362; marriage with Egilona, widow of Roderic, and death, 364. ABDICATION, Diocletian's, the first example of, ii. 98. ABDOL MoTALLEB, grandfather of Mahomet, vi. 216; compels Abrahah to raise the siege of Mecca,217; family history, ib. ABGARUs, King of Edessa, alleged correspondence of Christ with, vi. 137. ABGARUs, last King of Edessa, sent in chains to Rome, i. 343. ABLAvius, prime minister of Constantine the Great, satirizes that Emperor, ii. 355, note; massacred by Constantius II., 365. ApoRAs, or Araxes, boundary of the Roman empire and Persia, ii. 86; course of, 87, note S. ABRAHAH, slave of a Roman merchant, becomes King of the Homerites, v. 208; Arabian account, ib. note M.; overthrown by the Persians, 209; besieges Mecca, vi. 216; interview with and defeat by Abdol Motalleb, 217; helped by a miracle, ib. ABU AYUB, or Job, an Ansar and companion of Mahomet, his death and funeral at Constantinople, vi. 376; reverence paid to his memory and mosch in his honour, ib.; his sepulchre at Constantinople revealed, viii. 179; ceremony of girding the Sultans * sword of empire performed at, ib. ABU BERER, collects and publishes the

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Koran, vi. 228 and note; adopts and spreads the religion of Mahomet, 238; etymology of his name, ib. note S.; account of, ib.; accompanies Mahomet in his flight from Mecca, 242; chosen by Mahomet to supply his place, 260; address on Mahomet's death, 261 and note S.; election as caliph, and reign, 270; death, 271; leaves the sceptre to Omar, ib.; date of his death, ib. note S.; reduces the Arabs to submission, 286; cause of his ordering a collection of the Koran, 287, note S.; his frugality, 287; undertakes the invasion of Syria, 300; instructions to his generals, 301. ABU CAAB, chief of the Andalusian Arabs, his stratagem to retain them in Crete, vi. 408. ABULFEDA, character of his “Annales Moslemici, vi. 238, note S., 290, note; his description of the magnificence of the Caliph Moctader, 396; assists at the siege of Acre by Sultan Khalil, vii. 276. ABULGHAZI BAHADUR, his genealogical History of the Tatars, iii. 296, note. ABULPHARAGIUs, or Gregory Bar-Hebraeus, primate of the East, account of, vi. 55; his narrative of the destruction of the Alexandrian Library by Amrou examined, 336. ABU MosLEM, author of the “Call of the Abbassides,’ his character, vi. 391. Abt. NA, or primate of the Abyssinian church, vi. 64 and note. ABUNDANTIUS, patron of Eutropius, ruined and banished by that eunuch, iv. 141. ABU. OBEIDAH, general of Abubeker in the Syrian war, vi. 302; saves Damascus from sack, 311 ; conduct at the battle of Yermuk, 318; takes Jerusalem, 320 ; Aleppo and Antioch, 322; death, 326. ABU SAID, the Carmathian, conquers Bahrein, vi. 418. ABU SoPHIAN, chief of the branch of Ommiyah, and Prince of Mecca, meditates the death of Mahomet, vi. 241; his caravans intercepted by the Moslems, 249; fruitless siege of Medina, 250; surrenders Mecca and confesses the mission of Mahomet, 253. ABU TAHER, the Carmathian, son of

Abu Said, threatens Bagdad, vi. 419;


self-immolation of his followers, so. ; * Mecca and profanes the Caaba, 10. ABU TALEB, uncle and guardian of Mahomet, vi. 218; advises Mahomet to relinquish his mission, 239; opposes his doctrine, but protects his person, 240. ABYLA, fair of, its site, vi. 313, note; plundered by the Saracens, 314. ABYSSINIA, Christians of, still retain the Mosaic rites, ii. 161, note. ABYSSINIANs, or Axumites, Christianized by Frumentius, iii. 25; an Arab race, v. 206 and notes; their civilization, ib. ; subdue the Homerites, 207 and note M.; zeal for Christianity, *b. ; accept the alliance of Justinian, 208; expelled from Arabia by Nushirvan, 364; their church, vi. 64; Jacobitism established in by Theodora, ib.; visit of the Portuguese, ib.; mission of the Jesuits, 65; their Emperor submits to the Pope, 66; religious wars, ib.; expulsion of the Jesuits and return to the Monophysite doctrine, 67. ACACIUS, bishop of Amida, redeems 7000 Persian captives, iv. 167. ACACIUS, master of the bears, father of the Empress Theodora, v. 42. ACADEMY, Roman, members of, accused of paganism, viii. 119, note. ACCAIOLI, Italian family of, sovereigns of Athens, vii. 386. AccENTs, Greek, power of unknown to the first professors in the West, viii. 115. AccLAMATIONs addressed to the Greek Emperors, vii. 22. ACESIUs, Novatian bishop, rallied by Constantine, iii. 42, note. ACEPHALI, Egyptian sect of, vi. 32. ACHAIA, Roman province, its extent, i. 159. AcHELOUs, Greeks defeated at, by Simeon King of the Bulgarians, vii. 68 and mote S. AcHILLEs, the, of the Wandals, nephew of Hilderic, v. 97. AcHolius, bishop of Thessalonica, baptizes Theodosius the Great, iii. 363. Acolyth, or commander of the Warangi at Constantinople, vii. 20. AcRE, or Ptolemais, siege and conquest of by the crusaders, vii. 262; delivered by Edward I., 275; becomes


