CONBADIN of Swabia executed by

Charles of Anjou, vii. 376.
CONSCIENCE, liberty of established, vi.

61, notes.
CONSILIUM, or privy council, instituted

by Augustus, i. 206, note S. ; re-

vived under Al. Severus, 287, note S.
CONSTANCE, treaty of between Frede-

rick I. and the Lombard league, vi.
189; council of, establishes the au-
thority of a general council above
that of the pope, viii. 92 ; its weight
and importance, 255; deposes the
three pretenders to the papal see,
256 ; elects Otho Colonna with the

title of Martin V., ib.
Constans, third son of Constantine,

governs Italy and Africa, ii. 357;
share of the empire after the death
of his father, 366; war with his
brother Constantine II., 374 ; ac-
quires the provinces of the latter,
ib.; slain at Helena by the adherents
of Magnentius, 376; protected Atha-
nasius, iii. 75; demanded the resto-
ration of Athanasius from Constan-
tius II., 76 ; his menaces, ib. and

note; his visit to Britain, 269.
CONBTANS II., son of Constantine III.,

accession of, vi. 74; murders his
brother Theodosius, 75 ; voluntary
exile, ib.; pillages the churches at
Rome, ib. note M. ; death, ib. ; his
project to restore the seat of empire
to Rome, vii. 37; pillages and deserts

that capital, ib.
Constans, son of the usurper Constan-

tinc, put to death by Gerontius, iv.

Constant, M., his work · Sur la Reli-

gion,' i. 166, note M.
CONSTANTIA, sister of Constantine,

pleads for her husband Licinius,
ii. 149; her greatness and misery,
350; pleads for the life of her son

Licinius, 353.
CONSTANTIA, daughter of Constantius,

saved from the Quadi by Messalla,

iii. 288; marries Gratian, 291.
CONSTANTIA, daughter of Roger, king

of Sicily, marries the emperor Henry

VI., vii. 143.
CONSTANTINA, daughter of Constantine

the Great, persuades Vetranio to ac-
cept the purple, ii. 376; marries
Gallus, 388 ; cruel character, 389;
death, 392.

CONSTANTINA, widow of the emperor

Maurice, attempts an insurrection
against Phocas, v. 387; tortured and
beheaded with her three daughters,

CONSTANTINE the Great, his family

connection with Claudius, ii. 8; birth
and education, 109; birthplace in-
vestigated, ib. notes; person and
character, 110; journey to Britain,
ib. ; elevation, ill; affected repug-
nance, 112 ; acknowledged by Ga-
lerius as Cæsar, ib.; his brothers and
sisters, 113, note ; marries Fausta,
116 ; named Augustus by Maximian,
117; besieges Maximian in Arles, 121;
puts him to death, ib. ; administra-
tion of Gaul, 123; exposes several
German princes to wild beasts, ib. ;
preparations against Maxentius, 126 ;
passes the Alps, 128; enters Milan,
129; besieges Verona, ib.; defeats
Maxentius at Saxa Rubra, 132 ; his
proceedings at Rome, 133; triumphal
arch, 134 ; suppresses the Prætorians,
ib.; places of residence, 135; alliance
with Licinius, ib. ; war with Lici-
nius, 140 ; defeats him at Cibalis, ib.;
at Mardia, 141; treaty with, ib. ;
laws, 142 ; chastises the Goths, 144;
attacks Licinius, 145; defeats him
at Hadrianople, 147; besieges By-
zantium, ib.; defeats Licinius at
Chrysopolis, 149; puts him to death,
ib. ; Constantine's activity, 286; de-
sign in founding Constantinople, 287;
contemplated building his new city
on the plain of Troy, 292; ascribed
the founding of Constantinople to
inspiration, 293 ; his statue, with
the attributes of Apollo and Christ,
297 and note ; invited eminent
Romans to Constantinople, 299 ; con-
fers many privileges on the Constan-
tinopolitans, 300 ; annual procession
of his statue, 302; introduces a new
form of government, 303; separates
the civil and military administration,
319; corrupted military discipline,
320 ; first bestowed consular honours
on barbarians, 325; seven ministers
of his palace, ib. sq.; financial go-
vernment, 333 899.; some advantages
of his reign, 344 ; his character, 345,
899.; family, 348; genealogical table
of, 349, note 8.; jcalous of his son
Crispus, 351 ; celebrates the twen-

