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ÆRAS. tempt to conduct one when raised to the papal throne as Pius II., ib. ARAS, Greek and Latin, how and when

adoptel, v. 95; remarkable of the world, ib., notes; ara of Cæsar, ac

count of, vi. 356; Gelalæan, vii. 166. AERIAL tribute, what, v. 67. ÆSTIANS, or Livonians, send ambas

sadors to Theodoric King of Italy, v.

15. Æstii, reduced by Hermanric, iii. 283 ;

a collective name, ib. note S. ÆTHIOPIA, attempted reduction of, i.

138; Christian princes of, iii. 84 and note M.; Christians of, their commer

cial relations with Justinian, v. 61. Aetius, surnamed the Atheist, account

of, ü. 59; his talents for disputation, 60; patronised by the Arian

bishops, ib. A Etive, general of Placidia, character, iv. 175; supports the usurper John, 176; plots against his rival, Count Boniface, ib.; battle with, 184; flies to the Huns in Pannonia, 185; who compel Placidia to restore him, 221; seizes the administration of the West, ib. ; character of by Renatus, ib. sq.; wise and vigorous government, 222; connexion with the Huns and Alani, 223; defeats Clodion near Artois, 228; forms an alliance with Theodoric King of the Ostrogoths, 223; relieves Orleans, 234; defeats Attila at Châlons, 237; alone opposes him in Italy, 244; urges the marriage of his son Gaudentius with the Princess Eudoxia, 249; murdered by

Valentinian III., ib. AFRICA, province of, i. 161; western,

limits of the Roman dominion in, 162 ; tribute, 296; revolts from Diocletian, ii. 76 ; rapid growth of Christianity in, 212; the last province Christianized, ib. note ; religious discord in, iii. 42; mal-aılministration of, by Count Romanus, 272; the Africans join the rebellion of Firmus the Moor, 273 ; quelled by Theodosius, 274; state of Africa described, 276; ancient fables respecting its interior, ib. ; Gildo the Moor transfers that province from Honorius to Arcadius, iv. 16; revolt of Count Boniface, 176 ; invasion of the Vandals, 178; persecution of the Donatists, 179; desolated by the Vandals,

AHRIMAX. 181 ; view of the Vandal persecution in, 330; reduced by Belisarius, v. 114; Catholic church re-established by Justinian, 115; civil government reinodelled, ib.; taxes of, increased by Justinian, 210; revolt of led by Stoza, 211; reduced, 214 ; desolation of, ib.; first invasion of by the Saracens, vi. 342 and note S.; limits of their conquests, 347; their final reduction of, 352; extinction of Christianity in, 369; conquests of the

Normans in, vii. 135. AGATHIAS, his account of the Franks,

iv. 363 and note ; continued the history of Procopius, 40; his cha

racter of the Persian language, v. 186. AGATHYRSI, vassal-tribe of the Alani,

iii. 315. AGAUxum, or St. Maurice, monastery

of, founded by Sigismond King of

the Burgundians, iv. 356. AGENTS (agentes in rebus), or spies,

number of, under Constantine, ii.

331, AGIAMOGLANS, Turkish class of, viïi. 74. AGLABITES, Saracen dynasty of,

founded, vi. 420. AOLAE, her passion for St. Boniface,

ii. 277 ; Lord Hailes' opinion of that

story, 278 note M. AGSAT3, what, v. 307; their right of

inheritance, ib. AGNE:, daughter of the Duke of

Brunswick, marrics Andronicus the
Younger, Emperor of Constantinople,

vii. 395 and note, Agrarian laws, Roman, related only

to the Ager Publicus, v. 304, note S. AGRICOLA defeats the Caledonians, i. 140; contemplates the reduction of Ireland, ib.; recalled, ib. ; his forts in Scotland, 141, rote S.; his origin,

ii. 309. AGRICULTURE, progress of in the West

em provinces, i. 189; decay of, in Italy, iv. 303 and note M. ; state of

in the East, under Justinian, v. 55. AGRIVECTIGALES, what, i. 302, note S. AGRIPPA, censor with Augustus, i. 197. AGRIPPINA, ambition of, i. 285. AHMED EBN ARABSHAH, his history of

Timour, and testimony respecting

Bajarret's iron cage, viii. 58. AHRIMAN, principle of evil among the

Persians, i. 334; final defeat of, 335 and note S.

