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CHRISTIANITY.
Abgarus, 137 ; picture of at Edessa,
its miraculous powers, ib.; the simi-
litude adopted and multiplied by the
Greeks, 138; the veronica, ib.; how

regarded by Mahomet, vi. 226.
CHRISTIANITY,

into its progress
and establishment, ii. 151, 899.; five
causes of, 152; Gibbon's art in this
inquiry, ib, note M.; character of the
Christian revelation, 156; adapted
to all mankind, 157; Jewish con-
verts to, ib. ; fear a motive of conver-
sion, 177 ; causes of its growth re-
capitulated, 204 ; assisted by the
scepticism of the Pagans, 205; and
by the peace and union of the Roman
empire, 206; historical view of its
progress, 207; in the East, ib. ; in
Egypt, 209; at Rome, 210; in Africa
and Gaul, 211; in Spain and Britain,
212; beyond the Roman empire,
213; favourably received by the poor
and simple, 217; rejected by some
eminent characters, ib.; unfounded
charge of made penal by Hadrian,
241; fluctuating state under Con-
stantine, iii. 3; all his subjects in-
vited to embrace it, 9; mysteries of,
20; propagated by Constantine's con-
version, 23; assisted by the inquisi-
tion into magic under Valentinian I.,
42, note M.; finally established under
Jovian, 230; adopted by a majority
of the Roman senate, 411; by the
Roman nobility and people, 412; cor-
rupted by the introduction of Pagan
ceremonies, 432; yet still differed
from Paganism, 433, note M.; in-
fluence of on the fall of the Roman
empire, iv. 404; progress of among
the barbarians, 324 ; causes, ib.; dif-
fusion of in Arabia, vi. 215; ex-
tinction of in Africa, 369; propa-
gation of in the north of Europe, vii.

94.
CARLITIANS, primitive, ascribed idolatry

to the demons, ii. 165; their horror
of Pagan rites and ceremonies, 166,
sq. ; believed that the end of the
world was at hand, 172; explana-
tions of that belief, 173, notes G. and
M.; expected the millennium, 173;
and destruction of the world by fire,
175; held all Pagans the subjects of
eternal punishment, 176; a doctrine
still held by the Christian churches,
to note; miraculous powers of the

CHRISTIANS.
primitive church, 178; virtues of the
primitive Christians, 182 ; their small
numbers made them careful of repu-
tation, 183; those of Bithynia ex-
amined by the younger Pliny, ib.;
condemned pleasure, 185; their vir-
tue often guarded by poverty and
ignorance, 186; their sentiments re-
specting marriage and chastity, ib.;
their aversion to civil and military
employments, 188; inculcated pas-
sive obedience, ib.; these principles
revived by the Socinians, Anabap-
tists, and Quakers, ib. note; active
in the government of the church,
189; the army full of them, ib, note
G.; community of goods among, 197;
questionable, ib. note M.; offerings
and tithes, 198; numbers of at
Rome under Nero, 210; their pro-
portion to the Pagans in general,
214 ; represented as mostly poor and
illiterate, 215; exceptions with re-
gard to learning, ib.; with regard
to rank and fortune, 216; Gib-
bon's omissions supplied, ib. note G.;.
persecuted by the Roman emperors,
220; motives of the latter, 221;
causes of this persecution, 224 and
note M.; represented as atheists,
225; their union and assemblies re-
garded as dangerous, 226; as well as
their austerity and obstinacy, 227 :
and secret worship, ib.; alleged
crimes and imprudent defence, 228 ;
mutual recriminations of the orthon
dox and heretics, 229; at first con-
founded with the Jews by the
Romans, and hence unnoticed, 231 ;
charged with hatred of mankind,
233, note ; subject to a capitation tax
as Jews, 238; no general laws against
them before the time of Trajan, 240;
who established a mode of proceed-
ing against them, 241; public clamour
against them during the festivals,
242; suppressed by Hadrian and
Antoninus Pius, 243; trials of, ib.;
humane efforts of the magistrates to
make them recant, ib.; punishments
of, 245; ardour for martyrdom, 252;
gradually relaxed, 253; methods of
escaping, ib.; delay allowed to the
accused, ib. ; persecuted by M. An-
toninus, 257; protected by Com-
modus and Severus, 16.; the latter
publishes an edict against them,

