Abgarus, 137; picture of at Edessa,
its miraculous powers, ib.; the simi-
litude adopted and multiplied by the
Greeks, 138; the veronica, ib.; how
regarded by Mahomet, vi. 226.
CHRISTIANITY, inquiry into its progress
and establishment, ii. 151, sqq.; five
causes of, 152; Gibbon's art in this
inquiry, ib. note M.; character of the
Christian revelation, 156; adapted
to all mankind, 157; Jewish con-
verts to, ib.; fear a motive of conver-
sion, 177; causes of its growth re-
capitulated, 204; assisted by the
scepticism of the Pagans, 205; and
by the peace and union of the Roman
empire, 206; historical view of its
progress, 207; in the East, ib.; in
Egypt,209; at Rome, 210; in Africa
and Gaul, 211; in Spain and Britain,
212; beyond the Roman empire,
213; favourably received by the poor
and simple, 217; rejected by some
eminent characters, ib.; unfounded
charge of made penal by Hadrian,
241; fluctuating state under Con-
stantine, iii. 3; all his subjects in-
vited to embrace it, 9; mysteries of,
20; propagated by Constantine's con-
version, 23; assisted by the inquisi-
tion into magic under Valentinian I.,
42, note M.; finally established under
Jovian, 230; adopted by a majority
of the Roman senate, 411; by the
Roman nobility .. 412; cor-
rupted by the introduction of Pagan
ceremonies, 432; yet still differed
from Paganism, 433, note M.; in-
fluence of on the fall of the Roman
empire, iv. 404; progress of among
the barbarians, 324; causes, ib.; dif-
fusion of in Arabia, vi. 215; ex-
tinction of in Africa, 369; propa-
gation of in the north of Europe, vii.
CHRISTIANs, primitive, ascribed idolatry
to the demons, ii. 165; their horror
of Pagan rites and ceremonies, 166,
sq.; believed that the end of the
world was at hand, 172; explana-
tions of that belief, 173, notes G. and
M.; expected the millennium, 173;
and destruction of the world by fire,
175; held all Pagans the subjects of
eternal punishment, 176; a doctrine
still held by the Christian churches,
(b. note; miraculous powers of the


primitive church, 178; virtues of the
primitive Christians, 182; their small
numbers made them careful of repu-
tation, 183; those of Bithynia ex-
amined by the younger Pliny, ib.;
condemned pleasure, 185; their vir-
tue often guarded by poverty and
ignorance, 186; their sentiments re-
specting marriage and chastity, ib.;
their aversion to civil and military
employments, 188; inculcated pas-
sive obedience, ib.; these principles
revived by the Socinians, Anabap-
tists, and Quakers, ib. note; active
in the government of the church,
189; the army full of them, ib. note
G.; community of goods among, 197;
questionable, ib. note M.; offerings
and tithes, 198; numbers of at
Rome under Nero, 210; their pro-
portion to the Pagans in general,
214; represented as mostly poor and
illiterate, 215; exceptions with re-
gard to learning, ib.; with regard
to rank and fortune, 216; Gib-
bon's omissions supplied, ib. note G.;
persecuted by the Roman em

220; motives of the latter, 221;
causes of this persecution, 224 and
note M.; represented as atheists,
225; their union and assemblies re-
garded as dangerous, 226; as well sis
their austerity and obstinacy, 227 :
and secret worship, ib.; alleged
crimes and imprudent defence, 228;
mutual recriminations of the ortho-
dox and heretics, 229; at first con-
founded with the Jews by the
Romans, and hence unnoticed, 231;
charged with hatred of mankind,
233, note; subject to a capitation tax
as Jews, 238; no general laws against
them before the time of Trajan, 240;
who established a mode of proceed-
ing against them,241; public clamour
against them during the festivals,
242; suppressed by Hadrian and
Antoninus Pius, 243; trials of, ib.;
humane efforts of the magistrates to
make them recant, ib.; punishments
of, 245; ardour for martyrdom, 252;
gradually relaxed, 253; methods of
escaping, ib.; delay allowed to the
accused, ib.; persecuted by M. An-
toninus, 257; protected by Com-
modus and Severus, ib.; the latter
publishes an edict against them,