AIX-LA-CHAPELLE. AIX-LA-CHAPELLE, Charlemagne's pa

lace at, how decorated, viii. 275. AIZNADIN, site of, vi. 306, note S.;

battle of, between the Roinans and

Saracens, 307; date of, 309, note S. AJAX, his sepulchre, ii. 291. AKBAH, lieutenant of Moawiyah, his

conquests in Africa, vi. 316; his expedition confounded with that of Musa, 348, note S.; founds Cairoan,

349 and note S. Alani invade Asia, ii. 39; repulsed by

Tacitus, ib. ; nation of the, described, iii. 315; worshipped a naked scimitar, ib.; vanquished by and united with the Huns, ib. ; their ethnology examined, ib, note S.; join Radagaisus in invading Italy, iv. 45 ; overrun Gaul, 51; settle in Carthagena and Lusitania, 125; colonies of, in Gaul, 223 and notes ; devoted to Aëtius, 224 ; arrival of the Turks

among the, v. 176. A LARIC, the Goth, learns the art of

war under Theodosius, iji. 400 ; leads the Gothic revolt in the reign of Honorius, iv. 24; invades Greece, ib.; passes Therinopylä, 25; takes Athens, ib. ; Corinth, Argos, and Sparta, 26 ; date of his invasion, 27, note S.; defeated by Stilicho, 28; escapes into Epirus, 29 ; concludes a treaty with Arcadius, ib.; made master-general of eastern Illyricum, 30; proclaimed King of the Visigoths, 31; invades Italy, ib.; defeated by Stilicho at Pollentia, 36; marches into Tuscany, 38; concludes a treaty with Honorius, ib.; defeated near Verona, 39, and note S. ; retreat, 39 ; renounces the service of Arcadius for that of Honorius, 57; appointed mastergeneral in Illyricum, ib.; demands reimbursement and a Western province as a settlement for the Goths, 58 ; requires hostages in security of his demands, 68; marches towards Rome, 69; blockades it, 90; insulting reception of the Roman ambassadors, 92 ; accepts a ransom, and raises the siege, 93; date of that event, 92, note S. ; marches into Tuscany, 93; reinforced, 94; his proposals to the court of Ravenna, ib. ; rejected by Olympius, ib.; renewed, 95; rage at the letter of Honorius, 96; takes the port of Ostia, 98; obliges the Romans to

ALBOIN. elect Attalus emperor in place of Honorius, ib. ; deposes him, 101 ; his friendship renounced by Honorius, ib.; third expedition against and sack of Rome, 102; moderation, ib.; evacuates the city, 109; ravages the south of Italy, ib. sq.; projects of

conquest, 112 ; death and funeral, ib. ALARIC, King of the Visigoths, inter

view with Clovis near Amboise, iv. 357; defeated and killed by Clovis

near Poitiers, 359. ALATHEUS and Saphrax, chiefs of the

Ostrogoths, after their defeat by the Huns, save their infant king, Witheric, iii. 318; solicit Valens for permission to pass the Danube, 322; pass by force, 324; voluntary re

treat, 351 ; death of Alatheus, 352. ALAUDA, Roman legion, i. 146, note ;

Gibbon's mistake corrected, ib.

note S. ALAVIVUS and Fritigern, judges of the

Visigoths, conduct them to the De

nube, iii. 318. ALBANIA, reduced by Trajan, i. 143. ALBANIANS, the, ravage the Morea, viii.

181. ALBERIC, son of Marozia, expels her

new husband, Hugh King of Bui gundy, from Rome, and seizes the government, vi. 185; supposed to have restored the consuls and

tribunes, ib, and note. ALBIGEOIS, persecution of the, vil.

58. ALBINUS, Clodius, Governor of Britain,

family and character, i. 246; declares against Julianus, 247; accepts the rank of Cæsar, 254; vanquished

by Severus, 255; death, 257. ALBINUS, the Pontiff, conversion of, iji.

412, note ; Gibbon's account of, from

Jerom, corrected, ib. note S. ALBINUS, friend of Boethius, accused of

treason, v. 30. AL Bocciari compiles the Sonna, vi.

229. ALBOFLEDA, sister of Clovis, married to

Theodoric the Great, iv. 350. ALBOIN, King of the Lombards, assists

Justinian against the Goths, v. 231 ; Gibbon's mistake respecting his forces corrected, ib. note M.; early prowess of, 332; adventure at the banquet of Turisund, 2b.; carries ofi Rosamond, daughter of the King of

ALBORNOZ.

