“Well defined mines of the following minerals exist, viz; sulphurets of silver and copper, carbonate of silver, red silver ore, white silver ore, blue sulphuret of silver, copper, copper and iron, carbonate of copper, plumbago, gold and rubies.

The minerals are in great abundance, and the veins give reasonable evidence of being inexhaustible. The country over which our informant traveled, is richer than any that he has investigated in any other part of the State, and he is perfectly familiar with the mineralogy of the northern counties. He has found rubies in great abundance, not only detached, but in connection with mineral which give evidence of having been in a state of fusion, and have thus incorporated with them the pebbles over which they coursed."

Canals and Water Ditches.—The ditch of the Los Angeles Mining Company to supply the Pioneer Mines, is several miles in length and cost to erect, $20,000.

Mineral Springs.—The Hot Springs, near the Mission of San Juan, are strongly recommended by the Medical Faculty for their powerful medicinal qualities. They are annually visited by large numbers of persons from the vicinity.

Finances, July, 1858.-Funded debt, $17,600, seven per cent. Floating, $36,412—total, $54.012. Receipts for past fiscal year, $30,000. Expenditures, same period, $20,000. Amount taxable property, $2,208,695.

Attorneys.- Los Angeles : J. L. Brent, J. H. Canders, K. H. Dimmick, Ezra Drown, W. C. Dryden, E. J. C. Kewen, Myron Norton, A. Olivera, C. Sims, J. R. Scott, C. E. Thom.

Physicians.-El Monte: B. Barton, N. Beardsley, Dr. Heywood, T. A. Mayer ; Los Angeles: Thomas Foster, J. S. Griffin, J. C. Welsh, T. J. White, J. B. Winston; San Gabriel: Dr. Carr.


COUNTY SEAT-SAN RAFAEL. Marin County, organized 1850. Boundaries; North by Sonoma, east by Sonoma and bays of San Pablo and San Francisco and south and west by the Pacific Ocean.

Topography.—This county is generally mountainous and broken, and but a small portion of the land is adapted for cultivation. The soil in the valleys is rich, and some of the high lands will produce grain in abundance. The area of the county is estimated at seven hundred square miles, two-thirds of which is suitable for grazing purposes. There are about seven thousand acres of timberland, principally redwood, pine and oak; and but a very small quantity of swamp land in this county belonging to the State. Number of acres in cultivation, six thousand five hundred and sixteen.

Legal Distances.-From Sacramento, one hundred and thirty-five miles; from Stockton, one hundred and thirty-five miles, and from San Quentin, three miles.


... Oct'r, 1859 Fees.



Residence. Term Expires Salary. County Judge.... R. B. Frink ...... San Rafael..... . April, 1862 $2,000 District Attorney.. J. H. Haralson...

. Oct'r, 1859 1,200 County Clerk..... D. T. Taylor......

Sheriff ......... V. D. Doub......
Treasurer........T. H. Hanson....
Assessor........James Harris
... James Harris.....

66 1860! "
Surveyor ........ A. D. Eastroot.... Bolinas..... 1 1859 "
Coroner... ... Vacant.
Pub. Administrator J. Hughes....... San Rafael.....
Sup't Com. Schools John Simms...... "

i . Supervisor ....... James Dixon.....!

66 " P'r d'm ..... L. Lagrange...... Bolinas........ 16 ....... Warren Dutton... Tomales ....... Seventh Judicial District.—Hon. E. W. McKinstry, Judge District Court. Sessions, first Monday in March, July and November.

Eleventh Senatorial District.-Senator; Hon. J. O'Farrell; term expires January, 1861.

Member of Assembly.-Hon. Manuel Torres.

Agricultural Products.—Wheat, 546 acres, 21,840 bushels; barley, 1,420 acres, 56,800 bushels; oats, 3,250 acres, 130,000 bushels; beans, 60 acres, 1,200 bushels; potatoes, 1,240 acres, 124,000 bushels; butter, 210,000 pounds; cheese, 150,000 pounds.

Fruit Trees.—Apple, 8,890 : peach, 155; pear, 110; plum, 202; cherry, 65; nectarine, 170; apricot, 60; fig, 70; almond, 50. Vines : grape, 600.

Live Stock.—Horses, (American,) 410, (Spanish, tame,) 1,260, (Spanish, wild,) 1,750, total number of horses, 3,410; cows, 4,910; calves, 4,508; stock cattle, 4,050 ; beef cattle, 9,800, total number of cattle, 23,268; sheep, 4,900; goats, 250; hogs, 2,400; poultry, 4,000.