258; they first erect places of wor-
ship, ib.; published the names of
candidates for ordination, ib. note;
favoured by the emperor Alexander,
259; persecuted by Maximin, ib.;
rotected by Philip, 260; persecuted
§ Decius, ib. ; by Valerian, 261;
favoured by Gallienus, ib.; prosperity
under Diocletian, 264; corruption of
manners, 265; persecuted by Maxi-
mian and Galerius, 267; by Diocle-
tian, 269; his rigorous edict, ib.;
punishment of one, 270; suspected
of firing Diocletian's palace, 271;
execution of Diocletian's first edict,
272; punished with death for not
delivering up the Scriptures, 273;
further edicts of Diocletian against,
274; protected by Constantius, 275;
ecuted by Datianus in Spain, ib.;
y Maximian and Severus in ltaly
and Africa, 276; favoured by Max-
entius, ib.; Galerius' edict of tolera-
tion, 278; persecution renewed by
Maximin, 280; ended by his death,
281; treatment of not so intolerable
as imagined, 282; inflicted greater
injuries on each other than they suf-
fered from the infidels, 284; numbers
executed in the Netherlands in the
reign of Charles W., 285; passive obe-
dience of favourably regarded by Con-
stantine, iii. 7; their political views
explained byGrotius, ib. note; differed
from those of the modern Protestants,
8; their zeal and loyalty, 9; change
in their views of military service, 10;
censured by the Council of Nice, 11,
note; belief in a miracle to be worked
by Constantine, 11; yearly synods,
39; respect for Plato, 49, note;
opinion respecting the Son, 51; how
distinguished from the Platonists,
52; bound by the authority of the
church, ib.; factions, ib.; divi-
sions occasioned by the Arian con-
troversy, 87, sq.; general charac-
ter of their sects, 96; exiled clergy
recalled by Julian, 147; secret
motives of his toleration, ib.; he
emulates their charity and benefi-
cence, 150; brands them with the
name of Galilaeans, 162; prohibits
them from teaching grammar and
rhetoric, 163; excludes them from
offices of trust and profit, 164; con-
demns them to restore the Pagan


temples, 165; further persecutions,
170; zeal and imprudence of the,
176; destroy the Pagan temples,
177; attributed the death of Julian
to a Christian assassin, 226; dissen-
sions among at Jovian's accession,
228; violent disputes under Valens,
250; in Persia, mostly Nestorians,
vi. 47; their repugnance to the use
of images, 134; tolerated by the
* 371; hardships under,
CHRISTMAs Day, why selected by the
Romans as the birthday of Christ,
iii. 113, note.
CHRISTOPHER, son of Romanus I., By-
zantine emperor, vi. 102.
CHBYsANTHIUs, the philosopher, de-
clines Julian's invitation to Constan-
tinople, iii. 151, 152, note.
CHRYSAPHIUs, the eunuch and favourite
of Theodosius the Younger, proposes
to Edecon the assassination of Attila,
iv. 216; the latter demands his head,
218; pardons him for a large sum,
ib.; put to death by the empress
Pulcheria, 219; supported the cause
of Eutychés in the second council of
Ephesus, vi. 25.
CHRYSocHEIR, the Paulician, ravages
Asia Minor, vii. 53; reduces the em-
* Basil to sue for peace, 54; slain,

CHBYSoLoRAs, MANUEL, second profes-
sor of Greek at Florence, viii. 111;
success as a teacher, 1.12; scholars
of, ib. note; death, 113; epistle to
John II. Palaeologus, 120 and note.

CHRYSOPolis, battle of between Con-
stantine and Licinius, ii. 148; the
modern Scutari, 289.

CHRYSosToM, St., on the population of
Antioch, ii. 209, note M.; arguments
against death-bed baptism, iii. 21,
notes; eloquence of, 38; descrip-
tion of the pomp and luxury of Arca-
dius, iv. 136; protects Eutropius,
147; origin and promotion of, 151;
moral and literary character, 152;
ministry, ib.; bold preaching, ib. ;
persecuted by the empress Eudoxia
and other females, 153; abstinence
and moroseness, ib.; condemned and
deposed by the Synod of the Oak,
155 ; restored, ib.; inveighs against
Eudoxia, ib.; exiled to Cucusus,
156; his active correspondence there,