tieth year of his reign at Rome, 352;
puts Crispus and Licinius to death,
b.; story of his repentance un-
founded, 353 ; satirized as a Nero,
355 ; elevation of his and
nephews, ib. ; their education, 356 ;
Constantine assists th: Sarmatians
against the Goths, 360; victory, ib.;
Gibbon's erroneous account of his
defeat, ib. note M. ; alliance with the
Chersonites, 361 ; rewards them, ib.;
reduces the Goths, ib.; his death and
funeral, 363 ; tomb, ib. note ; factions
respecting the succession, 363; li-
mited to his sons, 364; date of his
conversion, iii. 1; when a catechu-
men, 2; legend of his baptism at
Rome, ib. note; two inconsistent
edicts of, 3; his pagan superstition,
ib.; made his father a divinity, 4;
devotion to Apollo, ib.; protects the
Christians in Gaul, ib. ; publishes the
Edict of Milan, 5; his motives for
favouring the Christians, 6, sq. ; after
the defeat of Licinius, invites all his
subjects to embrace Christianity, 9;
his conversion miraculous, 11 ; his
vision described and examined, ib.;
adopts the symbol of the cross and
standard of the Labarum, 12; his
dream, 13; should be connected with
the apparition in the sky, ib. note
M.; natural solution of, 14 ; his
triumphal arch and inscription, 15;
vision in the sky, ib. ; testimony of
suspicious, 17 and notes ; motives of
Constantine's conversion examined,
17; his theological discourses, 19;
pagan nature of, ib. ; proves Chris-
tianity from the Sibylline verses and
Virgil, ib.; his Christian privileges,
20; a priest and hierophant, ib. ; his
baptism, why delayed, 21 ; his cha-
racter worse after his conversion, 22;
which was maliciously attributed to
remorse by the pagans, ib. and note
M.; canonized by the Greeks, 23 ;
influence of his conversion, ib. ; pro-
tects the Persian Christians, 25;
bounty to Cæcilian bishop of Car-
thage, 32; favoured monachism, 33;
liberality towards the church, ib.;
tenderness for episcopal reputation,
35; attends the council of Nice, 39;
edict against heretics, 41; rallies
Acesius, 42; addresses a moderating
letter to Alexander and Arius, 63 ;

growing zeal against the Arians, ib.;
ratifies the Nicene creed, 64 ; banishes
Eusebius of Nicomedia and Arius,
ib.; relents, 65 ; recalls the exiles,
ib.; deposes the three principal Ca-
tholic leaders, ib.; baptised by the
Arian bishop Eusebius, ib.; incon-
sistency of his religious opinions, ib.;
did not suppress paganism, 97 ; abo-
lished several pagan abuses, 98;
deified by the pagan senate of Rome,
99; legend of his cure by St. Silves-
ter, and donation of the Western

Empire to the popes, vi. 161.
CONSTANTINE II., education, ii. 356;

presides over Gaul, ib. ; share of the
empire after the death of his father,
366; exacts the African provinces
from Constans, 374 ; invades the

latter's dominions, ib.; slain, ib.
CONSTANTINE III., son of Heraclius,

reign of, vi. 73; also called Hera-

clius II., ib. note S.
CONSTANTINE IV., Pogonatus, acces-

sion, vi. 75; Sicilian expedition and
punishment of a usurper, 76 ; muti-

lates his brothers, ib. and note M.
CONSTANTINE V., Copronymus, em-

peror of Constantinople, vi. 83; his
iconoclasm, tyranny, and brutality,
ib.; virtues, 84 ; accused of burning
the library of Constantinople, ib. note
S.; tragic history of his five sons, 85 ;
persecutes and abolishes the monks,
144 ; proscribes the worship of
images, ib.; marriage with the
daughter of the king of the Chazars
denounced, vii. 24; introduces the

Paulicians into Thrace, 55.
CONSTANTINE VI. and Irene, reign of at

Constantinople, vi. 85, v. Irene.
CONSTANTINE VII., Porphyrogenitus,

vi. 101 ; deposed by Romanus I.,
102 ; his literary and artistic talent,
ib. ; restored, 103 ; death and funeral,

works of, vii. 1; marriage of his
son with Bertha, daughter of Hugo,
king of Italy, how excused, 24 ; en-

couraged learning, 40.
CONSTANTINE VIII., emperor of Cor-

stantinople, vi. 102; conspires with
his brother Stephen, and deposes
his father Romanus J., 103; deposed

and banished in turn, ib.
CONSTANTINE IX., emperor of Constan-

tinople, vi. 107; death, 108.
CONSTANTINE X., Monomachus, em-

ib. ;