ALEXIUS.
the Gepidæ, 333; contracts an alli ALEXANDER III., Pope, rejoots the al-
ance with the Avars, and defeats the liance of the Emperor Manuel, iii.
Gepidæ, ib.; undertakes the conquest 139; establishes the election to the
of Italy, 335; overruns the greater papal throne in the college of car-
part, 337; besieges Pavia, 338; makes dinals, viii. 211.
that city his capital, ib.; compels ALEXANDER, the Scribe, surnamed
Rosamond to drink from her father's Psalidium, fiscal minister of Justi-
skull, 339; assassinaud at her in- | pian in Italy, his oppressions, v. 217
stigation, 340.

and note S.
ALBORNOZ, Cardinal and Papal Legate, ALEXANDER SEVERUS: v. Severus.

his character, and treatment of Rienzi, ALEXANDRIA, massacre at, by Cara-
viii. 246 and note.

calla, i. 272; otherwise oppressed,
ALCUYMY suppressed in Egypt by Dio ib, note G.; described, 413 ; tumults

cletian, ii. 77; origin and progress of at, 414; religious disputes frequent,
that study, 78; infatuation of the ib. note M. ; statistical register, 415 ;
Arabians for, vi. 403.

taken by Diocletian, ii. 76; Christian
ALDUS MANUTIUS, his press, when es church of, in the reign of Hadrian,

tablished at Venice, viii. 118 and 210; bishops of, their succession, ib.

note; not the first Greek printer, ib. note; school of, üi. 46; Jews at,
ALEMANNI, origin, i. 393 ; name, ib.; embrace the Platonic system, ib.;

etymology of, ib. note S.; method of publish the Wisdom of Solomon,
fighting, ib. ; invade Gaul and Italy, 47; united the Mosaic faith and
ib.; repulsed from Rome, 394 ; re Grecian philosophy, ib.; Trinitarian
puted defeat at Milan, ib.; invade controversy revived at, 53; awful
Italy, ii. 13; defeated by Aurelian, earthquake at, 293 ; temple of Sera-
ib.; their embassy, 14; re-enter pis at, described, 417; library of
Italy, ib.; again defeated by Aurelian, the Ptolemies destroyed, ib. note ; a
15; vanquished by Constantius Chlo new one founded by Cleopatra, ib. ;
rus at Langres and Vindonissa, 75; Gibbon's account corrected, ib. note S.;
establish themselves in Alsace and library of the Serapeum, when de-
Lorraine, 412; defeated by Julian at stroyed, 419, note S.; taken by
Strasburg, 416; invade Gaul, iji. Chosroes II., v. 293 ; patriarch of,
257 ; defeated by Jovinus at Scar his miraculous loan to Heraclius,
ponna, 258; and on the Moselle, ib.; 399; besieged by Amrou, vi. 333;
at Châlons, ib.; by Valentinian I. at taken, 335 ; date, ib. note and note S.;
Mount Solicinium, 260; invade Gaul burning of the library of, 336; rea-
under Priarius, 331; their settle sons for doubting that fact, ib. sq. ;
ments on the Rhine and in Gaul, iv. authorities in confirmation of, 338,
349 ; defeated and subdued by Clovis notes M. and S.
at the battle of Tolbiac, ib. ; institu ALEXANDRIANS, character of the, i. 413.
tions of, ratified by the Merovingian ALEXIUS I., son of John Comnenus,
Kings, 365; invade Italy, v. 237; his character and education, vi. 116 :
overthrown by Narses, 240; limits takes Constantinople and deposes
of their country under Charlemagne, Nicephorus Botaniates, 117; ascends
vi. 174.

the throne, ib.; character and policy,
ALEPPO, siege and capture of, by the 118; a hypocrite, 119; efforts to

Saracens under Abu Obeidah, vi. convert the Paulicians, vii. 56; burns
322 ; taken and sacked by Nicephorus Basil, the monk, ib.; marches to
Phocas and Zimisces, 427 ; taken the relief of Durazzo, 122; army,
and sacked by Timour, viii. 51; how composed, 123; defeat and flight,
cadhis of, their interview with him, 125; atle defence, 126; alliance with
52; city burni, 58.

the emperor Henry III., 127; alli-
ALEXANDER, Archbishop of Alexandria, ance with the Venetians, 130; naval
excommunicates Arius, ü. 53.

defeat, 131 ; invokes the aid of the
ALESANDEB, uncle and colleague of Latins against the Turks, 171 ; sends

Constantine VII., Porphyrogenitus, an embassy to the council of Plan
his vices and death, v. ioi.