157; death at Comana, ib.; relics
transported to Constantinople, ib.;
advocacy of monasticism, 310, notes.
CHURCH, primitive, free and equal
government of, ii. 190; wealth of,
199; landed property, ib.; revenues,
how distributed, 200; alms, ib.; ex-
communication, how exercised by,
201; corporate property of, recog-
nized by the edict of Milan, iii. 32
and note; right of bequeathing to,
granted by Constantine, ib. ; his libe-
rality to, 33; revenue of dioceses
how divided, 34; patrimony of the,
subject to taxes, ib.; its revenues
transferred by Julian to the pontiffs,
165; British, its poverty, iv. 134;
Latin and Greek, union of, vi. 44;
eastern, entertains the monophysite
and Nestorian tenets, 45; separates
from the Greek and Latin com-
munion, ib.
CHURCHES, Christian, when first erected,
ii. 258 and note; demolition of, 273;
architecture of under Constantine,
iii. 33; splendour, ib.; made sanctu-
aries, 35; Suburbicarian, 39, note.
CIBALIS, battle near, between Constan-
tine and Licinius, ii. 140.
CICERo, his ‘de Naturâ Deorum," i.
167, note; legacies to, 300; his views
concerning the immortality of the
soul, ii. 168; his mistake concerning
the use of torture at Athens, 332,
note S.; could not understand Plato's
Timaeus, iii. 50, note; his high opi-
nion of the Twelve Tables, v. 263;
account of his work “de Legibus,’
CILICLA, province, i. 160; conquered
by the Saracens, vi. 327; conquered
by Nicephorus Phocas and Zimisces,
CIMITAR, a, worshipped by the Moguls
as the god of war, iv. 195.
CIMMERIAN darkness, origin of that
expression, iv. 79, note.
CIRCAssians, dynasty of in Syria and
Egypt, viii. 51.
CIRCEsium, site of, i. 326, note; town
of, iii. 90; last Roman station on
the Euphrates, v. 83.
CIRCUMCELLIONs, Donatist sect in
Africa, revolt and fury of, iii. 93;
arms and war-cry, 94; religious sui-
cides of, 95; fury of, iv. 180.

Cia-UMoision repelled proselytes from |

Judaism, ii. 156; practised by the
most ancient Abyssinians, 161, note;
practised by the Christians of Abys-
sinia, v. 66; a religious rite among
the Arabians, vi. 213 and note.
CIRCUs, Roman, described, iv. 86 and
note ; factions of the, v. 48; their co-
lours, ib.and note; adopted in the Hip-
podrome of Constantinople, 49; mas
sacre of the blues by the greens, ib.
CIRCUs AGONALIs at Rome, viii. 282.
CITEAUx, monastery of, vii. 247.
CITIES in ancient Italy, i. 185; in
Britain, Gaul, and Spain, 186; in
Africa, ib.; in Asia, 187; Lombard
and Italian, progress of, vi. 187; go-
vernment of, 188.
CITIZENSHIP, made universal by Cara-
calla, i. 293; his motive, 300; con-
sequences, 303.
CITRON-wood, extravagant fondness of
the Romans for, vi. 347, note.
CIVILIANs, Roman, their origin and
succession, v. 273.
Co. the Batavian, his revolt, i.
CLAIRVAUx, monastery of founded by
St. Bernard, vii. 247 and note.
CLARISSIMI, Roman senators anciently
so called, ii. 301, note; or honourable,
a title under Constantine, 305; class
of defined, 314.
CLASSICs, Greek and Latin, their me-
rits, vi. 403.
CLAUDIA, miracle of, iii. 139, note.
CLAUDIAN, his “Old Man of Verona,'
iv. 32; patronized by Stilicho and
Serena, 63; danger after the disgrace
of the former, 64; his religious in-
difference, ib. note M.; character as
a poet, 65; a native of Alexandria,
66, note; character of his two books
against Eutropius, 132, note; his
description of that eunuch, 140.
CLAUDIUs elected emperor by the Prae-
torians without the senate, i. 210;
purchased the consent of the former,
211, note W.; character, 217. -
CLAUDIUS at Thermopylae, i. 383, note;
named emperor by Gallienus, ii. 3;
character, ib.; accession, 4; act of
justice, 5; proposes to reform the
army, ib.; compels the Goths to re-
tire from Thessalonica, 6; letter to
the senate, ib.; obtains the name of
“Gothicus” from his victories over
the Goths, 7; death, 8,