peror of Constantinople, vi. 110;
profligacy and death, ib.; name of

Monomachus hereditary, ib. note S.
CONSTANTINE XI., Ducas, emperor of

Constantinople, character and death,

vi. 114.
CONSTANTINE XII., emperor of Con-

stantinople, vi. 115.
CONSTANTINE XIII., Palæologus, last of

crowned at Sparta, 140; message to
Mahomet II. before the siege of Con-
stantinople, 149; signs the act of
union between the Greek and Latin
churches, 156; insincerity, 157;
valiant defence of Constantinople,
159 ; last address, 168 and note;

slain, 171 and note.
CONSTANTINE, son of Michael VII., be-

trothed to a daughter of Robert Guis-
card, vii. 119; and to Anna Com-

nena, ib, note,
CONSTANTINE, a private soldier, elected

emperor by the British legions, iv.
54 ; attempts to deliver Gaul from
the barbarians, ib. sq. ; besieged in
Vienna by the forces of Honorius,
55; reduces Spain, ib. ; opposed by
the family of Theodosius, ib.; his
claims ratified by Honorius, 119;
revolt of his general Gerontius, ib.;
besieged in Arles by Constantius,
121; engages the aid of the Franks
and Alemanni, ib. ; capture and

death, ib.
CONSTANTINE, son of Heraclius, aban-

dons the defence of Syria, vi. 324.

the Paulicians, vii. 47 ; cruelly put

to death by Simeon, 51.
CONSTANTINE, governor of Spoleto,

despoils Presidius, v. 149; put to

death by Belisarius, ib.
CONSTANTINOPLE, foundel, ii. 286, 293;

described, 287; port, 289; advan-
tages of its position, 292 ; its boun-
daries traced by Constantine, 294 ;
extent, ib. ; surrounded with walls by
Theodosius the Younger, 295 ; pro-
gress and expense of constructing the
city, ib. ; adorned by despoiling other
cities of their sculptures, 296 ; edifices
described, 297; population, 299; rapid
increase of, 300; regions of, 301 and
note; considered as a colony of Rome,
302 and note; dedication of the city,
302 ; how annually celebrated, ib.;

date of, ib. note S.; called Second or
New Rome, 303; the name Constan-
tinople found on the medals of Con-
stantine, ib. note ; new form of go-
vernment at, ib. 899.; præfects of,
312 ; never profaned by idolatry, iii.
23 and 90; church of, 90; dissen-
sions of, ib. 899.; cathedral, number
and description of its ministers, 31
and note ; imperial court of described,
124; reformed by Julian, ib.; senate
of made equal to that of Rome by
Julian, 130; discontent of the citi-
zens under Valens, 239; Procopius
obtains possession of the city, ib.;
school of founded by Valentinian I.;
account of, 247, sq.; threatened by
the Goths, 339; admiration of Atha-
naric at, 350; principal seat of Arian-
ism, 364 ; disputatious zeal of the
citizens, 365; Gregory's orthodox
mission to and persecutions at, 367 ;
success, 368; tumult at on the in-
stallation of Gregory, 369; council of,
370; threatened by the Goths under
Alaric, iv. 23; tumult and massacre
of the Gothic troops at, 149; riots
on the deposition of Chrysostom,
155 ; walls rebuilt, 160 ; great
earthquake at under Theodosius the
younger, 201; threatened by the
Hans, ib. ; fury of the factions of the
Circus at, v. 49; Nika sedition at,
51; conflagration, 53; threatened by
the Bulgarians, 243; riots at on the
reported death of Justinian, 245 ;
riots and revolt against the emperor
Maurice, 384;

threatened by the Per-
sians under Chosroes II., 393; be-
sieged by the Avars and Persians,
405; religious war concerning the
Trisagion at, vi, 33; second council
of, 40, 43; iconoclast council of
under Constantine V., 141; besieged
by the Arabs, 374; second siege
of by Moslemeh, 378; threatened
by Harun al Rashid, 404; royal col-
lege of, vii. 39; threatened by the
Hungarians, 76; thrice attempted by
the Russians, 87; prophecy of its
capture by that nation, 88 and note
S.; threatened by Godfrey of Bouil-
lon, 205 ; patriarch of, excommuni-
cated by the pope, 282; siege and
conquest of, by the Latins, 302; fire
at, occasioned by the Flemings, 308
and note S. ; sedition at, 309; second

