MARIUS MAXIMUs, his histories much
read by the Roman nobles, iv. 82,
and note.
MARK, bishop of Arethusa, cruelty of
Julian's magistrates towards, iii.166;
had saved Julian's life, 167.
MARK, bishop of Ephesus, viii. 96;
manager for the Greeks at the coun-
cil of Florence, 100; rejects a union
with the Latins, 102; patriarch of
Constantinople, 123; death, ib.
MARKLAND, Jeremiah, his censure of
the AEneid, viii. 114, note.
MARoboDUUs, king of the Marcomanni,
i. 370, note and note S.
MARON, a Syrian saint, gives name to
the Maronites, vi. 55.
MARONGA, action at between Julian
and the Persians, iii. 210.
MARONITEs, the Monothelites so called
by the Oriental Christians, from Ma-
ron, vi. 55; present state, 56; coun-
try, 57.
MARoziA, Roman prostitute, two ge-
nerations of her descendants occupied
the papal chair, vi. 183 and note M.;
introduces Hugh king of Burgundy
into the Castle of St. Angelo, 185;
marriage banquet, ib.; imprisoned
by her son Alberic, ib.
MARRIAGE, Roman, law and rites of, v.
294; fourth, condemned by the By-
zantine laws, vi. 101.
MARsyABA, or Marsyabae, i. 138, note S.
MARTEL, v. Charles Martel.
MARTIALIS, assassinates Caracalla, i.
MARTIN, St., bishop of Tours, his
haughty treatment of the emperor
Maximus, iii. 26, note; his mira-
culous gifts, 376; character of Sulp.
Severus' Life of that prelate, ib. note;
zeal in destroying pagan temples,
415; founder of monasticism in Gaul,
iv. 309; miraculous shrine of, con-
verts the Suevi, 340.
MARTIN, pope, anathematizes the type
of Constans and ecthesis of Heraclius,
vi. 42; banished, ib.
MARTIN IV., pope, excludes Michael
Palaeologus from the Latin Church,
vii. 375, 377; elected senator of
Rome, viii. 205.
MARTIN W., pope, his election by the
Council of Constance restores the
popes to the Vatican, and terminates
the schism of the West, viii. 256;


resumes the prerogative of coining,
MARTIN, abbot, preaches the fourth
crusade in Germany, vii. 295 and
note; leaves the army at Zara, 297.
MARTINA, incestuous marriage with her
uncle Heraclius, v. 398; procures
the association of her son Heracleonas
in the empire, vi. 72; attempts to
ascend the throne, 73; her tongue
cut out, 74.
MARTINIANUs named Caesar by Licinius,
ii. 148; put to death, 149.
MARTYRDOM, proofs of required by the
Roman Catholics, ii. 246, note; in-
citements to, 250.
MARTYRS, primitive, legends respect-
ing, ii. 244; small number of 245;
mostly of very high or very low
condition, ib.; honours paid to,251;
title when refused, 252, note; their
example produced conversions, 253;
new aera of under Diocletian, 264;
probable account of, 281; number of,
283; worship of by the Christians,
iii. 427; fabulous martyrs, 428.
MARY, Virgin, place of her burial, vi.
18, note; likenesses of, 138; her
immaculate conception borrowed
from the Koran, 226.
MARY, queen of Bulgaria, negociates
with the Sultan of Egypt against her
uncle Michael Palaeologus, vii. 375.
MASCEZEL takes refuge at Milan from
the fury of his brother Gildo, iv. 17;
appointed by Stilicho to lead an
army against Gildo, 18; his religious
devotion, 19; defeats Gildo, 20;
jealousy of Stilicho and death, 21.
MASSAGETAE invade Persia, ii. 373.
MASSOUD, son of Mahmud the Gazne-
vide, defeated by the Turkmans, vii.
MASTER of the Offices, functions of, ii.
326. -
MASTERS-GENERAL of cavalry and in-
fantry, ii. 319.
MATERNUs, insurrection of against Com-
modus, i. 226; his plot discovered,
MATTER, M., his ‘Histoire du Gnosti-
cisme," ii. 163, note M.
MATTHEw, St., first two chapters of
his Gospel not in the Ebionite copies,
vi. 8, note ; contents of alluded to in
the ‘Ascensio Isaiae,” ib. note M.;
wrote in Hebrew, it. ; loss of his