the metropolis of the Latin Christians, 276; dissoluteness and anarchy of, ib.; taken by the Sultan Khalil, ib. AcRoPOLITA, George, the logothete and historian, ignominiously punished by Theodore Lascaris II., vii. 360. ACTA Sanctorum, character of, iv. 189, note. ACTIONs, judicial, right of, how founded, v. 311; Roman laws respecting, ib.

sq. ACTIUM, victory of, state of the Roman world after, i. 196. ADAM, a prophet, according to the Koran, vi. 225; apocryphal books of, ib. note. ADARMAN, general of Nushirvan, his conquests in Syria, v. 365. ADAUCTUS, martyrdom of, ii. 276. ADDISON, his description of the Apennine, iv. 69, note. ADHED, last of the Fatimite caliphs of Egypt, vii. 253. ADHEMAR, bishop of Puy, Pope's legate in the first crusade, vii. 183; character, 198; death, 229. ADIABENE, name of Assyria, iii. 194, note. ADMIRAL, etymology of that name, vii. 20.

ADolphus, reinforces his brother-inlaw, Alaric, iv. 94; made count of the domestics to Attalus, 98; succeeds Alaric, 112 ; his political views, ib.; concludes a peace with Honorius, 113; marches into Gaul as a Roman general, ib.; marries Placidia, daughter of Theodosius the Great, 114; nuptial gift, 115; allies himself with Jovinus, 122; driven from Narbonne by Constantius, 125, note S.; marches against the barbarians in Spain, ib.; assassinated at Barcelona, 126. ADOPTION, two sorts of under the Greek empire, vii. 206 and note. ADORATION of the emperor, introduced by Diocletian, ii. 95; custom described, vii. 20; derivation of the term, ib. note, and note S. ADoRNo, governor of the Genoese colony at Phocaea, lends his fleet to Sultan Amurath II., viii. 69. ADRIAN I., Pope, alliance with Charlemagne against the Lombards, vi. 155; receives Charlemagne at Rome, 158; accepts the decrees of the second


Nicene Council with regard to images, 165; threatens the Greek emperors with excommunication, 167; his greatness, 168. ADRLAN IV., Pope, his vigorous measures against Arnold of Brescia, viii. 197; engages Frederic Barbarossa against him, ib. ADULIS, seaport, trade, v. 61; site, ib. note M. ADSLTERY, how punished by Augustus, v. 321; regulation of Severus respecting, ib. note; declared capital by the Christian emperors, 322; punishment mitigated by Justinian, 323; Mahomet's law respecting, vi. 267 and note S. ADULTREss, how punished by the Germans, i. 363, note. ADVENTUs, praetorian prefect, i. 273; resigns the empire to Macrinus, 275. AEDESIUS, the Platonist, initiates Julian in allegory, iii. 139; his school at Pergamus, 142. AEDUI, Gallic tribe, numbers and territory of, ii. 340; capitation of, under Constantine, ib.; modern dioceses comprehended in their territory, ib. 7votes. AEGIDIUS, master-general of Gaul, maintains an independent sovereignty during the sway of Ricimer, iv. 275; elected King of the Franks, 276; defeats the Visigoths at Orleans, 287. AELLA CAPITOLINA founded by Hadrian, ii. 159. AELIANUs, or Laelianus, competitor of Posthumus, medals of, ii. 18, notes. AELIANUs, leader of the Bagaudae, ii. 70.

AELIUS GALLUs, his invasion of Arabia, vi. 203, note. AEMILIANUs defeats the Goths, i. 387; saluted Emperor, ib.; letter to the senate, 388; murdered, ib. AEMONA (Laybach), its site and importance, ii. 140, note ; resists the arms of Maximus, iii. 382. AENEAs, story of his galley preserved at Rome, v. 228, note. AENEAs of Gaza, testifies to the extraordinary Catholic miracle at Tipasa, iv. 336. AENEAs SYLVIUs, his description of the impracticability of a European war against the Turks, viii. 184; his at

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