the use

CHRISTIANS.
258; they first erect places of wor-
ship, ib. ; published the names of
candidates for ordination, ib. note ;
favoured by the emperor Alexander,
259; persecuted by Maximin, ib.;
protected by Philip, 260; persecuted
by Decius, ib. ; by Valerian, 261;
favoured by Gallienus, ib. ; prosperity
under Diocletian, 264 ; corruption of
manners, 265; persecuted by Maxi.
mian and Galerius, 267; by Diocle-
tian, 269 ; his rigorous edict, ib.;
punishment of one, 270; suspected
of firing Diocletian's palace, 271 ;
execution of Diocletian's first edict,
272; punished with death for not
delivering up the Scriptures, 273;
further edicts of Diocletian against,
274 ; protected by Constantius, 275;
persecuted by Datianus in Spain, ib.;
by Maximian and Severus in Italy
and Africa, 276; favoured by Max-
entius, ib. ; Galerius' edict of tolera-
tion, 278; persecution renewed by
Maximin, 280; ended by his death,
281 ; treatment of not so intolerable
as imagined, 282; inflicted greater
injuries on each other than they suf-
fered from the infidels, 284; numbers
executed in the Netherlands in the
reign of Charles V., 285; passive obe-
dience of favourably regarded by Con-
stantine, iii. 7; their political views
explained byGrotius, ib. note ; differed
from those of the modern Protestants,
8; their zeal and loyalty, 9; change
in their views of military service, 10;
censured by the Council of Nice, 11,
note ; belief in a miracle to be worked
by Constantine, 11; yearly synods,
39; respect for Plato, 49, note;
opinion respecting the Son, 51; how
distinguished from the Platonists,
52; bound by the authority of the
church, ib. ; factions, ib.; divi-
sions occasioned by the Arian con-
troversy, 87, 89.; general charac-
ter of their sects, 96; exiled clergy
recalled by Julian, 147; secret
motives of his toleration, ib.; he
emulates their charity and benefi-
cence, 150; brands them with the
name of Galilæans, 162; prohibits
them from teaching grammar and
rhetoric, 163; excludes them from
offices of trust and profit, 164; con-
demns them to restore the Pagan

CHRYSOSTOM.
temples, 165; further persecutions,
170; zeal and imprudence of the,
176; destroy the Pagan temples,
177 ; attributed the death of Julian
to a Christian assassin, 226; dissen-
sions among at Jovian's accession,
228; violunt disputes under Valens,
250; in Persia, mostly Nestorians,
vi. 47; their repugnance
of images, 134; tolerated by the
Mahometans, 371 ; hardships under,

372.
CHRISTMAS Day, why selected by the

Romans as the birthday of Christ,

iii. 113, note.
CHRISTOPHER, son of Romanus I.,

By-
zantine emperor, vi. 102.
CHRYSANTHIUS, the philosopher, de-

clines Julian's invitation to Constan-

tinople, iii. 151, 152, note.
CHRYSAPHIUS, the eunuch and favourite

of Theodosius the Younger, proposes
to Edecon the assassination of Attila,
iv. 216; the latter demands his head,
218; pardons him for a large sum,
ib.; put to death by the empress
Pulcheria, 219; supported the cause
of Eutyches in the second council of

Ephesus, vi. 25.
CHRYSOCHEIR, the Paulician, ravages

Asia Minor, vii. 53; reduces the em-
peror Basil to sue for peace, 54 ; slain,

ib.
CHRYSOLORAS, MANUEL, second profes-

sor of Greek at Florence, viii. 111;
success as a teacher, 112; scholars
of, ib. note; death, 113; epistle to

John II. Palæologus, 120 and note.
CHRYSOPOLIS, battle of between Con-

stantine and Licinius, ii. 148; the

modern Scutari, 289.
CHRYSOSTOM, St., on the population of

Antioch, ii. 209, note M.; arguments
against death-bed baptism, iii. 21,
notes ; eloquence of, 38; descrip-
tion of the pomp and luxury of Arca-
dius, iv. 136; protects Eutropius,
147; origin and promotion of, 151 ;
moral and literary character, 152;
ministry, ib.; bold preaching, ib.;
persecuted by the empress Eudoxia
and other females, 153; abstinence
and moroseness, ib.; condemned and
deposed by the Synod of the Oak,
155 ; restored, ib.; inveighs against
Eudoxia, ib.; exiled to Cucusus,
156 ; his active correspondence there,

CHURCH.

