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For about fifty-five years the Amer He was educated and enlightened, ican Baptists have carried on in Siam and under his reign the missionaries a mission to the Chinese, many of had more than mere tolerance-posiwhom reside in Bangkok ; their pres tive influence with the people and even ent efforts are confined to them. with the government. Witness the
The only Siamese mission proper, following royal manifesto: therefore, is that which is under the "Many years ago the American miscare of American Presbyterians, who sionaries came here. They came bethus become practically responsible for
fore any other Europeans, and they the spiritual welfare of about eight the English language. The American
taught the Siamese to speak and read million. Rev. W. P. Buell began this missionaries have always been just mission as representing Presbyterians and upright men. They have never in 1840. In 1844, after only laying meddled in the affairs of the governfoundations, he had to leave the field ment, nor created any difficulty with on account of his paralytic wife, and
the Siamese. They have lived with
the Siamese just as if they belonged had no successors until 1847, when
to the nation. The government of Rev. Stephen Mattoon and wife, and Siam has great love and respect for Rev. S. R. House, V.D., arrived. them, and has no fear whatever conThese nearly sixty years have seen
cerning them. When there has been
a difficulty of any kind, the missionvery marked changes in Siam. At
aries have many times rendered valufirst, and for years, the King was ac
able assistance. For this reason the tively, tho secretly, the foe of their Siamese have loved and respected mission work. The missionaries could them for a long time. The Americans scarce get a house to live in. Compli- have also taught the Siamese many cations arose likewise with the Brit
things.” ish government, threatening not only In fact Siam was opened to mission the stability of the mission, but bid work not, like China, by gunpowder, fair to drive out the missionaries. Just nor, like Japan, by an American comat this crisis of peril God interposed, modore with his squadron, but by the as He had also done in the Turkish humble missionary and his entirely empire twelve years before, on July 1, pacific measures-patience and prayer. 1839, and by strikingly similar means Bangkok is the great mission center -the sudden death of the hostile head and the capital of Siam. It is the of the government. On April 3, 1851, Oriental Venice. Twelve
years Maha Mong Kut, the King, died. The elapsed before the missionaries, who man who was chosen by the assembly came in 1847, welcomed the first of nobles to succeed him on the Siamese convert, as the fruit of their throne, and who reigned for eighteen toil; and this was thirty years after years, Chulalang Korn, was a man Gutzlaff had come to Bangkok and whose liberal and wise policy com sowed the first seed. The first conpletely changed the whole aspect and vert in connection with the mission prospect! And all this was the direct was Qua Kieng, a Chinese teacher, fruit of missions, for that man, while who had been baptized in 1844, and yet a private citizen, had been taught who died in 1859, three of whose chilby a missionary of the American dren also became disciples, and one of Board, and was the only such man in them a candidate for the ministry. It the empire.
is a curious coincidence that in the
same year in which this first Chinese Rev. Eugene S. Dunlap likewise convert in Siam died (1859) the first found, in Petchbari, an old disciple, native Siamese convert, Nai Chune, nighunto death, who had received took up the “apostolic succession." He from Dr. Bradley, years before, portruly adorned the Gospel. So desir tions of the blessed Word, and had ous was he to bear to others the Gos studied them in secret, until he found pel message that he firmly declined all
Jesus therein and put away his idols. offices of honor or salaried employ He had never been taught to pray, ments, that he might devote himself but by the Holy Spirit-for he had to medical practise as a means of self not even heard any disciple praysupport and Christian labor.
and Mr. Dunlap listened with amazeSiam presents examples of the silent ment to the humility, faith and gratiand pervasive influence of missions, tude evidenced in his supplications. even where outward results are not so Tho a considerable number of conapparent. Years after Dr. Bradley verts have been gathered, the success died, in 1873, a marked case of con of Siamese missions can not be measversion was found, directly traceable ured numerically. The influence has to his efforts in diffusing Christian been pervasive. All Siamese society tracts and publications.
