forms which had been already enacted should be read, Constantine, the secretary, read from a paper, as follows: "Concerning the orthodox and catholic faith, we are agreed that a more exact inquiry should take place before a fuller assembly of the council, at its next meeting. But inasmuch as it has been shown, from examination of the acts and decrees, and from the oral testimony of the presidents of that synod, who admit that themselves were in error, and the deposition was void, that Flavian, of pious memory, and the most reverend bishop Eusebius, were convicted of no error concerning the faith, and were wrongfully deposed, it seems to us, according to God's good pleasure, to be a just proceeding, if approved by our most divine and pious sovereign, that Dioscorus, the most reverend bishop of Alexandria; Juvenalis, the most reverend bishop of Jerusalem; Thalassius, the most reverend bishop of Cæsarea in Cappadocia; Eusebius, the most reverend bishop of Ancyra; Eustathius, the most reverend bishop of Berytus; and Basilius, the most reverend bishop of Seleucia in Isauria; who exercised sway and precedency in that synod; should be subjected to the selfsame penalty, by suffering at the hands of the holy synod deprivation of their episcopal dignity, according to the canons; whatever is consequent hereupon, being submitted to the cognizance of the emperor's sacred supremacy."

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After several other readings, the assembled bishops, being asked whether the letters of Leo accorded with the faith of the three hundred and eighteen holy fathers who met at Nicæa, and that of the hundred and fifty in the imperial city, Anatolius, president of Constantinople, and all who were present, replied, that the epistle of Leo accorded with the beforementioned fathers; and he further subscribed the epistle. At this stage of the proceedings the members of the synod exclaimed: "We all concur: we all approve we all believe alike: we all hold the same sentiments: thus do we all believe. The fathers to the synod! the subscribers to the synod! Many be the years of the emperor! Many be the years of Augusta! The fathers to the synod: those who agree with us in faith, to the synod! Many be the years of the emperor! Those who agree with us in opinion, to the synod! Many be the years of the emperor! We have all subscribed. As Leo thinks, so do we." An interlocution was then pronounced to the following effect.

"We have referred these matters to our

most sacred and pious lord, and are now waiting the answer of his piety. But your Reverence will give account to God concerning Dioscorus, who has been deposed by you without the knowledge of our most sacred sovereign and ourselves, and concerning the five for whom you are now making entreaty, and concerning all the acts of the synod." They then expressed their approval, saying, "God has deposed Dioscorus; Dioscorus has been justly deposed. Christ has deposed Dioscorus." Afterwards, on the presentation of a response from Marcian, leaving the case of those who had been deposed to the decision of the bishops, as the interlocution of the magistrates had set forth; they made entreaty in the following words. "We pray that they may be admitted:-our fellows in doctrine, to the synod: our fellows in opinion, to the synod: the subscribers to the epistle of Leo, to the synod." They were accordingly, by an interlocution to that effect, numbered with the members of the synod.

Then were read the petitions presented from the Egyptian diocese to the emperor Marcian; which, in addition to other matters, contain the following. "We agree in opinion with what the three hundred and eighteen fathers at Nicæa, and the blessed Athanasius, and the sainted Cyril have set forth; anathematizing every heresy, both those of Arius, of Eunomius, of Manes, of Nestorius, and that of those who say, that the flesh of our Lord was derived from heaven, and not from the holy Mother of God and ever-virgin Mary, in like manner with ourselves, with the exception of sin." Upon this, the whole synod exclaimed: "Why have they not anathematized the doctrine of Eutyches? Let them subscribe the epistle of Leo, anathematizing Eutyches and his doctrines. Let them concur with the epistle of Leo. They intend to jeer us, and be gone." In reply, the bishops from Egypt stated, that the Egyptian bishops were numerous, and that they themselves could not assume to represent those who were absent: and they prayed the synod to await their archbishop, that they might be guided by his judgment as usage required: for if they should do anything before the appointment of their head, the whole diocese would assail them. After many entreaties on this subject, which were stoutly resisted by the synod, it was ruled, that a respite should be granted to the bishops from Egypt, until their archbishop should be ordained.



Then petitions were presented from certain monks; the purport of which was, that they should not be compelled to subscribe certain papers, before the synod which the emperor had summoned should have assembled, and its determinations be made known. After these had been read, Diogenes, bishop of Cyzicus, stated that Barsumas, one of the persons present, had been the murderer of Flavian, for he had exclaimed Slay him!" and, though not a party to the petition, had improperly obtained admission. Upon this all the bishops exclaimed: 66 Barsumas has desolated all Syria; he has let loose upon us a thousand monks." After an interlocution, to the effect that the assembled monks should await the determination of the synod, they demanded that the libels which they had drawn up, should be read; one requisition therein contained being, that Dioscorus and the bishops of his party should be present in the synod. In reply to which all the bishops exclaimed : "Anathema to Dioscorus. Christ has deposed Dioscorus! Cast out such persons. Away with outrage; away with violence from the synod! Our words to the emperor! Away with outrage; away with infamy from the synod!" After a repetition of these exclamations, it was ruled that the remainder of the libels should be read: wherein it was affirmed, that the deposition of Dioscorus was improper; that, when a matter of faith was before the council, he ought to share in its deliberations, and that, if this were not granted, they would shake their garments from the communion of the assembled bishops. In reference to these expressions, Aetius, the archdeacon, read a canon against those who separate themselves. Again, when, at the questions of the most holy bishops, the monks manifested disagreement, and afterwards, at an interrogation put by Aetius in the name of the synod, some anathematized Nestorius and Eutyches, while others declined; it was ruled by the magistrates, that the

