Latins in a corrupt version, vii. 348. ARIUs, character of, iii. 53 and note; trial and excommunication, ib.; his numerous party, ib.; origin of his heresy, ib. note ; decision on, referred to the council of Nice, 54; his sentiments respecting the Trinity and Logos, ib.; assumed moderation of his followers, 56; eighteen sects of, 58; tenets of the three principal, 59, sq.; dissemination of Arianism in the East, 61 ; Constantine's letter to Arius and Alexander, 63; Arius banished by Constantine, 64; his sect branded with the name of Porphyrians, ib.; recalled with honour, 65; sudden and horrible death, ib. and note ; first introduced sacred music, 88, note M.; prevalence of his sect in the East under Valens, 250. ARIUs, paternal severity of, v. 293. ABLEs, council of, iii. 39, 78; annual assembly of the seven provinces of Gaul at, iv. 134; taken by Abderame, vi. 386. ARMENIA, a Roman province, i. 143; conquered by the Persians, 403; its state under the Persians, ii. 79; revolt, ib.; nobles of, 80; recovered by the Persians, 82; by the Romans, 88; when christianized, 213; the first nation that embraced Christianity, ib. note M., 368 and note M. (cf. iii. 24, note M.); Christian priests expelled after the death of Tiridates, 368; polytheists of, invite Sapor, ib.; Chosroes restored to the throne, 369; made tributary to Persia, ib.; its history after Tiridates, ib. note M. ; Romans compelled to abandon, by the treaty of Dura, 220; reduced to a Persian province by Sapor, 278; restored to an independent neutrality, 280; divided between the Romans and Persians, iv.168; date, ib. note M.; languages used in, and invention of an Armenian alphabet, ib. note; Western Armenia made subject to the Romans on the death of Arsaces, ib. ; acknowledges Chosroes, 169; further revolutions, ib. and note M. ; reduced to a Persian province, 170; new division with the Romans, ib. ; conquered by the Mongols, viii. 13 and vote M. ARMENIANs, schism of the, vi. 57 and


note; adopt the Eutychian heresy, 58; present state of their church, ib. ARMENTARIUS, surname of Galerius, ii. 67. ARMORICA, its independence confirmed by Honorius, iv. 131; revolutions and form of government, ib. and note M.; united to the kingdom of Clovis, 353; British settlement in, 391 and note S.; western part called Cornwall and Lesser Britain (Bretagni), 392 and note S.; formed a powerful state, 432. ARMOUR, use of, abandoned by the Roman infantry, iii. 405. ARMs of the Roman soldiers, i. 149. ARMY, Roman, numbers under Hadrian and his successors, i. 153; how posted, ib.; how governed by Augustus, 210; obedience of, and exceptions, 211; the latter understated by Gibbon, ib. note W.; licence of, how encouraged, 212, 259; how regulated and stationed by Constantine, ii. 319; pernicious distinction in, 321; numbers of, under the successors of Constantine, 323; slaves admitted into, ib. ; constitution of under Constantine, ib.; Gibbon's view corrected, 324, note S.; mutilation to escape service in, 324; heavy fines on recusants, % ; :ucrease of barbarian auxiliaries, 4.

ARNOLD of Brescia, his theological studies under Abelard, viii. 195; disputes the temporal power of priests, ib.; condemned in the council of the Lateran, ib.; flies to Zurich, 196: effects a revolution at Rome, 197; reign, ib.; burnt, ib. ARNULPH, duke of Moravia, checks the progress of the Hungarians, vii. 75. AROMATICs, use of, i. 192 and notes W. and M. ARPAD, king of the Hungarians, vii. 71; royal Hungarian house of, 80. ARRAGON, name whence derived, i. 155, note. ARRECHIs, duke of Beneventor, preserves his territory from the arms of Charlemagne, vi. 174. ARRIAN, his description of the Euxine, v. 198. ARSACEs TIRANUs, king of Armenia, account of, ii. 370, note M.; character, iii. 189; refuses to assist Julian against the Persians, ib.; chronology

