BATTLE-AXE; a weapon much used in struction in the hands of the Highlanders the early part of the middle ages, particu- nearly to the present period, and is still larly by the people who fought on foot. used, by the city-guard of Edinburgh, in It was not uncommon, liowever, among quelling riots, &c. the knights, who used also the mace, a BATTLE-PIECE; a painting which repspecies of iron club or hammer. Both resents a battle, exhibiting large masses are to be seen in the different collections of men in action. The armor of the anof old arms in Europe. Both these cients, and the whole array and action of weapons, and another kind, called, in their battles, afford subjects much more German, Morgenstern (morning star), con- favorable to the artist than the straight sisting of a staff, having an iron ball at lines, or condensed columns, and the firethe end, with cross iron spikes, served to arms of the moderns. A painter of batgive stunning blows, whose force was tle-pieces ought to have an accurate felt through the iron armor of the knights. knowledge of the appearance of horses Knights used chiefly the Morgenstern and men, and, if possible, to have seen a and the mace. The Greeks and Romans battle, as few persons are able to form did not employ the battle-axe, though it from hearsay an accurate idea of such a was found among contemporary nations. scene. Some of the greatest pieces of In fact, the axe is one of the earliest this kind are, the battle of Constantine, weapons, its use, as an instrument of do- of which the cartoons were drawn by mestic industry, naturally suggesting its Raphael, and which was executed by application for purposes of offence; but, Giulio Romano; Lebrun's battles of Alat the same time, it will always be aban- exander, and the battles of the Amazons, doned as soon as the art of fencing, at- by Rubens. From these may be distintacking and guarding is the least culti- guished the skirmishes, surprises, &C., vated ; because the heavier the blow which are represented with so much given with this instrument, the more will skill by Antonio Tempesta, John Snelit expose the fighter. It is a weapon link, Jos. van der Velde, John Asselyn, which affords hardly any guard, and it Peter Sneyers, Robert von Hoek, Fulnever would have remained so long in cone, called oracolo delle battaglie, James use in the middle ages, had it not been Courtois, Francis van der Meulen, Philip for the iron armor, which protected the Wouvermann, Charles Breydel, Henry body from every thing but heavy blows. Verschuuring and George Philip RugenIn England, Ireland and Scotland, the das. battle-axe was much employed. At the BATTOGES, BATTACKS; two thin sticks, battle of Bannockburn, king Robert Bruce with which criminals in Russia were clave an English champion down to the formerly beaten upon their naked backs chine with one blow of his axe. A blow The criminal was laid upon the ground, of equal force was given by a Suabian and one of the executioners sat upon his knight, in the Levant, in presence of the head, another upon his feet. By the code German emperor. The Lochaber axe of Catherine II, this pinistiment was remained a formidable implement of de- abolished.


BATTUECAS, Las; two valleys, enclosed of this cavern is derived from a miner

dom of Leon, 50 miles from Salamanca, finding ore, but lost his way, and wander about a Spanish mile long, and so inac- ed about for two days before he could find cessible that the inhabitants are said to the entrance. He soon after died. have been unknown to the Spaniards for BAUMGARTEN, Alexander Gottlieb, born, several centuries. However, a convent of in 1714, at Berlin, an acute and clear Carmelites was built in the Battuecas val thinker, of the school of Wolf, studied at leys as early as 1559. They are situated Halle, and was, for a time, professor exso low, that, in the longest days, the sun traordinary there. In 1740, he was made only shines there for four hours. The com- professor of philosophy at Frankfort on the mon account, that these valleys were dis- Oder, and died there in 1762. He is the covered in the 16th century, by two lovers, founder of æsthetics as a science, and who fled there to escape the pursuit of the inventor of this name. He derived their families, has been declared by father the rules of art from the works of art and Feyjoo to be unfounded. Madame de their effects. Hereby he distinguished Genlis has founded upon this story her himself advantageously from the theorists romance Las Battuécas (Paris, 1816, 2 of his time. (See Esthetics.) His ideas of vols.); but she labors under a mistake this science he first developed in his acawhen she asserts that M. de Bourgoing, demical discussion, De Nonnullis ad Poema in his Travels through Spain, has quoted, pertinentibus (Halle, 1735, 4to). George Fr. as a historical fact, what she relates of Meier's Principles of all Liberal Sciences the Battuecas.