Hebrew Gospel naturally accounted
for, 4, note M.; inquiry whether his
Gospel was composed in Hebrew, ii.
206, notes.
MATTHIAs CoRVINUs elected king of
Hungary, viii. 135; reign and cha-
racter, ib.
MAURICE named emperor by Tiberius
II., v. 345; character and reign, ib.;
espouses the cause of Chosroes, grand-
son of Nushirvan, 373; war against
the Avars, 380; attempts to reform
the army, 382; his work on mili-
tary tactics, ib. note ; rebellion of
his troops, who elect Phocas, 383;
revolt of the Constantinopolitans,
384; flight of Maurice, ib.; executed
by Phocas, 385; pretended son of,
391 and note.
MAURINGANIA, reputed seat of the
Franks, i. 390.
MAURITANIA Caesariensis and Tingi-
tana, i. 162; invaded by the Franks,
392; invaded by Akbah, vi. 347.
MAURITANIAN SIFITI, province of, re-
annexed to the Roman empire by
Solomon the eunuch, v. 123.
MAxENTIUs, son of Maximian, declared
emperor at Rome, ii. 114; vices and
incapacity, ib.; alliance with Max-
imin, 123; tyranny in Italy and
Africa, 124; triumph, ib.; licen-
tiousness, ib.; pride, 125; provokes
a war with Constantine, ib.; forces,
126; supineness, 130; consults the
Sibylline books, 131; defeat and
death, 132; his (imputed) artifice of
the bridge examined, ib. notes; his
head exhibited to the people, 133;
patronized the Christians, 276.
MAxiMIAN, colleague of Diocletian, ii.
66; his birth and character, ib.;
late, ib. notes; ignorance, ib.; as-
sumes the title of Herculius, 67;
quells the insurgent Bagaudae, 69;
employed by Diocletian in difficult
wars, 74; subdues the Mauritanians,
76; triumph, 89; persecutes the
senators, 91; abdicates, 99; reas-
sumes the purple, 115; visits Con-
stantine in Gaul, 116; second abdi-
cation, 120; seizes Arles, 121 ; be-
sieged in Marseilles, ib.; death, ib.
MAXIMIAN and GALERIUs punish some
Christian soldiers, ii. 267; perse-
cuted the Christians, 276.
MAXIMIAN, general of Probus, ii. 44.


MAxIMILIANUs, martyrdom of, ii. 267.
MAXIMIN, praefect of Gaul, obtains the
government of Waleria for his son
Marcellinus, iii. 287.
MAXIMIN, origin, i. 305; strength and
valour, 306; promotion, ib.; con-
spires against Alex. Severus, 307; ac-
cession, ib.; tyranny, 308; igno-
rance, ib. note; oppresses the pro-
vinces, 309; African revolt, 310;
declared a public enemy, 314; chro-
nological difficulties, 318; examined,
ib. note S. (and note, 321); marches
into Italy, 319; besieges Aquileia,
ib. ; murdered, 320; portrait, 321.
MAXIMIN (Daza) Caesar, ii. 108; em-
peror, 119 ; divides the empire with
Licinius, 122; alliance with Max-
entius, 123; takes Byzantium and
Heraclea, 136; defeated by Licinius,
ib.; flight and death, ib.; brutal
conduct towards Valeria, 137; un-
bounded licentiousness, ib. note;
persecutes the Christians, 259 and
note G.,280; supports polytheism by
introducing the Christian discipline,
280; publishes an edict of toleration,
281, note.
MAXIMIN, Constantinopolitan courtier,
embassy to Attila with Priscus the
historian, iv. 208; entertains the
Huns at Sardica, 209 ; his con-
temptuous reception by Attila, 210;
hospitality of Bleda's widow, 211;
visits Cerca, wife of Attila, 213.
MAXIMINIANISTs, Donatist sect, iii.45.
MAXIMUs elected emperor with Bal-
binus, i. 315; character, ib.; tumult,
317; enters Rome in triumph, 321;
wise administration, ib.; visits the
camp at Aquileia, 322; discord with
Balbinus, 323; both assassinated, ib.
MAXIMUs, revolt of in Britain, iii. 359;
apocryphal marriage with Helena, a
British lady, ib. and note S.; his
rank, ib. and note; invades Gaul,
360; favourable reception and suc-
cess, ib.; embassy to Theodosius,
361; obtains the countries beyond
the Alps, 362; the first Christian
prince who shed the blood of his
subjects (the Priscillianists) for their
religion, 374; invades Italy, 382;
enters Milan, ib.; encamps near
Siscia, 384; defeated by Theodosius,
385; besieged and captured in Aqui-
leia, ib.; beheaded, ib.