Manufactures.-Number of saw mills, 3-steam; lumber sawed per annum, 5,000,000 feet.

Paper Mill.*_There is an extensive paper mill located at Taylorsville, Berry Township, cost of construction, $92,000.

Mineral Resources.-An extensive vein of gold bearing quartz, was discovered in July, 1857, near San Rafael, but no attempt has, as yet, been made to test its richness by the application of the necessary machinery.

State Prison.—The State Prison is located at San Quentin, near San Rafael; cost of buildings, $500,000; number of prisoners, 550.

Finances, July, 1858–Floating debt, $17,757. Receipts for fiscal year, $8,200; expenditures, same period, $11,060. Assessed value of property, $1,630,414.

Attorneys.-San Rafael: T. H. Hanson, J. H. Haralson, W. Skidmore. Physicians.—San Rafael: Dr. D'Herring, A. W. Taliaferro.

* For a description of these works, see p. 306.


COUNTY SEAT-MARIPOSA. Mariposa County, organized 1850. Boundaries: North by Tuolumne and Calaveras, east by Fresno, south by Fresno, and west by Merced.

Topography.—This county is peculiarly a mining district; but a small portion of the land is suitable for agricultural purposes. There are, however, small quantities cultivated in gardens sufficient to supply the residents with vegetables. A great abundance of almost every variety of pine is to be found in the mountain districts, which is said to be of the finest quality. Number of acres in cultivation, two thousand.

Legal Distances.-From Sacramento, one hundred and forty-five miles; from Stockton, one hundred miles, and from San Quentin, two hundred and thirty miles.



County Judge.... Jas. M. Bondurant Mariposa

Oct'r, 1861 $3,600 District Attorney . Richard H. Daly..

4 1859 1,200 County Clerk.... Wm. A. Guard ...

Fees. Recorder ........ Robert S. Miller.. Sheriff .......... Joshua D. Crippen. Treasurer........ William A. King.. Assessor ........ James F. Jenkins.

16 " $10 p.d Surveyor ........ Jarvis Kiel ......

16 16 Fees. Coroner ......... N. B. Hubbell.... Pub. Administrator James W. Torney. Sup't Com. Schools Angevine Reynolds

500 Supervisor ....... Hugh Dimond....

pr di'm ....... Francis Ross..... Quartzburg ... 66 ... ... . S. A. Scott ... ... Coulterville ...... Thirteenth Judicial District-Hon. Nicholas Cleary, Judge District Court; sessions, second Monday in March, July and November.

Sixth Senatorial District.–Senator: Hon. S. A. Merritt; term expires, January, 1861.

Members of Assembly.Hons. A. J. Gregory and G. H. Crenshaw.

Agricultural Products.—The amount of grain raised in this county is small, barely sufficient for home consumption. The same remark will apply to vegetables. Wheat, 280 acres, 5,600 bushels; barley, 500 acres, 10,000 bushels; oats, 50 acres, 1,000 bushels; potatoes, 10 acres; hay, 300 tuns.

Fruit Trees. — Apple, 3,170; peach, 2,500; pear, 55; plum, 130; cherry, 23; nectarine, 15; quince, 10; fig, 15. Vines: Strawberry, 230,000; grape vines, 15,000.

Live Stock.—Horses, (American) 20, (Spanish, tame) 250, (Spanish, wild) 250—total number of horses, 520; mules, 200; asses, 30; cows, 360 ; calves, 300; stock cattle, 1,750; beef cattle, 450; oxen, 200—total number of cattle, 3000; sheep, 2000; goats, 25; hogs, 800; poultry, 4,075.

Manufactures. — Number of grist mills, 1; run of stone, 2-steam; saw mills, 5, steam; lumber sawed per day, 12,000 feet, valued at $240; cost of construction, $150,000.

Ferries, Bridges, etc.— Ferries, 5; bridges, 1; 25 miles of turnpike roads; cost, $12,500.

Mineral Resources.—Nearly the entire surface of this county abounds in mineral wealth. There is probably not a creek or gulch, of any extent, which does not exhibit the evidence of the existence of gold. Quartz veins are also found throughout the county, and it is estimated that over five hundred mills could be supplied for years with rock, paying from sixteen to twenty dollars per tun.