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of his reign, ib. note S.; his treachery, 205; imprisonment of by Sapor, and death, 278; another version of his catastrophe by M. St. Martin, ib. note M. ARMACEs, reigns in Western Armenia as vassal of Arcadius, iv. 168. ARBACIDEs of Armenia, deification of the, ii. 79; degraded from the royal dignity, iv. 169; duration of their dynasty, 170 and note S. ARSENITEs, schism of the, at Constantinople, vii. 371. ARSENIUS, bishop, Athanasius falsely charged with the murder of, iii. 72. ARSENIUS, tutor of Arcadius, iv. 7. ARSENIUs, patriarch of Nice, guardian of the infant emperor John Lascaris, vii. 361; becomes patriarch of Constantinople, 369 ; excommunicates the emperor Michael Palaeologus, ib.; banishment and death, 370; nature of the charges against, ib. note M. ARTABAN, king of Parthia, defeated by Artaxerxes, i. 331. ARTABAN, an Armenian prince, stabs the usurper Gontharis, and re-establishes the Roman dominion at Carthage, v. 212 and note ; conspires against Justinian, 226; detected and pardoned, ob.; appointed to command an expedition against Sicily, 229. ARTABANUs, Armenian prince, retires to the court of Leo I. of Constantinople, vi. 96; history of his descendants, ib. ARTABAzus, a Persian in the service of Justinian, occupies Verona, v. 215; killed, ib. ARTASIREs (Ardaschir), successor of Chosroes, deposed from the throne of Armenia by Bahran, king of Persia, 169. ARTAvASDEs appointed commander of the Armenian army, ii. 80. ARTAvASDEs seizes the Byzantine throne on the death of Leo III., and associates his son Nicephorus, vi. 83, note S.; put to death by Constantine Copronymus, ib.; restores image-worship, 143. ARTAxERxEs (Ardshir) restores the Persian monarchy, i. 331; date, ib. note; incorrectly charged with intolerance, 339, note M.; establishes his authority, ib.; ambition, 340, 343; commands the Romans to leave voo, WWII.


Asia, 343; whether defeated by Al. Severus, 344 and note S.; his undaunted resolution, 345; reign, character, and maxims, 346; code, ib. and note. ARTAxERxEs succeeds Sapor in Persia, iii. 280, note. ARTEMIUs, duke of Egypt, executed at Antioch, iii. 127; his character, ib. mote. ARTEMON, followers of described, ii. 215. ARTEMITA, residence of Chosroes II., v. Dastagerd. ARTHUR, king, exploits against the Saxons, iv. 393 ; traditions respecting, gradually embellished, ib.; round table, ib. ; Greek poem respecting, ib. note S. ARTILLEEy, Roman, i. 152. ARTols, count of, brother of Louis IX., storms Massoura, vii. 272; slain, 273. ARTOGEBAssa, siege of, by Sapor, and brave defence of the consort of Arsaces Tiranus, iii. 278 and note M. ARTs, decline of, under Diocletian, ii. 103; in the age of Constantine, 134. ABVANDUs, praetorian praefect in Gaul, trial of, iv. 288 sq. ARZANENE, province of, ii. 87 and notes. ARzEMA (or Buran), queen of Persia, deposed, vi. 291 and note S. As, Roman, weight and value of the, v. 264. AsAN, Bulgarian chief, excites a revolt from Isaac Angelus, vii. 286. ‘AsATYR of the Ancients,’ Mahomet charged with taking his doctrines from the, vi. 224, note S. ASBAD, the Gepid, slays Totila, v. 234; killed, ib. ASCALON, battle of, between the Crusaders and Fatamites, vii. 229. ‘ASCENSIO ISALE,” when written, vi. 3, note M. AscETICs, Christian, ii. 187; in second century, 188, note; account of, iv. 305. ASCLEPIoDATUs, general of Probus, ii. 44