MAXIMUs made emperor in Spain by
Gerontius, iv. 119; executed, 120.
MAXIMUs, the Platonist, initiates Ju-
lian in theurgic science, iii. 142; in-
vited to Constantinople by that em-
peror, 151; his triumphant journey
and flattering reception, ib. ; his
corruption and avarice, 152; how
punished by Valentinian, 237, note.
MAXIMUs, abbot, inhuman chastise-
ment of, by Constans, vi. 42.
MAZALON, great domestic of Theodore
Lascaris II., emperor of Nice, guard-
ian of his son John, vii. 361; massa-
cred, 362.
MAzdAK, the Persian Archimagus, his
fanatical tenets, v. 181 and note M.
MEBODEs, the Persian, his services how
rewarded by Nushirvan, v. 183.
MEBODEs, general of Chosroes, takes
Modain, v. 374.
MEccA, description of, vi. 201 and
notes M. and S.; trade, ib.; besieged
by Abrahah, 216 ; delivered by
Abdol Motalleb, 217; the kebla of
prayer, 232; flight of Mahomet from,
242; surrenders to Mahomet, 253;
Christians and unbelievers excluded
from, 254 and note; stormed and
pillaged by Abu Taher, 419.
MECHANICs, how esteemed among the
Huns, iv. 203.
MEDALs, imperial, with the head of a
subject, iv. 184 and note S.
MEDIAN tribes implore the protection
of Trajan, i. 143.
MEDICINE, science of, proficiency of the
Arabians in, vi. 402.
MEDICIS, Cosmo of, his character and
patronage of learning, viii. 117.
MEDICIS, Lorenzo of, his encourage-
ment of learning, viii. 117.
MEDINA, Arabian name for city, appro-
priated to Yatreb, the residence of
Mahomet, vi. 200, note; 243 and
note S.; distinguished as the city of
the Book, ib.; Mahomet received as
prince at, 243.
MEDITERRANEAN, its coasts and islands
subject to the Romans, i. 163.
MEGALESIA, festival of the, how cele-
brated at Rome, i. 227, note.
MELCHITEs, or royalists, eastern name
for Catholics, origin of, vi. 44 and
MELETIANs, sect of, in Egypt, iii. 71 and


MELETIUs, bishop of Antioch, death
of, iii. 371 and note.
MELISENDA, daughter of Baldwin II.,
queen of Jerusalem, vii. 256.
MELITENE (Malatheah, note M.), battle
of, between the Romans and Per-
sians under Nushirvan, v. 365.
MELLOBAUDEs, count of the domestics
and king of the Franks, rescues count
Romanus from justice, iii. 275; and
Equitius cause the troops to elect
Valentinian II. to the purple, 291;
defeats the Alemanni at Argentaria,
332; put to death by Maximus, iii.
MELo of Bari invites the Normans into
Italy, vii. 103.
MELPH1, metropolis of the Normans in
Apulia, vii. 106.
MEMNoN, vocal, secret of explained, iii.
419, note M.
MEMPHis described, vi. 330; taken by
Amrou, 331.
MENSURIUs, bishop of Carthage, ii.

MENTz sacked by the northern bar-

barians, iv. 52.
MERAB in Arabia Felix, i. 138 and
mote S.
MERANEs, or Mirranes, a title of dignity
among the Persians, iii. 210, note S.
MERIDA besieged and taken by Musa,
vi. 360; seat of the veterans of Au-
gustus, ib. and note.
MERIT, personal, estimate of relative,
v. 163.
MERMEROEs, Persian general in the
Lazic war, character, v. 202.
MERobAUDEs, a pagan of the fifth cen-
tury, obtains a statue, iii.425, note M.
MERovKUs, younger son of Clodion,
protected and adopted by Aëtius, iv.
229; his lineage doubtful, ib. note M.
MERovINGLAN kings of the Franks, way
of election and royal ensigns, iv.
227; origin of the name, ib. note;
gold coinage of, 362, note S.; account
of their mintage, 363 and note; al-
lowed their subjects to use their pe-
culiar laws, 366; this controverted
by M. Savigny, ib. note M.; domains
and benefices of, 372; family of,
when extinguished, vi. 173; last, or
rois fainéans, described, 385.
MERSEBURG, castle of, its historical pic-
ture, vii. 77 and note.
MERVAN, last Ommiade caliph, de-



