his measures against Tribigild, 145; known to the Greeks and Romans,
is condemned by Arcadius, 146 ; takes
refuge with Chrysostom, 147; dis FAMINE, hardly known under the em-
graced and banished to Cyprus, ib.; pire, i. 191 ; at Rome during the
recalled and executed, 148 ; charge siege of Alaric, iv. 90; horrors of
on which he was condemned, ib. and
note S.

Fano, battle of, ii. 15.
EUTYCHES, the abbot, assists the FARMERs of the revenue, i. 301.

cause of Cyril of Alexandria, vi. 21 ; FARNESE palace built of the materials
heresy of, 24 ; acquitted by the se of the Coliseum, viii. 284.

cond council of Ephesus, 25. Fasti, consular, probable account of
EUTYCHIAN controversy, iv. 342.

the chasms in, v. 94.
EUXINE, naval force in, i. 155 ; northern FATHERS of the church, visions and

shores subject to the Roman em inspirations of the, ii. 178, note ; dis-
perors, 160; navigation of, opinion claimed by Chrysostom, ib, note M.;
of the Turks on, 399; periplus of high tone of their morality, 184 ; &C-

by Sallust and Arrian, v. 193, note. knowledged the supernatural part of
Evagrius, his history when composed, paganism, 266, note; method of gair-
v. 345, note.

ing some idea of their spirit, iii. 428,
EXARCHS of Ravenna, establishment of, note,

v. 241; extent of their jurisdiction, Fatima, daughter of Mahomet, marries
318 ; finally extinguished by Astol Ali, vi. 268.

phus king of the Lombards, vi. 153. FATIMITES, or descendants of Ali,
Excise, introduced by Augustus, i. usurpations of their name, vi. 281;

299; abolished by Caligula, ib. note privileges in the Ottoman empire, ib.

Faun, sleeping, discovery of the, v.
ExcomMUNICATION, origin, nature, and 139, note.

consequences of, ii. 201 ; removed by Fausta, daughter of Maximian, mar-
public penance, 202 ; instances of, ries Constantine the Great, ii. 116;
jii. 36 ; involved whole families, 37; her conduct towards her father, 121;
hence extended to national interdicts, her children, 348 ; procures the death
ib, note.

of Crispus, 353; story of her execu-
EXERCITUS, etymology of, i. 147 and tion for adultery examined, 354 az'

notes, and 355 note M.
ExiLE, voluntary among the Romans, Faustina, daughter of Antoninus Pius

might avert a capital sentence, v. marries M. Antoninus, i. 215; he.

character, 221.
Exorcism, account of, ii. 178; the only Faustina, widow of Constantius II.,

iniraculous power assumed by pro with her daughter Constantia, joins
testants, 179.

the revolted Procopius, iii. 240.
Faustus, price of his first printed

Bibles, v. 285, note.

Fava, or FELETHEUS, king of the

Rugians, vanquished by Odoacer, iv.
Facciolati, great duke of Constanti 203.

nople, treacherously admits Cantacu. FELICISSIMUS, Cyprian's condemnation
zene, vii. 401.

of, ii. 203, note M.
Fadilla, daughter of the emperor Felix, an African bishop, martyrdom

Marcus, executed, i. 270 and note M. of, ii. 272.
FAITH, merits of, ii, 182.

FELIX, an Arian, supersedes Liberius
FALCANDUS, Hogu, character of his as bishop of Rome, iji. 89; his ad.

Historia Sicula,' vii. 141, notes ; herents massacred, 90.

his lamentation for his country, 142. FELIX V., pope, account of, viii. 100;
Falco, Sosius, conspires against the retires to the hermitage of Ripaille,
emperor Pertinax, i. 239.

FALCONRY, introduced into Italy by the FELIX, St., miraculous tomb of at Nola,

Lombards, v. 352 and notes ; in iv. 110.

FEMALES, superiority of established in

Egypt, iii. 417 note.
FERDUSI, the Persian poet, works of,

iii. 304, notes.
FERISHTA, translatio of by Colonels

Dow and Briggs, vii. 146, note M.