siege of, by the Latins, 310; third
conflagration, 312; capture, ib. ; pil-
lage, 313; destruction of the statues,
317; recovered by Michael Palæo-
logus, 346 and 367; titular Latin
emperors of, 346 and note ; walls
restored by Michael, 376; besieged
by the sultan Amurath II., viii. 71;
use of cannon at, 76; women of, their
secluded lives, 106 ; state of learning
at, in the thirteenth and fourteenth
centuries, ib.; compared with Rome,
120; authorities for the siege of, 146,
note and note M.; invested by Ma-
homet II., 154; number of the de-
fenders, 156; fanaticism of the
Constantinopolitans, 157; attack and
defence, 160; sucooured by a fleet,
161; distress, 165 ; general assault,
168; capture of, 171 ; sacked, 172;
captivity of the inhabitants, 173 ;
amount of the spoil, 175; repeopled
and adorned by Mahomet II., 179 ;
churches of, divided between the

Turks and Greeks, 180.
CONSTANTIUS CALORUB, associated with

Diocletian, ii. 67 ; character, ib.;
adopted son, and son-in-law of
Maximian, 68 ; recovers Britain, 73;
victories over the Alemanni in Gaul,
75; emperor, 106; character, ib.;
economy, 107, note; British expedi-
tion, ill; death, ib.; family, 112;
makes Constantine his successor, ib.

and note ; averse to persecution, 275.
CONSTANTIUS II., son of Constantine

the Great, made Cæsar and ruler
of Gaul, ii. 351 ; education, 356 and
notes ; governor of the Eastern pro-
vinces, 357; seizes Constantinople
on the death of his father, 364; his
fraud and forgery, ib.; massacres his
uncles and cousins, 365; his share of
the empire, 366; conducts the Per-
sian war, ib.; nine battles of, 370;
Constantius defeated at Singara, 371;
hastens to Europe to oppose Magnen-
tius and Vetranio, 377; refuses to
treat with them, ib. ; deposes Vetra-
nio by seducing his officers, 378;
war with Magnentius, 380; solicits
peace, ib.; defeats Magnentius at
Mursa, 382; recovers Italy, 383 ;
Africa and Spain, 384 ; final victory
over Magnentius, ib. ; cruelty, 385 ;
vole emperor, 386 ; governed by
oudachs, 387; sarcasm of Ammianus

respecting, ib. ; reforms the adminis
tration of Gallus in the East, 390,
invites him to Milan, 392; puts him
to death at Pola, 393 ; political dif-
ficulties, 395 ; declares Julian Cæsar,
397 ; visits Rome, 399; admiration
of that city, 400; embellishes it with
an Egyptian obelisk, ib. ; war with
the Quadi and Sarmatians, 401 ; re-
duces the former, 402; forms the
Sarmatians into a kingdom, ib. ; sub-
dues the Limigantes, ib.; gives au-
dience to them, 403 ; punishes their
treachery by their extinction, 404 ;
receives the name of Sarmaticus, ib. ;
answer to the proposals of Sapor, 405 ;
sends ambassadors to Persia, ib.;
proceeds to the East, 411; unsuccess-
ful siege of Bezabde, ib. ; adopts the
Arian heresy, üi. 66 ; Ammianus' ac-
count of his religion (or superstition),
67 ; his addiction to theological con-
troversy, ib.; his vacillating

68; styled “ Bishop of Bishops,”
ib. ; banishes the orthodox clergy, 69;
persecutes Athanasius, ib. ; restores
him at the instance of Constans, 76 ;
resentment of Constantius, 77 ; pro-
cures the condemnation of Athana-
sius, 80; banishes the bishops who
opposed it, ib. sq. ; edicts against the
Catholics, 92; visits the temples of
Rome, 99; his jealousy and fear of
Julian, 102; deprives Julian of the
Gallic legions, 103; dismisses Ju-
lian's ambassadors, 111; continues
his march towards Persia, 112 ; offers
conditions of pardon for Julian's re-
volt, ib. ; marches against him, 118;
dies at Mopsucrene, 120; character,

ib.; funeral, 121.
CONSTANTIUS, general of Honorius,

character, iv. 120; besieges the usur-
per Constantine in Arles, 121 ; de-
feats his general Edobic, ib.; magna-
nimity, ib. ; sends Constantine pri-
soner into Italy, ib.; abandons Gaul
to Jovinus, 122; expels the Goths
from Narbonne, 125, note S.; mar-
ries Placidia, 171; associated in the
empire by Honorius, ib.; death, ib.;

date of, ib. note S.
CONSTANTIUS, general of Probus, ii. 44.
CONSTANTIUS, JULIUS, the patrician,

brother of Constantine, ii. 348; mur.
dered by his nephew Constantius,

of, ib.