OLAUDIUS.
157 ; death at Comana, ib.; relics Judaism, ii. 156 ; practised by the
transported to Constantinople, ib.; most ancient Abyssinians, 161, note ;

advocacy of monasticism, 310, notes. practised by the Christians of Abys-
CHURCH, primitive, free and equal sinia, v. 66; a religious rite among

government of, ii. 190; wealth of, the Arabians, vi. 213 and note.
199; landed property, ib.; revenues, Circus, Roman, described, iv. 86 and
how distributed, 200; alms, ib. ; ex note; factions of the, v. 48; their com
communication, how exercised by, lours, ib.and note; adopted in the Hip-
201; corporate property of, recog. podrome of Constantinople, 49; mas
nized by the edict of Milan, iii. 32 sacre of the blues by the greens, ib.
and note; right of bequeathing to, CIRCUS AGONALIS at Rome, viii. 282.
granted by Constantine, ib. ; his libe CITEAUX, monastery of, vii. 247.
rality to, 33; revenue of dioceses Cities in ancient Italy, i. 185; in
how divided, 34; patrimony of the, Britain, Gaul, and Spain, 186; in
subject to taxes, ib.; its revenues Africa, ib.; in Asia, 187, Lombard
transferred by Julian to the pontiffs, and Italian, progress of, vi. 187 ; go-
165; British, its poverty, iv. 134; vernment of, 188.
Latin and Greek, union of, vi. 44 ; CITIZENSHIP, made universal by Cara-
eastern, entertains the monophysite calla, i. 293; his motive, 300; con-
and Nestorian tenets, 45; separates

sequences, 303.
from the Greek and Latin com CITRON-WOOD, extravagant fondness of
munion, ib.

the Romans for, vi. 347, note.
CHURCHES, Christian, when first erected, CIVILIANS, Roman, their origin and

ii. 258 and note ; demolition of, 273; succession, v. 273.
architecture of under Constantine, Civilis, the Batavian, his revolt, i.
iii. 33 ; splendour, ib.; made sanctu 368.

aries, 35; Suburbicarian, 39, note. CLAIRVAUX, monastery of founded by
CIBALIS, battle near, between Constan St. Bernard, vii. 247 and note.
tine and Licinius, ii. 140.

CLARISSIMI, Roman senators anciently
CICERO, his “de Natura Deorum,' i. so called, ii. 301, note ; or honourable,

167, note ; legacies to, 300; his views a title under Constantine, 305; class
concerning the immortality of the of defined, 314.
soul, ii. 168; his mistake concerning CLASSICS, Greek and Latin, their me-
the use of torture at Athens, 332, rits, vi. 403.
note 8.; could not understand Plato's CLAUDIA, miracle of, iii. 139, note,
Timæus, iii. 50, note; his high opi CLAUDIAN, his ‘Old Man of Verona,'
nion of the Twelve Tables, v. 263 ; iv. 32; patronized by Stilicho and
account of his work 'de Legibus,' Serena, 63 ; danger after the disgrace
276.

of the former, 64; his religious in-
CILICIA, province, i. 160; conquered difference, ib. note M.; character 28

by the Saracens, vi. 327 ; conquered a poet, 65; a native of Alexandria,
by Nicephorus Phocas and Zimisces, 66, note; character of his two books
426.

against Eutropius, 132, note; his
CIMITAR, a, worshipped by the Moguls description of that eunuch, 140.
as the god of war, iv. 195.

CLAUDIUS elected emperor by the Præ-
CIMMERIAN darkness, origin of that torians without the senate, i. 210;
expression, iv. 79, note.

purchased the consent of the former,
CIRCASSIANS, dynasty of in Syria and 211, note W.; character, 217.
Egypt, viii. 51.

CLAUDIUS at Thermopylæ, i. 383, note ;
CIRCEBIUM, site of, i. 326, note; town named emperor by Gallienus, ii. 3;

of, iii. 90; last Roman station on character, ib.; accession, 4; act of
the Euphrates, v. 83.

justice, 5; proposes to reform the
CIRCUMCELLIONS, Donatist sect in army, ib.; compels the Goths to re-

Africa, revolt and fury of, iii. 93; tire from Thessalonica, 6; letter to
arms and war-cry, 94; religious sui the senate, ib. ; obtains the name of
cides of, 95; fury of, iv. 180.