FERRARA, council of, viii. 98.
FESTIVALS, pagan, horror of the Chris-

tians at, ii. 166 ; rustic, paganism
maintained by, iii. 421 and 422,

FEUDAL GOVERNMENT, rudiments of may

be discovered among the Scythians,

iii. 302.
Fez, Edrisite kingdom of, vi. 420.
F.HR, reputed founder of the Arabian

tribe Koreish, vi. 216, note S.
FINANCES, Roman, history of, i. 293,

899.; review of under Constantine

the Great, ii. 333.
Fines, regulations for the imposition

of, ii. 316 and note.
Fingal, whether he fought against

Severus, i. 266; objection, ib. note.
FINLAY, Mr., his theory as to the ori-

gin of the story of Belisarius' beggary

examined, v. 247, note S.
Finns, their wide dissemination, vii. 72

and note S.
Fire, use of unknown to many nations,

iv. 410, note.
FIRE TEMPLES, introduction of, i. 335.
FIRE-SIGNALÔ, Byzantine, vii. 29.
Fire, Greek, Arabian fleet destroyed

by, vi. 380; account of, 382 and
notes ; how used, 383 ; secret of, dis-
covered by the Saracens, 384 ; super-
seded by gunpowder, ib.; works on,

ib, note S.
FIRMUS, revolt of, in Egypt, ii. 26;

put to death by Aurelian, 27.
Firmus the Moor, cause of his revolt

against Valentinian, iii. 273; gains
possession of Mauritania and Numi-
dia, ib. ; attempts to deceive Theo-
dosius, 274 ; pursuit of, and suicide,

Firuz, son of the Persian king Jezde-

gard, becomes captain of the Chinese

guards, vi. 299 and note M.
FLACCILLA, consort of Theodosius the

Great, prevents his conference with

the Arian Eunomius, iii. 364.
FLAGELLATION, substituted for money

payments in penance, vii. 187.

FLAMENS, Roman, functions of the, iii.

FLAMINIAN WAY, distances on the, v.

232, note.

bark on the army of
Antiochus, ii. 323, note.
FLAVIAN family, i. 212.
FLAVIAN, patriarch of Constantinople,

arraigns the heresy of Eutyches, vi.
25; killed at the second council of

Ephesus, 26.
FLAVIANUS and Diodorus, introduce

responses and psalmody, ii. 88.
Flax, cultivation of, i. 190.
FLÉCHIER, his Life of Theodosius the

Great, iii. 342, note.
FLEECE, golden, probable origin of that

fable, v. 195.
FLEURY, abbé de, character of his . In-

stitutes of Canon Law,' iii. 34, note.
FLOR, Roger de, chief of the Catalan

mercenaries, history of, vii. 381 and

note G.; assassinated, 383.
FLORENCE besieged by Radagaisus, iv.

47; its origin, ib, note; relieved by
Stilicho, 48; council of, viii. 99;
reunion of the Greek and Latin

churches at the, 103.
FLORENTIUS, a patrician, gives his

estate in lieu of the tax on prosti-

tutes, ii. 342, note G.
FLORENTIUS, prætorian præfect in

Gaul, oppression of, restrained by
Julian, ii. 423; declines attending
the council of Julian, iii. 105; flight
of, 110; consul and præfect of
Illyricum, flies on the approach of
Julian, 117; condemned by the tri-
bunal of Chalcedon and pardoned by

FLORIANUS, brother of the emperor

Tacitus, usurps the purple, ii. 40;
opposed by Probus, ib.; put to death
by the army,

FLORIN, origin of the name, viii. 94,

FLORUS, prince, founder of the Courte-

nays of Devonshire, fable of, vii. 354

and 355, note.
Floros, his description of the wars of

infant Rome, viii. 209.
Fo, Indian god, worship of, viii, 18 and

FædERATI, Gothic tro sps in the service

of the Romans, iii. 353.
Fænus UNCIARIUM, amount of, v. 314,

note W.



FOLARD, Chev., on ancient warlike

many, 350 ; conquer Burgundy, 356 .
machines, i. 152, note.

