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partures in a given year; the number of each particular trade, profession, calling; the number of sheep, oxen, and stock of all kinds ; besides revenues, population, deaths, births, marriages, and all the numerous et cætera that can possibly engage the attention of the compiler of statistics. We are only surprised Mr. Hawkins did not attempt to count the trees, or the farming implements in each state. It is impossible for us to give any adequate iilea of this huge and compact mass of statistical information ; some facts, however, there are connected with the moral condition of a country, where education is so widely diffused and so systematically conducted, which we cannot pass by without an observation.
The annual number of births in the Austrian dominions (Hungary not included) is estimated at 764,290 ; of marriages 167,704 ; and of deaths 688,763. There is one marriage annually to 130 individuals. The number of female to male births is as 1000 to 1,602. About every tenth child is illegitimate. The Bohemians are much more prolific than the inhabitants of the other provinces. Amongst them, in every eight births one is illegitimate. In the Foundling Hospital at Prague, 1,125 children were received in the year 1827. The number of marriages in the same year was six to one. In Prussia, the illegitimate births are one in twelve. The number of prostitutes in Berlin, whose names are inscribed upon the books of the police, is only 273, almost an evanescent quantity, when we compare Berlin with Paris, where the registered number amounted in 1834 to 3,816, or to London, where their name is Legion. But this apparently small number is by no means an argument in favour of the superior morality of the Berlinese, but is entirely owing to the compulsory and vexatious interference of the police. Another strange fact connected with Prussian morals is, that the law allows them a facility of divorce, of which they are not at all backward in availing themselves. The number of divorces is one in thirty-seven marriages : this is a most startling fact. In Saxony, the number of married persons is calculated at about one-third of the population, or 277,813 in round numbers ; of these, 11,213 were living sepa. rate, and 3,798 were divorced. The number of illegitimate chil. dren in the same state was in 1831, one in six. The houses of correction at Spandau and Brandenburg in Prussia, contained, in 1833, 1,458 prisoners ; and in 1835, 1,0134 persons were arrested in Berlin, so that one in twenty-five persons spent a portion of the . year in prison. In the rural districts of Bavaria, the number of ille.
gitimate children exceeded the number of those born in wedlock, a circumstance without parallel, even in the most dissolute cities in Europe. In Munich, the number of children born out of wedlock, almost exactly balances that born in wedlock, the illegitimates being in 1823, 998; the legitimates 1,030. In 1834, the illegitimates mustered 1,291, while the legitimates did not exceed 1339. So much for the Utopian theories of the ultimate perfectibility of mankind. So much for the diffusion of education and the reading of the Scripture serving as a check upon the passions. It is notorious that in Ireland, where the absence of the education that exists in Germany is so much deplored, the number of illegitimate children in any district is a mere fraction on the amount of population; and that in most districts it does not equal even a fraction. Perhaps, when the Irish become as enlightened as their German prototypes in learning, they will be equally regardless of the slender restraints of conventional morality.
ART. V. 1. A Treatise on the Nature, Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment of
Insanity, with Practical Observations on Lunatic Asylums; and a Description of the Pauper Lunatic Asylum for the County of Middlesex, at Hanwell, with a detailed Account of its Management. By
Sir W. C. Ellis, M.D. 8vo. London: Holdsworth. 1838. 2. A Narrative of the Treatment experienced by a Gentleman during a
State of Mental Derangement, designed to explain the Causes and the Nature of Insanity, and to expose the Injudicious Conduct pursued towards many unfortunate Sufferers under that Calamity. 8vo. pp.
278. London: Wilson,' 1838. Mental alienation in its various forms, would appear to be greatly on the increase in this and all other civilized countries; to inquire into the causes that originate, and the remedies that are likely to mitigate or subdue this deplorable malady, becomes then a subject worthy the most serious attention of the statesman or philanthropist as well as the medical practitioner, whose professional duties require that he be well acquainted with all the multiform derangements of the intellect. Such being our opinion, we have thought no apology need be offered for devoting a few pages to the subject which is embraced in the volumes which stand at the head of this article.
Insanity, as a disease of the mental faculties, has always been a matter of interesting investigation by reflecting men. It has been remarked, that lunacy belongs almost exclusively to civilized manbarbarous or savage nations being entirely exempt, or nearly so. The Indians of North or South America we are assured by travellers are totally free from it. There is but little insanity among the uneducated negroes of the West Indies, or of Africa. Ă recent tourist among the tribes in the neighbourhood of the Cape of Good Hope, asserts that it seldom or never occurs among that people; our authority states that he could not make them comprehend the meaning of the term, though they were well acquainted with the delirium of drunkenness. In countries where the government is despotic, where there is but little mental excitement among the mass of the people, the intellectual faculties inactive, and the passions torpid, there are but few cases of insanity. Travellers have also informed
us, that madness is an uncommon disease in Russia, though it prevails more in the large towns than among the peasantry of the country. There is but little in Spain and Portugal, though, according to Sir A. Halliday, malformations of the head, and idiocy, are common in both countries. The inhabitants of China appear to be nearly exempt from this disease. Dr. Scott, who accompanied Lord M‘Carthy in his embassy to that country, heard but of a single instance. It is uncommon in Persia, Hindostan, and Turkey. Dr. Madden, in his Travels in Turkey, after remarking, that "countries where the intellect is most cultivated, there insanity is most frequent," adds, " there is no nation where madness is so rare as in Turkey, where the people of all others think the least.”
