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grave of Hesse from the miseries of a long and unjust B^ok imprisonment. By the first, he roused all the favourers of —" '—: the reformation, a party formidable by their zeal as well 'S51' as numbers, and rendered desperate by oppression. By the second, lie interested all the friends of liberty, Catholics no less than Protestants, and made it their interest to unite with him in asserting the rights and privileges common to both. The third, besides the glory which he acquired by his zeal to fulfil his engagements to the unhappy prisoner, was become a cause of general concern, not only from the compassion which the landgrave's sufferings excited, but from indignation at the injustice and rigour of the emperor's proceedings against him. Together with Maurice's manifesto, another appeared in the name of Albert marquis of Brandenburg Culmbach, who had joined him with a body of adventurers whom he had drawn together. The same grievances which Maurice had pointed out are mentioned in it, but with an excess of virulence and animosity suitable to the character of the prince in whose name it was published.
The king of France added to these a manifesto in hisHcispowown name; in which, after taking notice of the ancientpr,^JTMy" alliance between the French and German nations, both the FrencH descended from the same ancestors; and after mentioning*1"5' the applications which, in consequence of this, some of the nio*t illustrious among the German princes had made to him for his protection; he declared, that he now took arms to re-establish the ancient constitution of the empire, to deliver some of its princes from captivity, and to secure the privileges and independence of all the members of the Germanic body. In this manifesto, Henry assumed the extraordinary title of Protector of the liberties of Germany and of its captive princes; and there was engraved on it a cap, the ancient symbol of freedom, placed between two daggers, in order to intimate to the Germans, that this blessing was to be acquired and secured by force of arms *.
k Sleii. 519. Thuan. lib. y, 339. Mem. de P ibier, ii, 3T|. VOL. VI. V U
Book Maurice had now to act a part entirely new; but hi* ; flexible genius was capable of accommodating itself to
Miuncc'i every situation. The moment he took arms, he was as mthe field ant' enterPr'smg 'n tne field, as he had been cautious and crafty in the cabinet. He advanced, by rapid marches, towards the Upper Germany. All the towns in his way opened their gates to him. He reinstated the magistiates whom the emperor had deposed, and gave possession of the churches to the Protestant ministers* whom he had ejected. He directed his march to Augsburg; and as the imperial garrison, which was too inconsiderable to think of defending it, retired immediately, April i. he took possession of that great city, and made the same changes there as in the towns through which he had passed
The empe- jjo words can express the emperor's astonishment and t consternation at events so unexpected. He saw a great
tre!/1*" number of the German princes in arms against him,
the rest either ready to join tbem, or wishing success to their enterprise. He beheld a powerful monarch united with them in close league, seconding their operations in person at the head of a formidable army, while he, through negligence and credulity, which exposed him no less to scorn than to danger, had neither made, nor was in condition to make, any effectual provision, either for crushing his rebellious subjects, or resisting the invasion of the foreign enemy. Part of his Spanish troops had been ordered into Hungary against the Turks; the rest bad marched back to Italy upon occasion of the war in the duchy of Parma. The bands of veteran Germans had been dismissed, because he was not able to pay them, or had entered into Maurice's service after the siege of Magdeburg; and he remained at Inspruck with a body of soldiers hardly strong enough to guard his own person. His treasury was as much exhausted as his army was reduced: he had received no remittances for some time from the New World; he had forfeited all credit with
the merchants of Genoa and Venice, who refused to lend B<^.°* him money, though tempted by the offer of exorbitant.
interest. Thus Charles, though undoubtedly the most i5S*' considerable potentate in Christendom, and capable of exerting the greatest strength, his power, notwithstanding the violent attack made upon it, being still unimpaired, found himself in a situation which rendered him unable to make such a sudden and vigorous effort as the juncture required, and was necessary to have saved him from the present danger.
In this situation, the emperor placed all his hopes on ; ndea. negociating; the only resource of such as are conscious of their own weakness. But thinking it inconsistent with tij»negobis dignity to make the first advances to subjects whociatIon* were in arms against him, he avoided that indecorum by employing the mediation of his brother Ferdinand. Maurice, confiding in his own talents to conduct any negociation in such a manner as to derive advantage from it, and hoping that, by the appearance of facility in hearkening to the first overture of accommodation, he might amuse the emperor, and tempt him to slacken the activity with which he was now preparing to defend himself, readily agreed to an interview with Ferdinand in the town of Lintz in Austria; and having left his army to proceed on its march, under the command of the duke of Mecklenburg, he repaired thither.