centia, 180; induces the crusaders to

ALEXIUS.
cross the Bosphorus, 194; anxiety on
the approach of the crusaders, 204 ;
suspicious policy towards the Latins,
205; obtains the homage of the
crusaders, 206 and 208, note ; adopts
Godfrey of Bouillon, 206; recovers
Nice, 212; enlarges his empire dur-

ing the crusades, 237.
ALEXIUS II., Comnenus, Emperor of

Constantinople, vi. 123; deposed by

Andronicus, 128 ; and murdered, 129.
ALEXIUS III., Angelus, usurps the

throne of his brother Isaac, vii. 287;
supineness and despondency on the
approach of the crusaders, 300; flies
from Constantinople, 305; receives
and blinds Mourzoufle, 325; sent

prisoner to Italy, 326.
ALEXIUS IV., son of Isaac Angelus,

flies from his uncle, who had usurped
his father's throne, vii, 288; forms
an alliance with the French and
Venetian crusaders, 296; his pro-
mises, 297; crowned with his father,
306 ; persuades the crusaders to re-
main at Constantinople, 307; de-
posed and murdered by Mourzoufle,

310.
ALESIUS Strategorulus, Cæsar, and

general of Michael Palæologus, takes

Constantinople, vii. 344.
ALFRED the Great, religious rigour of,

iv. 341; his ambassadors visit the
shrine of St. Thomas at Madras, vi.

51 and note.
ALGEBRA, invented by Diophantus, vi.

401,
ALGEZIRE, name of the town of Count

Julian, in Spain, vi. 356.
ALHORR, invasion of France by, vi. 386

and note S.
ALI, son of Abu Taleb, embraces the

doctrine of Mahomet, vi. 238;
prowess, 252;

marries Fatima,
daughter of Mahomet, 268; cha-
racter, 269 and 270, note M. ; waives
his claim to the caliphate in favour
of Omar and Othman, 271; succeeds
Othman, 272; his simple manners,

how regarded by the Shiites, ib.;
sect of The Return' founded in his
favour, ib, note S.; his inauguration,
274 ; reign, ib.; defeats the rebels
Telha and Zobeir, 275; valour and
humanity in the war. with Moawi-
yah, ib. and note 8.; vanquished and
ASSARSinatod, 276; date, ib. note 8.;

AMALAFRIDA.
tomb at Cufa, 277 and notes ; pogo

terity, 280.
ALIGERN, brother of Teias, defends.the

royal treasure at Cumæ, v. 235 ; in-
trepid conduct, 237; takes service
under Narses, ib.; commandant at

Cesena, 238.
ALITURUS, a Jewish actor under Nero,

ii. 236 and note.
ALLECTUS murders Carausius and seizes

Britain, ii. 72; slain, 73.
ALLOBICH, commander of the guards,

assassinated by order of Honorius,

iv. 96.
Alma, mount, vineyard planted by the

soldiers of Probus, ii. 51.
ALMAMON, caliph, his splendour, vi.

395 ; encouragement of literature,

398; and astronomy, 401.
ALMANSOR, caliph, founds Bagdad, vi.

394 ; his riches and splendour, 395 ;

encouraged science, 398.
ALMOHADES, or Princes of Morocco, vii.

134.
ALMONDAR, Arab King of Hira, sup-

ported by Chosroes Nushirvan in his

dispute with Arethas, v. 188.
ALMUS, King of the Hungarians, vii. 71.
ALP ARSLAN, son of Togrul Beg, sultan

of the Turkmans, vii. 157 ; conquers
Armenia and Georgia, 158 ; defeats
and captures Romanus Diogenes, 161;
assassinated by Joseph, the Cariz-
mian, 163; dying reflections, ib.;

character, 164; epitaph, ib.
ALPHABET, Mæso-Gothic, invention of,

by Ulphilas, iv. 323 and note M.
ALPHONSO the Chaste, his Spanish

dominions, vi. 176.
ALPs, passages of, ii. 127 and notes ;

route of Hannibal over, ib. note S. ;

roads over, 128.
Altai, mountain of Central Asia, v.

172, note S., 173.
ALYPIUS, commissioned by Julian to

restore the temple of Jerusalem, iii.

159.
AMALA, King of the Goths, i. 379.
AMALA, a name of hereditary sanctity

and honour among the Ostrogoths, v.
1, note M.; Sanscrit etymology of,

ib. 2.
AMALI, royal line of the, v. 1 and note.
AMALAFRIDA, sister of Theodoric the

Great, marries Thrasimond, Vandal
King of Africa, v, 125; captivity and
death, ib.

ib.;

AMROU.