ULEANDER, minister of Commodus, i.
227; his tyranny, 228 ; death, ib.
CLEAvRLAND, Ezra, his history of the
family of Courtenay, vii. 350, note.
CLEMATIUS of Alexandria, murder of,
ii. 389, note.
CLEMENs of Alexandria, his “Paeda-
gogue' contains the rudiments of
Christian ethics, ii. 186, note.
CLEMENs, FLAVIUs, cousin of Domi-
tian, married to Domitilla, ii. 239;
executed on the charge of atheism
and Jewish manners, ib.; considered
one of the first martyrs, ib.
CLEMENT III., pope, crowns Henry III.
emperor, vii. 128.
CLEMENT W., pope, election of, viii.
215; transfers his residence to Avig-
non, ib.
CLEMENT WI., pope, receives ambassa-
dors from John Cantacuzene at Avig-
non, viii. 79; character of, 80; in-
stitutes the Mosaic jubilee, 218 and
CLEMENT WII., pope, election of, viii.
CLEMENTINEs, the, attributed to an
Ebionite, iii. 48, note.
CLEODAMAs fortifies Piraeus, i. 400.
CLEOPATRA founds a new library at
Alexandria, iii. 417, notes.
Clepho elected king of the Lombards,
v. 341; assassinated, ib.
CLERGY, their influence examined, i.
196 and notes W. and M. ; dis-
tinguished from the laity in many
ancient nations, iii. 27; condi-
tion of under the emperors, 28;
celibacy of, 30 and note M.; selected
and ordained by the bishops, ib.;
exempted from civil offices and taxes,
31; limitation of this privilege, ib.
note G.; increase of their number
and orders, 31; civil jurisdiction of,
34; their legal causes, except great
crimes, tried by the bishops, 35;
Christian bequests to made illegal
by Valentinian I., 253 and 254,
mote S.
0LERMoNT, defence of by Ecdicius
against the Visigoths, iv. 287; coun-
cil of, vii. 181.
CLodION, first of the Merovingian
kings, iv. 227; overruns the second
Belgic, 228; routed near Artois by
Aëtius, ib.; establishes his kingdom
from the Rhine to the Somme, ib.


CLOTILDA, a princess of Burgundy,
marries and converts Clovis, iv. 350.

CLovis, king of the Franks, birth, iv.
346; his Salian dominions, ib.; name
equivalent to Ludwin or Lewis, ib.
note; character, 347; defeats Sya-
grius, 848 ; acquires the Belgic
cities and diocese of Tongres, ib.;
subdues the Alemanni, 349; con-
verted to Christianity by his wife
Clotilda, 350; his Christian fervour,
351; assassinates all the Merovin-
gian princes, 352; remark about St.
Martin, ib.; orthodoxy, ib.; conci-
liates the submission of the Armori-
cans and of the Roman troops, ib.;
compared with Henry IV., 353; re-
duces Gundebald, king of the Bur-
gundians, to vassalage, 355; at the
instance of Clotilda, declares war on
the Arians of Gaul, 357; defeats and
slays Alaric, king of the Visigoths,
359; conquers Aquitain, 360; com-
pelled to raise the siege of Arles,
361; concludes a treaty with the
Visigoths, ib.; made consul by the
emperor Anastasius, ib. and 362, note

CLUVFRIUs, his notion of the ancient
German worship, i. 364, note.
CoACHES, Roman, splendour and incon-
venience of, iv. 78, note.
CoCHE, near the ancient Seleucia, de-
scribed, iii.201.
Codex ARGENTEUs, or Gothic gospels of
Ulphilas, discovery of, iv. 323, notes
M. and S.
CoDICILs, Roman law as to, v. 277, 310.
Codinus, mistakes of that author, ii.
299, note.
CoENOBITEs, how distinguished from
Anachorets, iv. 319.
CoGNATs, what, v. 307; had no right
of inheritance, ib.
Cogni, v. Iconium.
CoHoRTs, city, i. 154, 229 and notes.
CoII, British king, imaginary father of
Helena, ii. 109.
CoINAGE, Constantinopolitan, debase-
ment of, vii. 882, note ; how regu-
lated by the Roman emperors, viii.
200 and note M.
CoLoRIs, reduced by Trajan, i. 143; or
Mingrelia, described, v. 194; man-
ners of the natives, 195; revolutions
of Colchis, 197.
CoLISEUM at Rome, meaning of the