AscLEPIoDOTUs, defeats Allectus in Britain, ii. 73. AsGARD, residence of Odin, i. 377. AsHKB, or “Companions” of Mahomet, vi. 237, note S. Asia, Roman provinces in, i. 160; pro&


vince of, ib.; boundary of Asia and Africa, 161; revolutions of, 330; how accounted for by Montesquieu, iii. 299, note; nomadic tribes of, described, 302, note S.; seven churches of, ruined by the Turks, vii. 24. Asia MINon conquered by Chosroes II., v. 393; by the Turks, vii. 168. AsiaBCH, office of, ii. 205, note. Asiatic tribute, raised by Pompey, i. 295; Plutarch's statement examined, ib. note S. Asiatics, ignorant of the art and genius of history, vi. 290. Asinius QuADRATUS, his account of the Alemanni, i. 393, notes. AspacURAs, vassal of Sauromaces, made king of the Iberians by Sapor, iii. 278. AsPAR, son of Ardaburius, assists his father in reducing the usurper John, and restoring Placidia, iv. 173; goes to the assistance of count Boniface in Africa, 183; refuses the eastern empire from religious motives, 278; recommends his steward, Leo of Thrace, as emperor, 279; murdered by him, v. 3. Asper, Turkish coin, its value, viii. 71, note and note M. Assassins, or Ismaelians, account of, viii. 12 and notes; extirpated by Holagou, khan of the Mongols, ib.; histories of, ib, and note M. Assemblies of the people abolished by the Roman emperors, i. 205. Assyria, Roman province of, i. 143; described, iii. 194; assumes the name of Adiabene, ib. note; canals, 195; fertility, ib. and 208, note; revenue, 196 and note; invaded by Julian, 196; conquered by the Arabian caliph Omar, vi. 293. AsTA besieged by Alaric, iv. 35. AsTARTE, name of the moon, i. 282 and note S.; image brought to Rome, ib. AstERIUs, count, marches against the Vandals in Spain, iv. 177. AstiNg1, an illustrious Wandal race, ii. 359

Astol PHUs, king of the Lombards, takes Ravenna, and finally expels the exarchs, vi. 153 ; threatens Rome, 155; defeated by Pepin, ib.

AstBoLogy, belief of the Romans in, iv. 83; professed by the Arabian astronomers, vi. 401,


AstroNoMy encouraged by the caliph Almamon and his successors, vi. 461.

AsturiaNs, i. 156.

*** Turkish tribe of Syria, vii. 249.

ATAULPH, the Goth, his marriage with Placidia, i. 367, note G.

AthALARIC, son of Amalasontha, appointed king of Italy by the testament of his grandfather Theodoric, v. 34; his education and character, 127; death, ob.

ATHANARIC, judge of the Visigoths, lends the Goths against Valens, iii. 285; defeated, 286; interview and treaty with Valens on the Danube, ib.; defeated by the Huns on the Dniester, 318; retires into Caucaland, ib.; reappears among the Goths, 349; visits Theodosius at Constantinople, 350; death and funeral, ib.; route the Christian Goths, iv. 323.

ATHANASIUs, St., acts of spiritual

power, iii. 36; unable to comprehend the divinity of the Logos, 50; hatred of the Arians, 58; defended the Sabellianism of Marcellus, ib.; deposed and banished by Constantine, 65; account of the death of Arius, ib. note; character and adventures of, 69, sqq.; zeal for the Catholic doctrine of the Trinity, ib.; defective biographies of, ib. note; skill in divination, 70 and note; irregularity of his election, 71 and note; popularity, 71; resists Constantine, ib.; charges against him, 72; summoned to appear before the council of Tyre, ib.; brings Arsenius thither, whom he had been accused of murdering, th. ; interview with Constantine, 73; charged with intercepting the cornfleet, ib.; first exile *. 74; restored by Constantine II., ib.; again o and exiled by the council of Antioch, ib. ; residence at Rome, ib. and note ; acquitted by the Italian bishops, 75; summoned to Milan by Constans, ib.; acquitted by the Latin prelates at the council of Sardica, ib.; restored by Constantius on the demand of Constans, 76; interview with Constantius at Antioch, ib.; enters Alexandria in triumph, 77; arraigned in the coun