(3 vols., Halle, 1748-50) originated from Baucis; a Phrygian woman; the wife his suggestions. Eight years later, B. of Philemon. They received Jupiter and published his Esthetica (Frankfort on the Mercury hospitably, after these gods had Oder, 1750–58, 2 vols.), a work which been denied hospitality in the whole death prevented him from completing. country, while travelling in disguise. A BAUSE, John Frederic, a distinguished deluge destroyed the remainder of the German engraver, born at Halle, in 1738, people, but Philemon and Baucis, with died at Weimar, 1814. He resided chief their cottage, were saved. They begged ly at Leipsic, where he executed many the gods to make their cottage a temple, highly esteemed engravings. He was a in which they could officiate as priest and member of several academies of fine arts. priestess, and that they might die togeth- BAUTZEN, or BUDESSIN; capital of Uper; which was granted. Philemon and per Lusatia, in the part belonging to the Baucis are therefore names often used to king of Saxony, upon a height defended indicate faithful and attached married on the west side by steep rocks, the foot people.

of which is watered by the Spree. Among BAUMAN ISLANDS; a cluster of islands the 11,500 inhabitants, who are princiin the South Pacific ocean, discovered, in pally Lutherans, there are a great number 1722, by Bauman, in his voyage round of Wendes, or descendants of the Vandals, the world with Roggewein. All the in- who worship in a Lutheran and in a habitants, says a writer, are white; some Catholic church, in their own language. of them burned by the sun: they are The German part of the population, both numerous, and armed with bows and ar- Catholic and Protestant, worship together rows, but represented as of a gentle and in the cathedral : the former are in poshumane disposition, and friendly to stran- session of the third part of it, including gers. The largest island is about 21 or the high altar, sufficiently large for the 22 miles in circumference, with good an- small Catholic congregation ; the nave chorage. Lon. 173° W.; lat. 123 s. serves the Lutheran community as their

BAUMANN'S CAVERN (in German, Bau- parish church, and the mutual spirit of mannshöhle); an interesting natural cavern toleration in both parties has, in recent in the Harz, in the principality of Blan- times, prevented trouble from such an kenburg, on the left bank of the Bode, arrangement.--Here was fought, on the about five miles from Blankenburg, in a 20th and 21st of May, 1813, the second limestone mountain, consisting of six great battle in the campaign of the Prusprincipal apartments, besides many small- sians and Russians against the French. er ones, every where covered with stalac- The allies had been compelled, after the tites. The earthy ingredients of these battle of Lützen (May 2, 1813), to retreat petrifactions are held in solution by the to the right bank of the Elbe, and prewater, which penetrates the rock, and pared themselves, near Bautzen on the deposits a calcarious stone. The name Spree, for a new engagement. Although


the army of Napoleon was far superior in and, according to Mannert, was never number, being strengthened by reën- subjected to the Ostrogoths. When the forcements froin France, Italy and the Franks took possession of Rhætia, the troops of the confederation of the Rhine, Baioarians became subject to them. The so as to amount to about 148,000 men, people, however, still retained the liberty yet the allies determined to risk a battle, of choosing their own rulers. After the that Prussia might gain time for its levies division of the empire of Charlemagne, in Silesia, and Napoleon be checked in his this region was disturbed, like the rest of