Aquitain, 360 ; countries beyond the
FOLLIS, or purse, value of, iv. 74, note Alps yielded to them by Justinian,
and note S.

and final establishment of the French
FONTENELLE, his remarks on the am monarchy, 362 and note S.; extent

bition of Constantine examined, ii. of their dominion, 363; laws re-
303, note.

specting homicide, 367; anarchy of,
Foot, Roman, i. 321, note; Greek, 382; invade Italy, v. 151 ; their
proportion of the, ii. 295.

ravages and distress, 152; again in-
FORGERIES, pious, of the early Chris vade Italy, 237 ; defeated by Narses,
tian apologists, ii. 218.

240; proverb respecting the, vi. 180 ;
Forum TREBONII, battle of between their name applied by the Greeks
Decius and the Goths, i. 385.

and Arabians to all the Western
FRAMEB (German spears), described, i. nations, vii. 33 ; state of, in the tenth

and eleventh centuries, 34; military
FRANCE, population, ii. 339, notes ; character and tactics, 35.

taxation in, 339 and 341, note S.; FRASCATI, town of, viii. 210.
that name given to Gaul by the FRAVITTA, Gothic leader, his character,
Franks, iv. 376 ; limits of, under iii. 355; kills his rival Priulf, ib. :
Charlemagne, vi. 173; invaded by conducts the war against Gainas, iv.
the Arabs, 384; their conquests in, 149 ; defeats him on the Hellespont,
386, note S.; their expulsion, 389 150.
and note S.; southern provinces of, FREDERICK I., Barbarossa, emperor of
ravaged by the Hungarians, vii. 75; Germany, invades Italy, vi. 188 ;
power of the kings of, in the eleventh destroys Milan, ib.; treaty with the
century, 181; genealogy of the royal league of Lombardy, 189; undertakes
house of, 352 and note ; description the third crusade, vii. 239; marches
of, by Chalcocondyles the Greek through Anatolia, 245; captures
historian, viii. 87.

Iconium, 246 ; drowned, ib. and note ;
FRANCISCA, or Frankish battle-axe, iv. embassy of the Romans to, viii. 206 ;
357 and note.

his haughty answer, 207; collisions
FRANGIPANI, Odo, marries the niece of with the Romans, 208.

the emperor Manuel, vii. 139. FREDERICK II., emperor of Germany,
FRANGIPANI, Cencio, Roman baron, his worsted by the Lombards and pope,

violent and brutal conduct towards vi. 189; record of his family, ib.;
pope Gelasius II. and the cardinals, crusade of, vii. 269 ; excommunicated
viii. 192.

by pope Gregory IX., 270; enters
FRANGIPANI, origin of the name of, viii. Jerusalem, ib. ; further acquisitions,

ib. ; toleration, ib. ; exhorts the Eu-
FRANKFORT, synod of, rejects the de ropean princes to arm against the

crecs of the second Nicene Council Mongols, viii. 15.
respecting images, vi. 166.

FREDERICK III., of Austria, last em-
Franks, their origin and confederacy, peror crowned at Rome, viii. 258.

i. 390; namc, ib. ; applied to several FREEDMEN, condition of, i. 178.
confederacies, ib. note S.; invade FREE-GIFTs first exacted by Maxentius,
Gaul, 391 ; Spain, ib.; Mauritania, ii. 124.
392 ; driven from Gaul by Probus, FREJUS, a naval station, i. 154.
ii. 44 ; daring enterprise of, 48; FRIGIDUS river described, iii. 400 and
their power under the sons of Con note,
stantine, 325; occupy the island of FRISIANS invade Britain, iv. 389.
Batavia and Toxandria, 412; sub FRITIGERN, colleague of Alavivus, as
dued by Julian, 419 ; settle perma judge of the Visigoths, assumes the
nently in Gaul, iv. 128 ; occupy the chief command, iii. 324 ; cultivates
lower Germany, 129; customs de the friendship of the Ostrogoths, ib.;
scribed, 227; bloody battle with the escapes from Lupicinus at Marciano
Gepice, 234 ; converted to Christi polis, 325; engages the Romans at
anity 324; subdue and civilize Ger Salices, 329; forms an alliance with

the Ostrogoths and Taifalæ, 330;
artful negociations with Valens, 334;
battle of Hadrianople, 335; his death,
348 ; breaks the union of the Gothic

tribes, ib.
FROISSARD, his character as a writer,

viii. 32, note.
FRONTIER garrisons, when first esta-

blished, ü, 46.
FRONTO, count, ambassador from Avitus

to the Suevi of Spain, iv. 262.
FRUITS, flowers, &c., introduction of,

into Europe, i. 189.
FRUMENTIUS, converts the Abyssinians,

iii. 25.
FULCARIS, the Herulian, general of

Narsis, defeated and slain by the

Franks, y. 238.
FULK, count of Anjou, husband of

Melisenda, queen of Jerusalem, vii.