Meanwhile, the king of France punctually fulfilled Progress of his engagements to his allies. He took the field early, amy!TM*'1 with a numerous and well-appointed army, and marching directly into Lorrain, Toul and Verdun opened their gates at his approach. His forces appeared next before Metz; and that city, by a fraudulent stratagem of the constable Montmorency, who, having obtained permission to pass through it with a small guard, introduced as many troops as were sufficient to overpower the garrison, was likewise seized without bloodshed. Henry made his entry into all these towns with great pomp; he obliged the inhabitants to swear allegiance to him, and annexed
those important conquests to the French monarchy. He left a strong garrison in Metz. From thence he advanced towards Aisace, in order to attempt new cohquests, to which the success that had hitherto attended his arms invited himTM1.
The conference at Lintz did not produce any accommodation. Maurice, when he consented to it, seems to have had nothing in view but to amuse the emperor; for he made such demands, both in behalf of his confederates and their ally the French king, as he knew would not be accepted by a prince too haughty to submit at once to conditions dictated by an enemy. But however firmly Maurice adhered during the negotiation to the interests of his associates, or how steadily soever he kept in view the objects which had induced him to take arms, he often professed a strong inclination to terminate the differences with the emperor in an amicable manner. Encouraged by this appearance of a pacific disposition, Ferdinand proposed a second interView at Passau on the twentysixth of May, and that a truce should commence on that day, and continue to the tenth of June, in order to give them leisure for adjusting all the points in dispute.
Upon this, Maurice rejoined his army on the ninth of May, which had now advanced to Gundelfingen. He put his troops in motion next morning; and as sixteen days yet remained for action before the commencement of the truce, he resolved, during that period, to venture upon an enterprise, the success of which would be so decisive, as to render the negotiations at Passau extremely short, and entitle him to treat upon his own terms. He foresaw that the prospect of a cessation of arms, which was to take place so soon, together with the opinion of his earnestness to re-establish peace, with which he had artfully amused Ferdinand, could hardly fail of Inspiring the emperor with such false hopes, that he would naturally become remiss, and relapse into some degree of that security which had already been so fatal to him. Relying
en this conjecture, he marched directly at the head of his BOOK army towards Inspruck, and advanced with the mn*t — — rapid motion that could be given to so great a body of troops. On the eighteenth, he arrived at Fiessen, a post of great consequence, at the entrance into the Tyrolese. There he found a body of eight hundred men, whom the emperor bad assembled, strongly intrenched, in order to oppose his progress. He attacked them instantly with such violence and impetuosity, that they abandoned their lines precipitately, and, falling back on a second body posted near lluten, communicated the panic terror with which they themselves had been seized to those troops; so that they likewise took tollight, after a feeble resistance.
Elated with this success, which exceeded his most san-Takes the guine hopes, Maurice pressed forward to Ehrenbergh, a^en-* castle situated on an high and steep precipice, whichbergh. commanded the only pass through the mountains. As this fort had been surrendered to the Protestants at the beginning of the Smalkaldic war, because the garrison was then too weak to defend it, the emperor, sensible of its importance, had taken care, at this juncture, to throw into it a body of troops sufficient to maintain it against the greatest army. But a shepherd, in pursuing a goat which had strayed from his flock, having discovered an unknown path by which it was possible to ascend to the top of the rock, came with this seasonable piece of intelligence to Maurice. A small band of chosen soldiers, under the command of George of Mecklenburg, was instantly ordered to follow this guide. They set out in the evening, and clambering up the rugged track with infinite fatigue as well as danger, they reached the summit unperceived; and at an hour which had been agreed on, when Maurice began the assault on the one side of the castle, they appeared on the other ready to scale the walls, which were feeble in that place, because it had been hitherto deemed inaccessible. The garrison, struck with terror at the sight of an enemy on a quarter where