The celebrated Fremont Grant is located within the center of this county, and it will fully justify all that has been said of its great mineral richness. This grant may be probably divided into four great mineral sections, viz: Guadalupe, about five miles in length and four in width; Agua Frio, six miles in length and three in width; Bear Valley, a district celebrated for its richness; and Mariposa Creek, which includes the town of Mariposa and a district of valuable mineral land twelve miles in length by two in width. It is estimated, that over three thousand sluice-heads of water could be used to advantage within the boundaries of this district.

The mining population of this county have long experienced the want of an abundant supply of water to prosecute their labors with success. It is thought, that when the extent of the resources of the county is fully understood, capitalists will be induced to advance the amount necessary for the construction of such facilities as will afford a sufficient supply of water throughout the year, and thereby render productive one of the richest mineral regions of the State.

Quartz Mills.-Number of mills, 32; aggregate of stamps, 310; arastras, 95; cost of machinery, $380,000.

Silver.-An extensive vein of silver ore at Quartzburg, is now being worked with considerable success.

Ditches and Canals.-Number of ditches, 10; aggregate length, 65 miles; cost of construction, $145,000.

Yo Semite Falls.The valley of the Yo Semite is situated near the head waters of the Merced River. The picturesque character of this valley is thus described by a distinguished Californian. Speaking of the valley and falls, he says: “It is a world in itself. After having spent and traveled for more than twenty years in South America, over the Republic of Chile, Bolivia and part of Peru, he never beheld before in his life, not even in the Andes of South America, any scenery to be compared in sublimity, or so varied, as that of the Yo Semite Valley. Taking into consideration the astonishing hight of the falls—the innumerable and bold precipices which form the sides of the valley—the beautiful meadows below, and the limpid, clear river winding tranquilly for eight miles in the valley, belted on each side by the noble oaks, pines and poplars, throwing their shadows such as no artist could ever picture. The whole hight is twenty-six hundred feet;* its first leap is over fifteen hundred feet, the stream then runs foaming and roaring down a stony, deep channel, and then makes a leap of five hundred feet until it reaches a perpendicular hight of six hundred feet above the valley, where it splashes or rather drags itself down the side of the rocks, into its wide basin below. The rapids between these falls are nearly three-quarters of a mile in width.

Mammoth Tree Grove.—The valley in which these trees are situated, is about midway between Mariposa and the Yo Semite Valley. The grove consists of three hundred and seventy-five trees, of which nearly one hundred and fifty are over forty feet in circumference; the largest measuring one hundred and two feet. There is a portion of a monster tree lying on the ground which is estimated to have been, when standing, over four hundred feet in hight, and one hundred and twenty feet in circumference, the largest tree yet discovered.

Finances, May, 1858.-Funded debt, $10,334, ten per cent. ; floating, $21,492 ; interest on registered portion, ten per cent; cash in Treasury, $2,787 79; actual debt, $29,038 21; receipts for fiscal year, $34,000; expenditures, same period, $24,000.

Attorneys.—Mariposa : S. B. Alison, H, Clark, Nicholas Cleary, R. H. Daly, Alex'r Deering, B. B. Harris, Samuel A. Merritt, L. W. Talbott, A. F. Washburn, H. G. Worthington.

Physicians.-Bear Valley: Dr. Moore, Dr. Riddle; Coulterville ; Dr. Thompson; Hornitos: A. D. Boyce, H. S. Brockway, Dr. Lewis, Dr. MacCaffrey, E. S. Prescott, Dr. Rhidenaugh; Mariposa City: J. L. Clarke, W. D. Cowan, A. J. Grandvoinet, W. S. Kavanaugh.


Mendocino County was created by act of the Legislature, 1850, but has not as yet been organized. Boundaries: North by Humboldt, east by Colusa and Napa, south by Sonoma and the Pacific Ocean and west by the Pacific Ocean.

Topography.—There is a large extent of land in this county well adapted for agricultural and grazing purposes. The growth of timber is very abundant; principally oak, redwood and pine. Many of the trees will measure from fifty to seventy-five feet in circumference. Number of acres in cultivation, two thousand five hundred.

This county, for judicial and election purposes is attached to Sonoma County.

Agricultural Resources. —There are some of the most productive farms in the State to be seen in this county; every description of produce is raised in abundance. Products: Wheat, 502 acres; barley, 250 acres ; oats, 212 acres;


* The Horse Shoe Falls of Niagara are 150 feet perpendicular by 700 feet broad; the fall on the American side is 164 feet perpendicular by 1,050 feet broad.-ED.

+ The agricultural products, etc., of this county are included in the aggregates of Sonoma, but as they have been reported separately, we have arranged them under their proper head.-[ED.

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