In June, feels it, and even Chulalang Korn, the 1877, a venerable stranger, seventy most progressive of Asiatic rulers, bethree years old, visited the Laos mis came a nursing father to the mission, sion to ask medical treatment for his tho not a professing Christian. Many deafness, and referred to Christ's incline toward the Gospel who are not miraculous cure of the deaf man. He converts, and not a few are at heart proved to be the highest officer in the believers who have not courage to court in the province of La Kawn, confess it. who, twenty years before, while visit The press is the handmaid of all the ing Bangkok, had received from Dr. preaching. Four-fifths of the men Bradley religious books. These books and boys are able to read, and the miswere printed in Siamese, but the char sion press seeks to supply an evanacters are so different from those used gelical literature. The Bible ranks by the Laos people that he had to first, of course, printed in parts for learn the Siamese characters in order convenience, as Siamese characters to read them. And the light he got make bulky volumes; next to it ranks by this examination he had sought to “Pilgrim's Progress,” that wonderful follow, until now he came for further companion to the Word of God, and instruction. This whole story is very now printed in over one hundred laninteresting and remarkable, but space guages. Medical missions are promiforbids entering into detail. Suffice nent, and no agency is more useful as to say that, for the sake of the Christ a help to and means of evangelization. whom he thus found, groping in the The cure of disease by rational treatdark, he braved all peril and exposure
ment undermines confidence in "spirand persecution; and that to this
its” and “spirit worship.” A truly man's efforts is to be attributed the Christian science is always in haropening of a new mission in his native mony both with nature and with city, La Kawn.
Scripture, and exposes the absurdities
of heathen superstition. In the first churches, with nearly nine hundred eighteen months of his work, Dr. communicants.
an in House had treated 3,117 patients. crease of over twenty-one per cent. in When cholera, which was there very one year-1887-8. There were sixprevalent—a disease which has slain teen schools, with four hundred pu30,000 people in a month, and even pils, and more than as many more 500 a day—and needed treatment, he Sunday-school pupils, and the benevsuccessfully treated 5,000 people with olent contribution of these poor Siamcamphor alone, using ten drops in as ese, averaged out of their poverty, many teaspoonfuls of water, and giv over sixty cents a year, which to them ing a teaspoonful in the extremity of was relatively more than ten times the disease, every few minutes. His that sum would be to church members uniform success worked wonders on in our own land. the mind of the natives as a prepara During the year 1887-8 the prime tion for Gospel truth.
minister of Siam, who often expressed Afterward, with the patronage of desire for a mission at Ratburi, a city Chulalang Korn and his Queen, the of 50,000 to 75,000, midway between hospital work rapidly multiplied and Bangkok and Petchaburi, and where its facilities increased.
he had one residence, offered for misOf course, education is a very prom sion uses a large brick house, and ofinent agency, but the school in Siam, fered aid in securing other buildings, as in other missionary lands, is a thor so that for school and medical misoughly Christian institution, and or sion purposes the work might be fully ganized churches are to be found side equipped, and one lady of Philadelby side with the schools, and their phia gave the $5,000 necessary to put members largely gathered from the a preacher and physician into this pupils. Dr. MacFarland was appoint new parish of from 50,000 to 75,000 ed by the King superintendent of souls ! public instruction and principal of the The twenty years of later mission Royal College at Bangkok. At the work in Siam, we may treat hereafter. Bangkok centennial celebration, in The present sketch was meant to trace 1882, the King bought up the entire only beginnings. Suffice it to say that exhibit made by the girls' school, and the work there gives promise of great gave to the principals in charge of it final results. In 1902 among the Siamsilver medals. All this does not look as ese and Laos only 4,000 converts had tho Siamese missions were a failure. been gathered. But results are not al
Space forbids the tracing of the ways to be measured by members. spread of Siamese missions to Petch Rev. James Caswell was permitted buri and Chieng Mai, among the Lao for eighteen months to train the man nese. Twenty years ago there were who, all unknown to him was to be three stations, with nine ordained and the future king, and the influence of four medical missionaries, nine female the schools and medical work is such teachers, and twenty-seven native as to command even the royal sanchelpers;
eleven tion and donations.
The fifth of these conventions was offered for service abroad; and this held at Nashville, Tenn., from Feb. led to the sending out of John For28 to March 4. This whole move- man and Robert P. Wilder, on a tour ment, of which these gatherings, every of the colleges and seminaries to carry four years, are a conspicuous feature, the divine fire, kindled there, to other belongs in the front rank of modern altars. A permanent organization was religious developments, both on ac- the result, of which this Nashville count of its personnel, and the quality convention is but one rallying point. and quantity of the work it has done We do not, of course, forget that, and is doing
back of even Mt. Hermon, lay the This Nashville Convention is the noble “Haystack Band” at Williamsfifth quadrennial gathering. The town nearly a century ago, and growth of the movement is a suf- the group of students at Andover. ficient sign of its vigor and virility. But we are now concerned not so The first convention was in Cleveland, much with the remote initiative as in 1891, with 680 delegates; the sec- with the modern and rapid growth of ond, in Detroit, in 1894, with 1,325; the germinal missionary plant. It the third, in Cleveland, in 1898, with
was the great privilege of the writer 2,221; the fourth, in Toronto in 1902, to suggest the motto which has bewith 2,597
But at Nashville tre come the watchword of this new rolls of accredited delegates reached movement-THE EVANGELIZATION OF a grand total of 4,188, 3,060 of these THE WORLD IN THIS GENERATIONbeing students and 286 presidents and which again found its germ in the professors from seven hundred cen- great missionary sermon of Dr. ters of higher learning in North Angus, of London, who seventy-five America. Thus the enrolment mount- years ago, suggested that if the ed up nearly a thousand higher than church would furnish 50,000 missioneven the Ecumenical Missionary Con- aries and fifty millions of dollars a ference in New York six years ago, year to support them, the Gospel and was 1,231 above that of the Tor- might be proclaimed to the whole onto convention. Secretaries of the world within the life time of men then leading boards of missions and hun- living This inspiring motto condreds of missionaries were in at- fronted the great audiences at Nashtendance and helped to make the oc- ville day by day in huge letters. casion memorable.