“Gothicus" from his victories over
CIBJU MOISION repelled proselytes from the Goths, 7 ; death, 8.

non, ib.

CLEANDER.

COLISEUM
CLEANDER, minister of Commodus, i. CLOTILDA, a princess of Burgundy,

227; his tyranny, 228 ; death, ib. marries and converts Clovis, iv. 350.
CLEAVELAND, Ezra, his history of the Clovis, king of the Franks, birth, iv.

family of Courtenay, vii. 350, note. 346 ; his Salian dominions, ib. ; namo
CLEMATIUS of Alexandria, murder of, equivalent to Ludwin or Lewis, ib.
ii. 389, note.

note; character, 347 ; defeats Sya-
CLEMENS of Alexandria, his Pæda grius, 348 ; acquires the Belgic

gogue' contains the rudiments of cities and diocese of Tongres, ib.;
Christian ethics, ii. 186, note.

subdues the Alemanni, 349; con-
CLEMENS, FLAVIUS, cousin of Domi verted to Christianity by his wife

tian, married to Domitilla, ii. 239; Clotilda, 350; his Christian fervour,
executed on the charge of atheism 351; assassinates all the Merovina
and Jewish manners, ib. ; considered gian princes, 352 ; remark about St.
one of the first martyrs, ib.

Martin, ib.; orthodoxy, ib.; conci-
CLEMENT III., pope, crowns Henry III. liates the submission of the Armori-
emperor, vii, 128.

cans and of the Roman troops, ib.;
CLEMENT V., pope, election of, viii. compared with Henry IV., 353; re-
215; transfers his residence to Avig duces Gundebald, king of the Bur-

gundians, to vassalage, 355; at the
CLEMENT VI., pope, receives ambassa instance of Clotilda, declares war on

dors from John Cantacuzene at Avig the Arians of Gaul, 357; defeats and
non, viii. 79; character of, 80; in slays Alaric, king of the Visigoths,
stitutes the Mosaic jubilee, 218 and 359; conquers aquitain, 360; com-
note.

pelled to raise the siege of Arles,
CLEMENT VII., pope, election of, viii. 361; concludes a treaty with the
251.

Visigoths, ib.; made consul by the
CLEMENTINES, the, attributed to an emperor Anastasius, ib. and 362, note
Ebionite, iii. 48, note.

S.
CLEODAMAS fortifies Piræus, i. 400. CLUVERIUS, his notion of the ancient
CLEOPATRA founds a new library at German worship, i. 364, note,
Alexandria, iii. 417, notes.

Coaches, Roman, splendour and incon-
CLEPHO elected king of the Lombards, venience of, iv. 78, note,
v. 341; assassinated, ib.

COCHE, near the ancient Seleucia, de-
CLERGY, their influence examined, i. scribed, iii. 201.

196 and notes W. and M.; dis Codex ARGENTEUS, or Gothic gospels of
tinguished from the laity in many Ulphilas, discovery of, iv. 323, notes
ancient nations, iii. 27; condi M. and S.
tion of under the emperors, 28; CODICILS, Roman law as to, v. 277, 310.
celibacy of, 30 and note M.; selected CODINUs, mistakes of that author, ii.
and ordained by the bishops, ib.; 299, note.
exempted from civil offices and taxes, CENOBITES, how distinguished from
31; limitation of this privilege, ib. Anachorets, iv. 319.
note G.; increase of their number COGNATB, what, v. 307; had no right
and orders, 31 ; civil jurisdiction of, of inheritance, ib.
34; their legal causes, except great COGNI, v. Iconium.
crimes, tried by the bishops, 35; COHORTA, city, i. 154, 229 and notes.
Christian bequests to made illegal Coil, British king, imaginary father of
by Valentinian I., 253 and 254, Helena, ii. 109.
note S.

COINAGE, Constantinopolitan, debase-
CLERMONT, defence of by Ecdicius ment of, vii. 382, note ; how regu-

against the Visigoths, iv. 287 ; coun lated by the Roman emperors, viii.
cil of, vii. 181.

200 and note M.
CLODION, first of the Merovingian COLCHIS, reduced by Trajan, i. 143; or

kings, iv. 227; overruns the second Mingrelia, described, v. 194 ; man.
Belgic, 228; routed near Artois by ners of the natives, 195; revolutions
Aëtius, ib.; establishes his kingdom of Colchis, 197.
from the Rhine to the Somme, ib. COLISEUM at Rome, meaning of the

COLLYRIDIAN HERESY.