CONSTANTIU8, secretary of Attila, ne by the Romans, ü. 226 and 227,

gociations for a wife at the court of note ; municipal, reformed by Majo
Constantinople, iv. 208.

rian, iv. 269.
CONSULS, jurisdiction of the, i. 203 ; CORRUPTIBLES and INCORRUPTIBLES,

elected by the emperors, ii. 306 ; Christian factions at Alexandria, vi.
none at Rome for 120 years, ib.; in 59.
auguration and ensigns, ib.; nomin CORSI, Italian family, viii. 220.
ally appointed by the senate, ib. note Cos, isle of, manufacture of silk in, v.
S.; cost of the games exhibited by, 57 and note S.; transparent garments
307 ; Gibbon corrected, ib. note 8.;
had no duties, 308.

Cosa (Kussai), fifth ancestor of Maho
CONBULSHIP under the empire, i. 204 met, usurps the Caaba, vi. 212; his

and note ; when first conferred on a office described, 216, note S.
barbarian, 401; assumed by the em Cosmas INDICOPLEUBTES, his voyages
perors, ii. 308 ; exalted idea of, ib. and geographical notions, v. 62, note;
notes ; conferred on barbarians by design of his Topographia Christiana,
Constantine, 325; Julian's respect vi. 48, note.
for the, üi. 130; revived by Odoacer, Cosmo of Medicis, character, viii. 117.
iv. 302 ; vast expense of, under the Cossova, battle of, gained by Amu-
later emperors, v. 94; suppressed by rath I. over the Slavonian tribes,
Justinian, 95, legally extinguished viii. 30.

by Leo the Philosopher, ib. and note. Coucy, SIRE DE, leader of the French
Conti, Italian family, viii. 220.

at Nicopolis, dies a prisoner at Boursa,
Contracts by consent, v. 312 and note viii. 34.

Councils, of Ancyra, ii. 202 ; Illiberis,
CONVERTISSEUR, zeal for obtaining that ib. ; Arles, iii. 39; Nice, ib. and 56;

title under Louis XIV., iii. 152, note. Rimini, 62; another, 68; Seleucia, ib.;
COPIATÆ, or gravediggers, number of, Tyre, 72; Antioch, 74; Sardica, 75;
at Constantinople, iii. 32.

Arles, 76; Milan, ib.; Constanti-
COPTIC dialect confined to the peasants, nople, 370; Toledo, iv. 340 and note ;
vi. 45.

first of Ephesus, vi. 18; second of
Coptos destroyed by Diocletian, ii. 76. Ephesus, 25; of Chalcedon, 26 ;
COPTs and Alyssinians, æra of martyrs second of Constantinople, 40, 43;

in use amung, ii. 264, note ; religious iconoclast of Constantinople, 140 ;
tenets of the, vi. 59; present state of second of Nice, 164 ; of Frankfort,
the Egyptian Jacobites, 62.

166; Placentia, vii. 180; Clermont,
CORBULO, I. 139, note.

182; Lyons, 373; Pisa, viii. 92;
COBDOVA, magnificence of, under the Constance, ib.; Basil, 93; Ferrara

Arabs, vi. 366; martyrs of, 372 and Florence, 98; Pisa, 255; Con-
and note.

stance, ib.
CORINTH, Isthmian games celebrated COUNCIL, general, its authority superior

at, under the emperor Julian, iii. to that of the pope, viii. 93.
131; isthmus of, fortified by Justi Count of the East, ii. 313; origin, de-
nian, v. 80

finition, and functions of counts,
Coen, daily allowance of, at Constanti 320; or treasurer, of the private

nople, ii. 300 and note S.; ill policy estate, under Constantine, 328; of
of, 301.

the sacred largesses, treasurer-gene-
CORNIFICIA, name of Fadilla, i. 270, ral so called under Constantine, ib.;
note M.

functions of, 329; of the domestics
CORNWALL subdued by Athelstan, iv. under Constantine, 330.
391, note.

COUPELE, rock of, on the Ganges, viii.
CORONARY gold, what, ii. 343; cor 48.

verted into a tax, ib.; amount paid Court, imperial, progress of, ü. 94,
by the Roman senate, ib.

note G.
COROULTAI, or diet of the Tatars, iii. COURTENAY, account of the family of,

vii. 350.
CORPORATIONS, regarded with suspicion COUSINS-GERMAN, marriage between,

« ForrigeFortsett »