desirable that the wavering cabinet of Aus- dukes, till the time of Otho the Great, tria should be convinced that the army was count palatine of Wittelsbach. Otho, the able to make a stand against the enemy, ancestor of the present dynasty, died in and that the courage of the new Prussian 1183. His successor, Louis I, enlarged recruits should not be damped by contin- the Bavarian territory, and acquired the ual retreat, but, on the contrary, their palatinate of the Rhine. He was murwish for battle gratified. On the morning dered in 1231, probably at the instigation of May 20, Napoleon disclosed his plan of Henry, whose rebellion against his of attack. In the evening, the French father, the emperor Frederic II, the duke had gained the city of Bautzen. On the had censured. He was succeeded by his 21st, the fight continued until 4 o'clock son Otho, the Illustrious, palatine of the in the afternoon, when the allies resolved Rhine. Under his reign, the bishops on a retreat, which was performed in such made themselves independent. His doorder, that Napoleon was not able to gain minions, however, were considerably inany immediate advantage from his victo- creased. His attachment to the emperor ry. The field of battle was covered with involved him in the excommunication the dead, and was lighted by 30 burning pronounced against that prince. He died villages. The French loss was about in 1253. His sons, Louis and Henry, 8000 men killed, and 18,000 wounded; reigned for two years in conjunction. In that of the allies, between 8 and 12,000. 1255, they divided the territories, Louis Napoleon, to encourage his troops, assign- receiving Upper and Henry Lower Baed 25,000,000 francs for the erection of a varia. The line of the latter became monument upon mount Cenis, as a token extinct a few years afterwards. The inof his gratitude towards the French and heritance of the unhappy Conradin of Italian troops. The rear of the allies Hohenstaufen fell into the hands of these repulsed two serious attacks, and, contrary princes. One of the two sons of Louis to the expectations of Napoleon, they was raised to the imperial dignity, in marched to the intrenched camp of Pűl. 1314, under the title of Louis IV (q. v.), zen. But Lauriston occupied Breslau. called the Bavarian. He entered into an The position of the allies, threatening the agreement with the sons of his brother right wing of the French army, the great (Pavia, 1329) for the division of the doloss which the French had suffered, and minions of the family. In consequence the detached corps, which cut off Napo- of this agreeinent, king Maximilian Joleon's communication with Saxony, in- seph united all the dominions of the duced him to accede to a suspension of Wittelsbach dynasty in 1799. After the arms on the 4th of June, near the city of extinction of the Lower Bavarian line, Jauer. (See War of 1812-1815.)

the emperor Louis, by the desire of his BAVARIA. At the time of the general states, united Lower with Upper Bavaria. migration of the barbarians, the regions The emperor introduced a new code of formerly inhabited by the Boži, the Celts laws for Upper Bavaria, a new organizaof the Danube, were taken possession of tion of the courts for Lower Bavaria, conby some German tribes. This country, ferred the privileges of a city on Munich, in the time of Cæsar, had been a waste, and reduced to order the internal adininand, in the time of Augustus, a Roman istration. He died Oct. 11, 1347, leaving province (Vindelicia and Noricum). At six sons by two marriages. His dominthe end of the fifth century, these tribes- ions included Bavaria, Brandenburg, the the Heruli, the Rugians, the Turcilingians provinces of Holland and Zealand, Tyrol, and the Skyres-formed a confederacy, &c. These provinces were soon lost by like those of the Franks and the Mar, the divisions and dissensions of the difcomanni, under the name Baioarians. ferent lines. Most of the lines founded They spread from Noricum westward to by the six brothers early became extinct. the Lech. Ratisbon was their chief seat. In 1506, a diet of the states of Upper and This country was then called Noricum, Lower Bavaria was assembled by duke BAVARIA.