CONRAD.
name, viii. 280 and note ; causes of COMNENI, history of the family of, vi.
its decay, 281 and note M.; used as 111; genealogical table of, 112, note
a fortress, 281, 282, note M.; bull S.; raise a civil waragainst Nicephorus
feast in, 282; injuries to, 284 ; con Botaniates, 117; extent of their em-
secrated by Benedict XIV., ib.

pire, vi. 6; its wealth and populous
COLLYRIDIAN heresy, vi. 223 and ness, 7; extinction of the family of,
note.

viii. 182.
COLONIES, Roman, i. 172 ; superior pri- COMNENUS, ALEXIUS, duke and emperor
vileges of, 173 and note.

of Trebizond, vii. 327 and note S.
COLONNA, Roman family, history of, COMNENUS, David, last emperor of
viii. 221; Ghibelines, 223.

Trebizond, short question of Maho-
COLONNA, SCIARRA, seizes and insults met II. to, viii. 182; capitulation

pope Boniface VIII. at Anagni, viii. and death, ib. and note M.
215.

COMNENUS, John, brother of the em-
COLONNA, STEPHEN, flies from Rome on peror Isaac, question as to his refusing

the conspiracy of Rienzi, viii. 232; the crown, vi. 113 and note S.; as-
defeat and death, 242; family of serts the rights of his nephews, 115 ;

defeated and killed by Rienzi, ib. his children, 116.
COLUMBA, St., monastery of, iv. 310, COMPLUTENSIAN POLYGLOT, cost of, iv.
note.

355 note.
COLUMBAN, St., rule of, iv. 314; where CONCEPTION, immaculate of the Virgin
educated, ib. note S.

Mary, doctrine of borrowed from
Comana, temple of, suppressed and ap the Koran, vi. 226 and note.

propriated by the successors of Con CONCLAVE, institution of the, viii. 212;
stantine, ii. 329.

described, ib.; ballot introduced at,
Comans, Turkish tribe of, allied with 213; accounts of, ib. notes.

the Bulgarians, vii. 329, note. CONCORD, altar of, in the isle of Ele-
COMBATs, judicial, introduced into Gaul phantine, demolished by Justinian,

by the Burgundians, iv. 370; pro v. 82, note,
gress of, ib. ; law of in the assize CONCUBINES, Roman law respecting, v.
of Jerusalem, vii. 234.

300.
COMES CASTRENSIB, steward of the im CONFARREATION, marriage rite, of what

perial household so called, ii. 326. an emblem, v. 294.
COMET observed during the reign of CONFEDERATES, barbarian army of,

Justinian, v. 249; its periodical re under Orestes, how composed, iv.
turns enumerated, 250, sq.

295; their demand of a third part of
COMITIA, restored by Caligula, i. 205, the lands of Italy, 296; rejected by
note.

Orestes, 297 ; capture Pavia and exe-
COMITo, sister of the empress Theo cute Orestes, ib.
dora, v. 42 and note.

CONFESSORS confounded with Martyrs,
COMMENTIOLUB, general of the emperor ii. 251, note.

Maurice, his cowardice, v. 381. CONOB, that inscription on Byzantine
COMMERCE, despised by the Romans, coins explained, vi. 152 and note S.
iv. 75.

Conon, original name of Leo III, the
COMMODUS, admitted to imperial power, Isaurian, vi. 82.

i. 222; accession, 223 ; character, CONRAD III., emperor of Germany, un-
ib. note; the first porphyrogenitus, dertakes the second Crusade, vii.
ih. note ; reign, 24, 89. ; attempted 239; interview with the emperor
assassination by a senator, 224 ; his Manuel, 243; march through Ana-
hatred of the senate, ib. ; profligacy, tolia and defeat, 244 and note S.;
229; ignorance, 230; the “ Roman embassy of the Romans to, viii. 206.
Hercules," 231 ; appears in the CONRAD, duke of Franconia, killed in a
amphitheatre, ib.; a gladiator, 232;

campaign against the Hungarians,
aallod “Paulus," 233; conspiracy vii. 78.
against, ib,; murdered, 234; de CONRAD of Montferrat relieves Tyro,
clared infamous, 235; protected the vii. 261 ; question respecting his asa
Christians, ii. 257.

sassination, 264 and note M.

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