FULK of Neuilly, preaches the fourth

crusade, vii. 288 ; interview with

Richard I., 289.
FUNERALS, Roman, comic satires on the

deceased at, iii. 226; at Julian's, ib.;
his funeral contrasted with that of
Constantius, 227, note.
Fortum lance licioque conceptum,"
ceremony of pursuing stolen goods,
v. 272 and notes.

vitta, 150; marches towards eno

Janube, ib.; slain, ib.
Gaita, wife of Robert Guiscard, her

valour at the battle of Durazzo, vii.

Gaius (or Caius) belonged to the legal

sect of Sabinians, v. 279, note W.;
but often followed the Proculians, ib.
note 8.; juridical authority conferred
on, by Theodosius II., 279; his In-
stitutes, 288 and note; discovered

by Niebuhr, 289, note S.
Gala, derivation of that term, vii. 21,

note and note S.
Galata, suburb of Constantinople, as-

signed to the Genoese, vii. 406.
GALEAZZO, John, first duke of Milan,

his connection with Bajazet, viii. 84

and note.
GALERIUB, general of Probus, ii. 44 ;

associated in the empire by Diocle-
tian, 67; character, ib. ; adopted son
and son-in-law of Diocletian, 68;
valour, 74 ; defeated by the Persians,
82; disgrace, 83; victory over the
Persians, 84 ; generous conduct to-
wards the captives, ib.; reply to the
ambassador of Narses, 85; emperor,
106; character, 107; schemes, 108;
rage on the elevation of Constantine,
112; acknowledges him as Cæsar,
ib.; unpopular taxes, 113; invades
Italy, 117; retreats, 118; death,
122 ; public works, ib.; persuaded
Diocletian to a general persecution of
the Christians, 268 ; published an

edict of toleration, 278.
GALILÆANS, that appellation explained,

ii. 236; doubtful whether applied to
the followers of Judas, 237, note M.;
Gibbon's error in supposing that
Tacitus confounded the two distinc-
tions, ib. note G.; Christians so

called by Julian, iii. 162.
Gall, St., his hermitage in Switzer-

land becomes a principality, v. 238,

GALL, St., monastery burnt by the

Hungarians, vii. 75.
GALLA, sister of Valentinian II., marries

Theodosius the Great, iii. 383.
GALLEYS, Roman, i, 154 ; Byzantine,

vii. 28.
GALLICANUS and Mæcenas, senators,

kill two prætorians, i. 322.
GALLIENUS associated in the empire by

his father Valerian, i. 389; opposco


GABINIUS, king of the Quadi, inveigled

and murdered by Marcellianus, go-

vernor of Valeria, iii. 287.
Galax, patriarch of Alexandria, ba-

nished, v. 59.
GAILLARD, M., character of his “ His-

toire de Charlemagne,' vi. 170, note.
GAIMAR, Lombard prince of Salerno,

invites the Normans into Italy, vii.

102, note M.
GAINAS, the Goth, deputed by Stilicho

to take vengeance on Rufinus, iv. 12;
puts him to death before the palace of
Hebdomon, 13; deserts the service
of Stilicho, 14; appointed general
against Tribigild by Eutropius, 145;
secretly favours that rebel, 146 ;
openly unites with him, 148 ; inter-
view with Arcadius, who grants his
demands, ib.; tumult and massacre
of his troops at Constantinople, 149;
defeated on the Hellespont by Fra-