Albert II, who, with the consent of his fortunate for the king of Prussia, he brother Wolfgang, and of the estates, claimed the whole Austrian territory, published a pragmatic sanction, intro- subjected all Upper Austria, assumed the ducing the law of primogeniture, and title of archduke of Austria, after the capfixing the allowance of the younger sons. ture of Prague in the same year received Albert died in 1508. Of his three sons, homage as king of Bohemia, and was William IV, Louis and Ernest, William elected emperor of Germany, at Frankought, accordingly, to have been his sole fort, 1742, under the title of Charles VII. heir. The authority was, however, di- But here his fortune began to decline. vided, after much contest, between Wil- As he had received the homage of Ausliam IV and Louis, until the death of the tria and Bohemia, so, after the sudden latter, in 1534. These princes were both change in the fortune of the war (1743), opposed to the reformation. Luther's Maria Theresa obliged the states of Bavamost violent opponent, John Eck, lived at ria, and of the upper palatinate, to swear Ingolstadt, under their protection, which allegiance to her. Notwithstanding his they also extended to the Jesuits. Wil- alliance with the landgrave of Hesseliam died in 1550 ; his son Albert V, the Cassel and Frederic II (1744), and the Generous, succeeded him. He also fa- progress of the Prussian arms, Charles vored the Jesuits, but was a liberal patron was compelled, by the superior talent of of the arts and sciences. The states re- the Austrian general, Charles of Lorraine, ceived from him great privileges. He to expose Bavaria. He did not live to died in 1579. Of three sons, the eldest, see the end of the war, but died Jan. 20, William V, the Pious, succeeded him, 1745. His son and successor, Maximilian and, in 1596, resigned the government to Joseph III, who also assumed, at first, his eldest son, Maximilian I, and retired the title of archduke of Austria, made 10 a monastery. Maximilian, a prince of peace with Austria soon after, at Fussen distinguished abilities, was the soul of the (April 22, 1745), became one of the guarleague formed against the Protestant antees of the pragmatic sanction, promunion. In the course of the 30 years' ised the archduke Francis his vote in the war, which had just broken out, Maxi- election of emperor, and received, in remilian was invested, by the emperor Fer- turn, all the Bavarian territories which dinand II (1623), with the dignity of had been conquered by Austria. Maxielector palatine. The peace of West- milian Joseph devoted himself entirely to phalia confirmed Maximilian in the elec- the good of his country. He encouraged toral dignity and the possession of the agriculture, manufactures, mining; reguupper palatinate, in return for the renun-lated the judicial establishments, the pociation of Upper Austria, which had been lice, the finances, and institutions for pledged to him for 13,000,000 florins, ex- instruction; the sciences were promoted penses of war; and, on the other hand, by the foundation of the academy of scia new electorate, the eighth, was estab- ences at Munich, in 1759, and the fine lished for the palatinate line, and its suc- arts found in him a liberal protector. He, cession to the title and territory of the himself without children, confirmed all original electorate was settled, in case of the contracts relating to the inheritance, the failure of the line of William. Max- which had been made with the electoral imilian died Sept. 27, 1651, after a reign line of the palatinate since the treaty of of 55 years. He was succeeded by his Pavia (1329). In compliance with the son Ferdinand Maria, who was succeed- treaties of the house of Wittelsbach, as ed, in 1679, by his eldest son, Maximilian well as with the terms of the peace of Emanuel. In the war of the Spanish suc- Westphalia, the right of succession in cession, the elector declared for France. Bavaria reverted, undeniably, to the elecAfter the unfortunate battle at Blenheim, tor of the palatinate, since the WittelsBavaria was treated by the emperor bach-Bavarian line became extinct on as a conquered country. The elector the death of Maximilian Joseph, 30th of was put under the ban of the empire in Dec., 1777. Austria then laid claim to 1706, and was not reïnstated in his goy- Lower Bavaria, and attempted to support ernment till the peace of Baden (1714). her demands by arms, without any previAfter his death, in 1726, Charles Albert ous declaration of war. Charles Theosucceeded him in the electoral dignity. dore, being without children, was perAlthough he had signed the pragmatic suaded to sign a treaty (Jan. 3 and 14, sanction of the emperor Charles VI, yet, 1778), formally renouncing the Bavarian after the death of the emperor, and the succession. But the duke of Deux-Ponts, beginning of the first Silesian war, so uncle of the reigning king, the nearest


agnate and presumptive heir, encouraged

essentially affected Bavaria.