There is extant a Supplicatory Libel, presented to the emperor Marcian by the monks, in the Fourth Act of the Chalcedon Synod, p. 237. In this libel the monks requested the emperor, that an ecumenical synod might be convened, (which the emperor had before given order to be assembled,) which might consult the safety of all persons, and that the monks might not be compelled by violence to subscribe. Those monks, probably, did not believe that synod to be œcumenical, at which Dioscorus and the other bishops of Egypt were not present. Hence their request, that Dioscorus might be wholly restored. Vales.

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petitions of Faustus and the other monks should be read: which prayed the emperor no longer to sanction the monks who had lately opposed the orthodox doctrines. Whereupon Dorotheus, a monk, termed Eutyches orthodox: in reply to whom various doctrinal points were started by the magistrates.

At the fifth meeting, the magistrates ruled that the determinations relating to the faith should be published; and Asclepiades, a deacon of Constantinople, read a formulary, which it was resolved should not be inserted in the Acts. Some dissented from it, but the majority approved it: and on the utterance of counter-exclamations, the magistrates said, that Dioscorus affirmed that he had deposed Flavian on his asserting two natures, whereas the formulary contained the expression "from two natures." To this Anatolius replied, that Dioscorus had not been deposed on a point of faith, but because he had excommunicated Leo, and, after having been thrice summoned, did not appear. The magistrates then required that the substance of the epistle of Leo should be inserted in the formulary; but since the bishops objected, and maintained that no other formulary could be framed, inasmuch as a complete one already existed, a relation was made to the emperor; who commanded that six of the Oriental bishops, three from Pontus, three from Asia, three from Thrace, and three from Illyria, should, together with Anatolius and the vicars of Rome, assemble in the sanctuary of the martyr, and rightly frame the rule of faith, or put forth each his several declaration of faith; or be assured that the synod must be held in the West. On this, being required to state whether they followed Dioscorus when affirming that Christ was from two natures; or Leo, that there were two natures in Christ; they exclaimed that they agreed with Leo, and that those who contradicted were Eutychians. The magistrates then said, that, in accordance with the language of Leo, a clause should be added, to the effect that there were two natures united in Christ, without change, or severance, or confusion ;1 and they entered the sanctuary2 of the holy martyr Euphemia,

In the Fifth Act of the Chalcedon Council, it is written adverbially, thus, ἀτρέπτως, καὶ ἀμερίστως, καὶ ἀσυγχύτως, inconvertibly, and indivisibly, and inconfusedly. Vales.

2 The synod of Chalcedon was assembled in the temple or church of Saint Euphemia. But the treaty, or conference, concerning the faith was

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in company with Anatolius and the vicars of Leo, as well as Maximus of Antioch, Juvenalis of Jerusalem, Thalassius of Cæsarea in Cappadocia, and others; and on their return, the formulary of faith was read, as follows. "Our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ," and so forth, as it has been inserted in a previous part of the history. When all had exclaimed, "This is the faith of the fathers: let the metropolitans at once subscribe! This is the faith of the apostles: by this are we all guided: thus do we all think!" the magistrates ruled, that the formulary, thus framed by the fathers and approved by all, should be referred to the imperial supremacy.

At the sixth meeting, Marcian was present, and harangued the bishops on the subject of unanimity. At the command of the emperor, the formulary was read by Aetius, archdeacon of Constantinople, and all subscribed it. The emperor then asked, whether the formulary had been composed with the approbation of all: upon which all declared their confirmation of it by expressions of approval. Again the emperor twice addressed them, and all applauded. At the emperor's suggestion certain canons were enacted, and metropolitan rank 2 was conferred upon Chalcedon. The emperor further commanded the bishops to remain three or four days; that each one should move the synod on whatever matters he might held in the oratory of the said church, according as the emperor had given order. St. Euphemia's church consisted of three spacious edifices; the first whereof was an atrium, or court; the second, the basilica, or church itself; the third, the altar built in form of a cupola, as Evagrius tells us in the third chapter of this book. The oratory therefore is the same with the altar, which is now termed the choir. Vales.

1 See above, chap. 4.

2 Not a metropolitical right or privilege, but the name of a metropolis only, was hereby given to the city of Chalcedon; because the emperor would have nothing diminished from the dignity of the bishop of Nicomedia. The bishops of this very council determined the same thing in the cause of the bishops of Nicomedia and Nicæa. For, whereas Nicea by the emperor's rescript had obtained the honour of a metropolis, the judges and bishops who were in the council made answer, that this honour had been given only to the city by the emperors; nor could the bishop of Nicæa by this law arrogate to himself a metropolitical right or privilege; but was only preferred before the other bishops of the province Bithynia: so that he ranked next to the metropolitan. What the metropolitan rights and privileges were, we are informed from the canons of the Nicene council;

viz. that the ordinations of provincial bishops should not be made without the metropolitan's consent; and that the metropolitan bishop should have a power of calling out the provincial bishops to a council of his own. Vales.



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