AXALASONTHA,
AMALASONTHA, daughter of Theodoric,

erects a splendid tomb for his re-
mains, v. 34; her birth and cha-
racter, 125; marries Eutharic, 126;
becomes guardian of her son Athalaric,
and regent of Italy, ib. ; her counsels
directed by Cassiodorus, ib.; negociates
with Justinian, 127; marries Theo-
dotus, and sizes the throne of Italy,

128; imprisonment and death, ib.
AMALPHI, story of the discovery of the

Pandects at, v. 287 and note M.;
Roman colony of, 348; city described,
vii. 115; trade, 116; present state,
ib. note G.; republic of, promoted
pilgrimage and trade to the East, 172

and note.
AMALRIC, or Amaury, King of Jeru-

salem, character, vii. 252; unsuc-

cessful attempt upon Egypt, 253.
AMANDUS, leader of the Bagaudæ, ii. 70.
AMANTIUS, eunuch of Anastasius, out-

witted by Justin, v. 36 ; beheaded on

a charge of heresy, 37.
Amazons, existence of, examined, ii.

27, note and note M.
AMBASSADORS, ancient treatment of,

v. 205 and note.
AMBER, i. 191 and 192 note; analysis

of, v. 14, note.
AMBITION, reflections on, vi. 132.
AMBROSE, St., lively expression con-

cerning heresy, iii. 56; his birth and
early history, 376; refuses to the
Empress Justina the liberty of Arian
worship, 377; further disputes with
her, 378; triumph of Ambrose, 379;
banished, but refuses to obey, 380;.
exhumes the bones of the martyrs
Gervasius and Protasius, ib.; their
miraculous power, 331; influence of
Ambrose over Theodosius, 393; re-
fuses to administer the eucharist to
him after the massacre of Thessa-
lonica, 394 ; refuses him admittance
into the church, and subjects him to
public penance, ib. sq.; character of
Ambrose's writings, ib. note ; refuses
to acknowledge the usurper Eugenius,
402 ; opposes the petition of Symma-
chus in favour of the goddess of Vic-

AMELOT de la HOUSSAIE, character of

his 'Histoire de Venise,' iv. 244, note,
AMIDA, city described, ii. 407 ; be

sieged by Sapor, ib. ; identical with
Diarbekir, ib. note ; captured by the
Persians, 409; date of that event, ib.
note S. ; receives the banished citizens
of Nisibis, iii. 225; long and de-

structive siege of by Cabades, v. 86.
AMINA, the Zabrite, her marriage with

Abdallah, son of Abdol Motalleb, vi.
217; whether a Jewess, ib. notes M.
and S. ; her dream after giving birth

to Mahomet, ib. note S.
AMIR, Turkish Prince of Ionia, his

character and friendship for John
Cantacuzene, viii. 25; rescue of, and
delicacy towards the Einpress Irene,

ib. ; slain at Smyrna, 26.
AMIROUTZES, George, protovestiarius of

Trebizond, letter on the capture of

that city, viii. 182, note M.
AMMATAS, brother of Gelimer, his rash-

ness and death, v. 108.
AMMIANUS MARCELLINUB, sarcasm re-

specting the power of Eusebius, ii.
387; character as a writer, 389,
note; took part in the defence of
Amida, 407, note ; his character of
the religion or superstition of Con-
stantius II., iii, 67 ; of the Christians,
96 ; account of the præternatural
obstacles to the rebuilding of the
temple of Jerusalem, 160; account
of the vices of the church of Rome
under Valentinian, 255; his impar-
tiality, 346; description of Roman

manners in his own times, iv, 77.
AMMON, the mathematician, his ac-

count of the walls of Rome corrected,

iv. 88, note S.
AMMONIUS, the monk, his body how

honoured by Cyril of Alexandria, vii.

13.
AMMONIUS, neo-Platonist, ii. 104.
AMORIAN war, vi. 413.
AMORIUM, birthplace of the Emperor

Theophilus, vi. 414; ruins of, ib.
note $. ; taken and destroyed by the

caliph Motassem, 415.
AMPOULLE, Sainte, brought down for

the baptism of Clovis, iv. 351, note.
AMPHILOCHIUB, bishop of Iconium,

orthodox bon mot of, iii. 364.
AMPHITHEATRE of Titus described, ii.

59; height, ib. note.
Amrou, converted to Mahometanism,

tory, 410,

AMBROSIUS AURELIAN, the Roman, de-

fender of Britain from the Saxons,
iv. 392 and notes ; confounded with

Natanleod, ib, note.
AMELIUS, neo-Platonist, ii. 104.

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