name, viii. 280 and note; causes of
its decay, 281 and note M.; used as
a fortress, 281, 282, note M.; bull
feast in, 282; injuries to, 284; con-
secrated by Benedict XIV., ib.
CoLLYRIDIAN heresy, vi. 223 and
CoLoRIES, Roman, i. 172; superior pri-
vileges of, 173 and note.
CoLoRNA, Roman family, history of,
viii. 221; Ghibelines, 223.
CoLoRNA, Sciabba, seizes and insults
pope Boniface VIII. at Anagni, viii.
CoLoRNA, STEPHEN, flies from Rome on
the conspiracy of Rienzi, viii. 232;
defeat and death, 242; family of
defeated and killed by Rienzi, ib.
CoLUMBA, St., monastery of, iv. 310,
CoLUMBAN, St., rule of, iv. 314; where
educated, ib. note S.
CoMANA, temple of, suppressed and ap-
propriated by the successors of Con-
stantine, ii. 329.
CoMANs, Turkish tribe of, allied with
the sos, vii. 329, note.
CoMBATs, judicial, introduced into Gaul
by the Burgundians, iv. 370; pro-
gress of, ib.; law of in the assize
of Jerusalem, vii. 234.
CoMEs CASTRENSIs, steward of the im-
perial household so called, ii. 326.
CoMET observed during the reign of
Justinian, v. 249; its periodical re-
turns enumerated, 250, sq.
CoMITIA, restored by Caligula, i. 205,
CoMITo, sister of the empress Theo-
dora, v. 42 and note.
CoMMENTIolus, general of the emperor
Maurice, his cowardice, v. 381.
CoMMERCE, despised by the Romans,
iv. 75.
CoMMoDUs, admitted to imperial power,
i. 222; accession, 223 ; character,
ib. note; the first porphyrogenitus,
ib. note; reign, 24, sq.; attempted
assassination by a senator, 224; his
hatred of the senate, ib.; profligacy,
229; ignorance, 230; the “Roman
Hercules,” 231; ap in the
amphitheatre, ib.; a gladiator, 232;
. “Paulus,” 233; conspiracy
against, ib, ; murdered, 234; de-
clared infamous, 235; protected the
Christians, ii. 257.


CoMNENI, history of the family of, vi.
111; genealogical table of, 112, note
S.; raise a civil waragainst Nicephorus
Botaniates, 117; extent of their em-
pire, vii. 6; its wealth and populous-
ness, 7; extinction of the family of,
viii. 182.
CoMNENUs, ALExIUs, duke and emperor
of Trebizond, vii. 327 and note S.
CoMNENUs, DAVID, last emperor of
Trebizond, short question of Maho-
met II. to, viii. 182; capitulation
and death, ib. and note M.
CoMNENUs, John, brother of the em-
peror Isaac, question as to his refusing
the crown, vi. 113 and note S.; as-
serts the rights of his nephews, 115;
his children, 116.
CoMPLUTENSIAN PolyGLoT, cost of, iv.
355 note.
CoNCEPTION, immaculate of the Virgin
Mary, doctrine of borrowed from
the Koran, vi. 226 and note.
CoNCLAVE, institution of the, viii.212;
described, ib.; ballot introduced at,
213; accounts of, ib. notes.
CoNCORD, altar of, in the isle of Ele-
phantine, demolished by Justinian,
v. 82, note.
CoNCUBINEs, Roman law respecting, v,
CoNFARREATION, marriage rite, of what
an emblem, v. 294.
CoNFEDERATEs, barbarian army of,
under Orestes, how composed, iv.
295; their demand of a third part of
the lands of Italy, 296; rejected by
Orestes, 297; capture Pavia and exe-
cute Orestes, ib.
CoNFEssoRs confounded with Martyrs,
ii. 251, note.
CONOB, that inscription on Byzantine
coins explained, vi. 152 and note S.
CoNoN, original name of Leo III. the
Isaurian, vi. 82.
CoNRAD III., emperor of Germany, un-
dertakes the second Crusade, vii.
239; interview with the emperor
Manuel, 243; march through Ana-
tolia and defeat, 244 and note S.;
embassy of the Romans to, viii. 206.
CoNRAD, duke of Franconia, killed in a
campaign against the Hungarians,

Will. Its.
CoNRAD of Montferrat relieves Tyre,

vii. 261; question respecting his as-

sassination, 264 and note M.

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