The mere exitement of the passions, however, of a savage uncivilized race of men, seldom produces mental derangement, unless the brutal ferocity they manifest towards their enemies may be so considered ; but in the communities where the mass of the people have received some intellectual culture, whatever strongly affects the mind, whatever greatly excites the feelings and passions, hopes and fears, whether it be political or religious commotions and revolutions, or sudden loss or accession of fortune, disposes many to insanity. Esquirol says it was frightfully increased during the first French Revolution; that even women strongly affected by the events of that exciting time, bore children whom the slightest cause rendered insane. The same authority also states, that during the late wars of France, the number of the insane was increased at each departure of the conscripts, either among the conscripts themselves or their parents and friends. When France was invaded by the allied army, terror multiplied the disease among the French ; and German writers make the same observation respecting its increase in Germany, when the French entered that country.
The noted South Sea bubble, when large fortunes were suddenly made and lost, when all minds were intensely agitated with hopes and fears, multiplied the inmates of madhouses. And it is a curious fact, that more were made crazy by the sudden acquisition of great wealth, than by the loss of it.
Peculiarities of insanity, or the particular delusions of the insane, are determined by the state of general intelligence, or by the kind of excitement that produced the disease. Thus during a part of the middle ages, the belief was universal that mankind were in the power of evil spirits or demons, and demonomania was a common form of insanity. In modern times the belief in demons, and the fear of them, has generally subsided ; but the fear of the power of government, the police, and the prison, has increased. Esquirol remarks, that in France many are now sent to the lunatic hospitals, whom the fear of the police has made crazy, that would in former times have been hung because they feared the devil. When Napoleon made and unmade kings and queens with great rapidity, kings and queens increased in the French madhouses. “So great has been the influence of our political commotions,” says Esquirol, “that I could give the history of France from the taking of the Bastile to the last appearance of Bonaparte, by that of the insane in the hospitals, whose delusions related to the different events of that long period of history.”
Insanity has increased as knowledge and the arts of civilized life have advanced, and is now most prevalent in the countries most enlightened and free. The exact number of the insane of any country is not known, as in none have they been enumerated in such a manner as to insure correctness. In some countries, those only are reckoned that are in the public institutions, or in some way supported at the public expense. In others, in addition to such, those that are known to the magistrates, clergymen, or physicians of the different districts, are also enumerated. But in this way, many would undoubtedly be omitted, as families usually endeavour to conceal, as long as possible, the fact that one of their number is deranged in mind. According to the most recent estimates, there is in France one insane person to 1000 of the population, Wales,
574 These statements show, that insanity is very prevalent in France and England; yet they are, we apprehend, considerably too low. Dr. Prichard, the most correct, and elaborate, and in our opinion the most able writer on insanity, speaking of the number of lunatics in France, observes : “Unfortunately no satisfactory sources of information on this subject exist, and France is much behind England and some other countries, in all the materials for statistical researches on the frequency of mental derangement.” He believes the estimate for this country much too low ; and the following facts appear to confirm his opinion. The Quakers, or Society of Friends, have accurate knowledge of the insane belonging to their society. From statements furnished by themselves, it appears there is one insane person to 358 of their number. When it is considered, that there are but few cases of religious insanity among the Quakers, and extremely few from intemperance, and that there are no known causes for a greater frequency of this disease with them than the other inhabitants of England, we are forced to the conclusion, that the returns of the number of the insane for the rest of England are too incorrect to afford fair ground for the estimates that have been made, while the knowledge of each other which prevails among the Quakers, brings nearly all the cases which occur among them into the calculation.
That the estimates for France is too small, is rendered probable from the fact, that in other countries, where more care has insured
greater accuracy, the number of the insane has been ascertained to be considerably greater than stated to be in that country. The statistics of insanity in the Prussian Provinces on the Rhine, are more accurate than those of England or France, though the learned Dr. Jacobi thinks they are far from correct. According to this writer, , there is in these provinces one insane person to 666 of the population.
But the most complete statistical accounts that exist of the deranged persons of any country, are those of Norway ; and these exhibit one case of insanity to 551 of the population. Still most of the known causes of this disease prevail to even greater extent in France than in Norway, and we have no other way of accounting for the difference in the above estimate, than by supposing those of the former country to be very inaccurate.
We have no means of determining the number of the insane in Russia and other northern countries, or in Italy, Spain, and Portugal. From all we can learn on this subject, we believe the disease to be much less frequent in these countries than in France, England, Ger. many, and the United States. According to M. Brière, who recently visited the lunatic establishments of Italy, only one case of insanity is found to 4879 of the population. That there has been but little of the disease in Spain, we infer from the fact, that, but a few years since, the Hospital for Lunatics at Madrid contained but 60 patients, and that at Cadiz only 50.
In the foregoing accounts of the number of the insane, probably some idiots are included. Indeed, it is often very difficult to distinguish insanity from idiocy, as the former frequently passes into the latter, in a gradual and imperceptible manner.
Thus a person may be insane one month, and the next be idiotic.
Insanity is not upon the whole a disease very dangerous to life; in France, it has been stated that the records of the medical institution for lunatics exhibit a wonderful confirmation of this assertion. Taking the entire number of the deranged in these asylums into view, it appears that fully one-half have been confined upwards of sixteen years, a vast number more than twenty years, many upwards of forty, and several beyond sixty years. The records of receptacles for the insane in this country evince nearly similar results. And it is gratifying also to be able to state, that no fact relating to this disease appears better established than the general certainty of curing it in its early stage. Dr. Willis, many years ago, averred that nine out of ten cases of insanity, recovered, if placed under his care within three months from the first attack. Dr. Burrows has reported from his own experience similar consequences. Dr. Ellis, when director of the York West Riding Lunatic Asylum, stated in 1827, that of 312 patients, admitted within three months after the commencement of the insanity, 216 recovered.
Mr. Tuke, of the Retreat near York, observes, According to the result of our experience, I should say the probability of recovery