Whilst it

that renunciation. This was the origin the Rhine, and also the lands of the paof the war of the Bavarian succession, latinate on the right bank, it obtained, on which was terminated, without bloodshed the other hand, by an imperial edict, an (owing chiefly to the Russian declaration indemnification, by which it gained, in of war against Austria), by the peace of addition to the amount lost, a surplus of Teschen, May 13, 1779. The possession 2109 square miles, and 216,000 inhabitants. of Bavaria, from which Austria obtained The political importance of Bavaria, with only the Innviertel, with Braunau (800 respect to Austria as well as to France, was square miles), was secured to the elector more fully displayed in the war of 1805. palatine of Bavaria, according to the fam- When Austria resumed hostilities against ily compacts. By this union of the Ba- France, she required the elector of Bavavarian dominions, the eighth electorate ria to unite his troops with the Austrian became extinct, according to the terms army, and refused to allow him to remain of the peace of Westphalia. In 1784, neutral, “which (as the emperor Franhowever, the possession of Bavaria again cis wrote to the elector, Sept. 3, 1804) became an object of desire at Vienna, France herself would only suffer as long and an exchange was proposed, which as she should find it expedient.” Bavahad been already a subject of negotiation ria, however, did not find it accordant in the beginning of the century. The with its own interests to place itself enemperor Joseph II proposed to the elec- tirely in the power of Austria. At the tor to exchange Bavaria for the Austrian beginning of the war, the elector joined Netherlands (excluding Luxemburg and the French with about 30,000 troops, and Namur), and the sum of 3,000,000 flor- the peace of Presburg annexed to his ins for himself and the duke of Deux- dominions 10,595 square miles, and Ponts, with the title of king of Burgundy. 1,000,000 inhabitants, and conferred on This project, though favored by Russia, him the dignity of king ; in return for was disappointed by the firmness of the which, he ceded Würzburg, which was duke of Deux-Ponts, who, encouraged erected into an electorate, in the place of by the protection of Prussia, declared Salzburg. The king of Bavaria, like the 6 that he would never consent to barter rulers of Würtemberg and Baden, now away the inheritance of his ancestors." assumed sovereignty over the lands of The zeal with which Frederic II adopted the nobility of the empire within his borthe cause of Bavaria, induced the cabinet ders. The political connexion recently of Vienna to relinquish the plan, and to formed with France was confirmed by declare, at the same time, that there the marriage of the princess Augusta, never had been and never would be any daughter of the king, with Eugene Naintention of a forced exchange.” (See poleon, viceroy of Italy, son-in-law of the League of the Princes.) The reign of French emperor. An immediate conseCharles Theodore was remarkable for quence of this alliance was the exchange the rise of the Illuminati (q. v.) in Bava- of Berg, which Bavaria surrendered to ria, for the processes against them, and Napoleon, for Anspach, which Prussia the revival of Jesuitism. During these had given up to France in exchange for troubles, the liberty of the press was con- Hanover, and finally, what was most imtinually more and more restrained, and a portant, the signing of the confederation period of intellectual darkness appeared of the Rhine (July 12, 1806), in which to be about to commence. In the war Bavaria promised to bring into the field of the French revolution, the elector sent 30,000 troops, and to fortify Augsburg his contingent to the army of the empire. and Lindau. Thereupon, the king of The palatinate suffered much, and, in Bavaria was obliged to take part in the 1796, Bavaria itself became the theatre war against Prussia, in 1806, and in the of war. At this crisis (Feb. 16, 1799), war against Austria, in 1809, one of the Charles Theodore died without issue, and consequences of which was the revolution the Sulzbach branch of the line of the of Tyrol. After its termination, Bavaria palatinate became extinct with him. The received important additions, partly at the duke Maximilian Joseph of Deux-Ponts expense of Austria, partly by treaties of came into possession of all the Bavarian exchange with Würtemberg and Würzterritories. The peace of Luneville (Feb. burg.- When, in 1812, the war between 9, 1801) put an end to the renewed war, France and Russia broke out, Bavaria and its most important article--the cession sent anew its whole proportion of troops of the left bank of the Rhine to France to the French army. Insignificant re

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