the Franks in Gaul, 391 ; degrades provinces of Africa for Constantius,
the senate, 394; marries Pipa, ib. ; iii. 119; executed at Antioch by
marches against the Goths, 400; Julian, 127.
character and administration, 407; GAUDENTIUS, son of Aëtius, contracted
medal of, 408, notes ; considered sole to the princess Eudoxia, iv. 249.
emperor by Italy and the senate GAUL, province of, described, i. 156;
during the rebellion of the thirty ty divided by Augustus, ib. ; number
rants, 411; inhuman mandate of, of tribes in, ib. and note ; tribute,
412; family of, ib. note; famine and 296, and note S.; usurpers in, ii, 17 ;
pestilence, 415; conspiracy against, ii. invaded by the Lygians, 44; not
2 ; death, ib. ; names Claudius as his Christianized before the time of the
successor, 3 ; imprecations on, by the Antonines, 211; slow progress of
senate and people, 5, notes ; favoured Christianity in, 212; capitation-tax,
the Christians, 261; restored the ce how levied in, 338; amount compared
meteries to them, ib. note,

with modern rate, 339; Gibbon's
GALLIPOLI, occupied by the Catalans, account corrected, 341, note S.; in-

vii. 383; rebuilt and repeopled by vaded by the Germans at the insti-

Soliman, son of Orchan, viii. 28. gation of Constantius, 412; forty-five
Gallus elected emperor, i. 386; dis cities destroyed, ib. ; government as.

graceful treaty with the Goths, ib.; signed to Julian, 413; invaded by the
popular discontent, 387; murdered, Alemanni, iii. 257; maritime pro-

vinces invaded by the Saxons, 264 ;
Gallus, nephew of Constantine, escapes invaded, after the defeat of Rada-

assassination, ii. 365; made governor gaisus, by the Suevi, Vandals, Alani,
of the East by Constantius II., 377, and Burgundians, iv. 51; desolation
388; education and imprisonment, of, 52; occupied permanently by the
388; declared Cæsar, ib.; marries Goths, Burgundians, and Franks,
Constantina, ib. ; of a different mo 128; they recognise the title and laws
ther from Julian's, ib. note G; cruel of Honorius and his successors, 130 ;
and imprudent character, 389 ; Mag seven provinces of, annual assem-
nentius attempts to assassinate him, bly at Arles, 134; conquests of the
390; Domitian appointed to reform Visigoths in, 287.
his government, ib.; he and Mon Gauls in Lombardy, i. 157; in Ger-
tius put to death by Gallus, 391 ; many, 352, notes; their belief in a
vacillating conduct of the latter, ib.; future state, ii. 170 and note ; in-
recalled by Constantius, 392; dis trusted their money to their priests,
grace and death, ib.; transferred the ib. ; their contempt for the Germans,
body of St. Babylas to the grove of iv. 345; trade of, 362, note ; contro-
Daphne, iii. 169.

versies respecting their relation to
GAMES, secular, i. 328; Actiac restored the Franks, 364.

by Julian, iii. 131, note ; public, of Gaza, Theodore, translates Aristotle
the Romans described, iv. 86.

and Theophrastus, viii. 115.
GANNYs, eunuch, i. 279.

GEBER, Arabian physician,. vi. 402.
GARGANUS, mount, Hannibal's camp GEBERIC, king of the Goths, defeats the
on, occupied by Totila, v. 223.

Sarmatians, ii. 361.
GARIBALD, king of Bavaria, takes re GEDROSIA, district of, described, i. 340,

fuge with Autharis, king of Lom note.
bardy, v. 353.

Geisa, Hungarian prince, his influence
GARIZIM, mountain of cursing, cross in Germany, vii. 79.
planted on, vi. 37.

GELALEDDIN, son of Mohammed sultan
GARRISONS, frontier, number of, under of Carizme, valiant defence against
Constantine, ii. 323.

the Mongols, viii. 9; death, 21.
GASSAN, Arabian tribe, account of, iii. GELALEAN ÆRA of the Turks, when

194, notes, vi, 204 ; serve under established, vii. 166.
Heraclius against their countrymen, GELASIUS, pope, abolishes the Luper-
317; defeated by Caled, 318.

calia, iv, 283.
GAUDENTIUS the notary, occupies the GELASIUS II., pope, his scandalous

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