The platform addresses covered When a delegated body, mostly of vital themes, such as the work needed young men, and of the most intelli- in unevangelized districts; the gent student class, thus gathers for workers and their effective training; five days, in numbers so great as to reports of those actually working in surpass any other that has ever met various fields; the grand motives of in a missionary capacity, it is time to missionary enterprise, such as love of ask
three important questions - God and passion for souls; and that whence? what? whither?-to inquire prime endowment, the enduement of as to the origin, significance and fu- the Holy Spirit-the one supreme ture of the movement.
equipment for service. As to its origin, the editor of this The outcome of these five days no Review was present at the birth of man can adequately foresee. But it this great volunteer enterprise. In will be incalculable. Seven hundred 1866, at Mt. Hermon, Mass., at the springs of learning will be salted with invitation of the late D. L. Moody, the missionary impulse. The echoes 251 college boys came together for a of this convention will be heard in ten days' summer school. Before the uttermost parts of this land and they separated a hundred men had of the earth. Hundreds of delegates
have already heard the call of the organization are fourfold: (1) to man of Macedonia; and thousands bring together delegations of students will be confronted with the solemn and professors from all the leading question how and where God would universities, seminaries and colleges have the capital of their life invested. of the United States and Canada, with Board secretaries, missionary work the representatives af missionary eners, college presidents and faculties, terprise at home and abroad, for will have had a new vision of possi- association and conference; (2) to bilities; and it will be hard for any secure a united consideration of all intelligent observer of the signs of the problems concerning world-wide times, to pay no heed to that living evangelization; (3) to seek a fuller stream of young, educated life that knowledge of the missionary possiflows in such a rapidly swelling flood bilities of the Church, and the inspirabefore their eyes, having in it the tion by which they may be made potencies of all the future. Pastors, actual; (4) to pray for and take steps authors, editors, teachers, parents to enter the opening doors of work who can be indifferent to this TIDE for the extension of the kingdom of OF TIME, which is rising to such a God by means of the preaching of the flood mark of history and destiny ? Gospel to the dense populations of
The purposes of this marvelous non-Christian nations.
THE WORLD'S STUDENT CHRISTIAN FEDERATION *
At the time the Federation was more thoroughly organized. As orformed, in 1895, the five movements ganization is a necessary outcome of which comprise it included in all 599 life this is a point of real importance. student Christian Associations
or Distinct advances have been made Unions, with a membership of 33,275 in the direction of reaching certain students and professors. Besides these classes of students. The medical stuthere were in existence at that time dents of some countries, especially of in all the world 301 local student re Japan, Great Britain, and the United ligious societies, with a membership States, have been drawn into the moveof 11,725, unaffliliated with the Fed ment in increasing numbers. In aleration or with the national move most every country the theological ments belonging to it. Since then all students have become a more promithese have been drawn into the dif nent factor in the movement than ferent movements and thus made a they were at the beginning of the part of the Federation. In addition decade. In two or three countries to this there have been organized in encouraging beginnings have been different parts of the world, and then recorded in enlisting the interest and affiliated, 925 student Christian socie- co-operation of law students. Effecties. The Federation, therefore, now tive steps have been taken recently includes 1,825 Christian Associations here and there, particularly in Lonor Unions, with a total membership don and Paris, to draw art students of over 103,000 students and profes- into the movement. The most encoursors.
aging fact of all in this connection has Both national and local Christian been the wonderful progress made in student societies have during the past associating with the movement large ten years gained greatly in efficiency, numbers of students in the governin power and in prestige. They are ment colleges of Japan, India and
From the Bombay Guardian, February 17th.