cils of Arles and Milan, 78; Eewl


and arguments of his friends, 79; condemned and deposed, 80; third expulsion from Alexandria, 82; intrepid behaviour, 84; disappears for six years, ib.; sheltered by the monks of the Thebais, 85; various adventures, 86; invectives against Constantius, 87; restoration, 174; again expelled by Julian, 175; again retires to the desert, 176; Jovian's excessive admiration for him, 229; restored, ib.; date of his death, ib. note ; assumed fifth exile, and death, 251; introduced monasticism at Rome, iv. 308; not the author of the famous creed, 335, note. ÁTHANASIUs, patriarch of Constantinople, secretly anathematises Andronicus the Elder, Palaeologus, vii. 388; recall and second retirement,389. ATHELSTAN subdues Cornwall, iv. 391, note. ATHENAIs, daughter of the Athenian sophist Leontius, history of, iv. 164; marries Theodosius the Younger, ib.; assumes the Christian name of Eudocia, ib. (v. Eudocia). ATHENLANs, fleet of the, ii. 146, note. ATHENs, number of citizens, i. 170, 371, note ; sack of, by the Goths, 402; taken by Alaric, iv. 25; walls of, restored by Justinian, v. 80; schools of, their history, 89; professors, how paid, 91; Hadrian's library at, ib. ; fatal influence of Christianity upon the schools, 92; they are suppressed by Justinian, 93; city assigned to Otho de la Roche, with the title of Grand Sire, vii. 384; succession of the Latin sovereigns of, and origin of the title of Duke, 385, note S.; conquered by the Catalans, 386; an appanage of the kings of Sicily, ib.; subject to the Accaioli, ib.; present state of, ib.; modern Greek dialect of, 387 and note. ATHOs, mount, absurd tenets of the monks of, vii. 404. ATHRAvA, name of the Persian priests in the Zendavesta, i. 337, note S. ATLAs, mount, described, i. 162 and note. ATMEIDAN, or ancient Hippodrome of Constantinople, ii. 297. ATRoPATENE, province, restored to Persia by the Armenians, ii. 369.

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ATTICA ravaged by Alaric, iv. 26. ATTILA (Etzel), king of the Huns, the

hero of the Nibelungen Lied, iv. 191, mote S.; dictates conditions of peace to Theodosius the Younger, 193; etymology of his name, ib. note S.; his genealogy, person, and character, 194; discovers the sword of Mars, 195; puts his brother and colleague Bleda to death, ib.; conquers Scythia and Germany, 196; his power overstated by Gibbon, 197, note S.; alliance with Genseric and invasion of the Eastern empire, 199; defeats the Romans on the Utus, 200; at Marcianopolis, ib. ; in the Chersonesus, ib.; ravages Thrace and Macedonia, ib. ; dictates a peace to Theodosius the Younger, 205; insulting embassies, 207 sq.; contemptuous reception of Maximin, 210; royal village and palace of Attila, 211; site, 212 and note M.; simple way of life, 213; behaviour to the Roman ambassadors, ib, ; marries Escam, 214 and note M.; progress to, and residence at, the royal village, ib.; banquet, 215; sends Eslaw and Orestes to reprimand Theodosius for his attempt to assassinate him, 217; pardons the culprits and concludes an advantageous treaty, 218; insolent message to the courts of Ravenna and Constantinople, 220; declares himself the lover of the princess Honoria, 229; is refused her hand, 230; in


wades Gaul, 231 ; besieges Orleans, 232; retires to Châlons on the approach of Aëtius and Theodoric, 234; address to his troops, 235; a fatalist, ib.; defeated, 237; retires across the Rhine, 239; repeats his demand for Honoria, ib.; invades Italy, ib.; takes Aquileia, 240; ravages Lombardy, 241; site of his encampment, 245 and note; receives an embassy from Valentinian III., ib.; grants a peace on receiving the dowry of Honoria, ib.; marries Ildico, 246; death, ib.: funeral, 247. ATTUARII, Frankish tribe, subdued by Julian, iii. 110. ATys and CYBELE, story of, allegorized by Julian, iii. 140; excellence of Catullus' poem on, ib. note. AUCTIONs, tax on, i. 299. AUGURs, their functions, iii. 407; office of, coveted by the most illustrious Romans, 408.

AUGUSTAN history, why silent re-.

specting the note M. AUGUSTI and Caesars, relative powers, ii. 67, note M., 96. AUGUSTIN, St., a Manichaean, ii. 164, note; sentiments on persecution, iii. 423, notes; account of the prodigies performed by the relics of St.Stephen, 430; character of his work “De Civitate Dei,' ib. note; account of the defeat of Radagaisus, iv.48; his ‘City of God' occasioned by the sack of Rome by Alaric, 103; sentiments on o 179 and note; death at Hippo, 182; character, ib.; library, ib.; learning and genius, 183; theological system, ib.; compared with Calvin's, ib. note; history of his relics, v. 114, note. AUGUSTULUs made emperor of the West by his father Orestes, iv. 296; compelled to resign by Odoacer, 299; his name of Romulus, 300; banished to o castle of Lucullus, in Campania, 10. AUGUSTUs, his moderation, i. 138; testament, 139; recovers the standard of Crassus, ib.; his policy pursued by Hadrian and the Antonines, 145; situation of, after the battle of Actium, 196; reforms the senate, 197; affects to resign supreme power, 198; nominated emperor, ib.; divides

Christians, ii. 230,


the provinces with the senate, 201 ; retains the military command and numerous guards at Rome, 202; also the consular and tribunician offices, ib.; is made supreme pontiff and censor, 204; but the latter under an altered title, ib. note S. : institutes the Consilium, 206, note S.; his origin and family, 208; character and policy, 209; retained the image of liberty, ib.; his fear of the army, 210; restores the ancient discipline, 211 and note; adopts Tiberius, 212; his Rationarium or Register, 295 and note W.; taxes introduced by, 298 sq.; orders sacrifices at Jerusalem, ii. 153; his moderation in the use of wine, iv. 85, note; his ostentatious modesty, vi. 194. AUGUSTUs, that title explained, i. 208; implied something divine, ib. note S. AURAs.IUs, mount, in Numidia, besieged by Solomon the eunuch, v. 123. AURELIAN recommended by Claudius as his successor, ii. 8 ; origin and services, 9; heroic valour, ib. note; adopted by Ulpius Crinitus, 10; successful reign, ib.; severe discipline, ib.; treaty with the Goths, 11 ; relinquishes Dacia to them, 12; defeats the Alemanni, 13; finally vanquishes them, 15; fortifies Rome, 16; extent of his walls, 17 and note S.; tranquillizes Gaul, 19; expedition against Zenobia, 22; defeats her, 23; besieges Palmyra, 24; treatment of the captive Zenobia, 25; puts Longinus to death, 26; supF. the rebellion of Firmus in gypt, ib. ; triumph, 27; magnificence, 29; suppresses a sedition at Rome, 30; cruelty, 31; expedition into the East, 32; assassinated, ib.; whether he persecuted the Christians, 261, note G.; his design of vineyards along the coast of Etruria, iv. 85 and note. AURENGzRBE, camp of, i. 341, note ; last of the Great Moguls who retained their entire empire, viii. 66. AUREoLUs elected emperor, ii. 1; defeated and besieged at Milan, 2.; attempts to negociate with Claudius, 4; executed, ib. AUREUs, value of that coin under Constantine, ii. 338, notes.

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