seated by Saffah at the Zab, vi. 392;
retires to Busir on the Nile, ib. ; his
surname of ‘the Ass,’ ib. and note;
defeat and death, ib.
MEsopotAMIA, a Roman province, i.
143; ravaged by Carus, ii. 55; ceded
to the Romans, 87; Julian's march
through, iii. 192.
MESSALLA, WALERIUs, first praefect of
Rome, his high character, ii. 312.
MEssaLLA, governor of Pannonia, saves
Constantia from the Quadi, iii. 288.
MEssiah, pure man to the Ebionites,
vi. 2; heresy of his soul being
Adam's, 4, note; pure God to the
Docetes, 5; God and man according
to Cerinthus, 7; incarnate God ac-
cording to Apollinaris, 9; orthodox
doctrine, 10; Nestorian heresy, 16;
monophysite doctrine, 24; opinion of
Pope Leo I. established by the coun-
cil of Chalcedon, 29.
MESROBEs invents the Armenian alpha-
bet, iv. 168, note.
MESUA, Arabian physician, vi. 402.
METAURUs river, ii. 15, note. -
METELLI, triumphs and consulships of
the, i. 293, note.
METELLUs Numidicus, his opinion of
women, i. 285, note.
METHoDIUs, bishop of Tyre, dialogue
of the ten virgins, ii. 188, note.
METIUS FALCONIUs recommends the
election of Tacitus as emperor, ii. 37.
METROPHANES, patriarch of Constan-
tinople, viii. 123.
METz destroyed by the Huns, iv. 232
and note.
MICHAEL I., Rhangabe, emperor of Con-
stantinople, vi. 88.
MICHAEL II. the Phrygian, surnamed
the Stammerer, compels Leo W. to
ascend the throne of Constantinople,
vi. 89; conspires against and assas-
sinates that emperor, 90; assumes
the purple, ib.; captures and executes
Thomas the Cappadocian, 91; marries
Euphrosyne, ib.
MICHAEL III., emperor of Constantino-
ple, vi. 93; profligate reign, 94;
assassinated by Basil, 95; defeated
by the Paulicians, vii. 53.
MICHAEL IV., the Paphlagonian, em-
peror of Constantinople, origin of, vi.
109; intrigue with Zoe, wife of Ro-
manus III., ib.; elevation, ib.
MICHAEL V, Calaphates, his mean


origin, vi. 109; ingratitude, 110;
dethroned, ib.
MICHAEL WI., Stratisticus, emperor of
Constantinople, vi. 111; deposed by
Isaac I., 113.
MICHAEL VII., Parapinaces, emperor of
Constantinople, vi. 115; character,
ib.; resigns the empire to Nicephorus
Botaniates, 116; deposed, vii. 119 ;
personated by an impostor, ib.
Michael, bastard of the house of An-
geli, despot of Epirus, vii. 327.
Michaelis, his opinion on Moses' omis-
sion of a future state, ii. 171, note M. ;
his explanation of the praeternatural
obstacles to the rebuilding of the
temple at Jerusalem, iii. 160.
MIDDLETON, Dr., his “Free Inquiry,”
how received, ii. 179, and note.
MILAN made an imperial residence by
Maximian, ii. 90; described, ib.;
edict of in favour of the Christians,
iii. 5; counteracted by Licinius, 9;
secured the revenues of the Church,
32; Council of, 78; corruption prac-
tised at to procure the condemnation
of Athanasius, ib.; taken by Attila,
iv. 241; taken and destroyed by the
Goths and Burgundians under Wi-
tiges, v. 151; razed by Frederick I.,
vi. 188. -
MILEs, change in the meaning of that
word, i. 149, note.
MILITARY force, its due proportion to
the population, i. 241.
MILLENNIUM, doctrine of the, ii. 173;
a Jewish tradition, ib. note M.; re-
ceived by the Fathers, 174; con-
demned by the Articles of Edward
VI., ib. note M.
MILTON, his enumeration of the Syrian
deities, ii. 154, note.
MINCIUs, river, Attila's camp on the,
iv. 245 and note M.
MINERVINA, first wife of Constantine,
ii. 348.
MINEs, use of in sieges, first theory
and practice of, viii. 160, note.
MINgrelia, v. Colchis.
MINority, Roman, two kinds of, iv. 11,
note; period of under the Roman
law, v. 302 and note S.
MINT, revolt of the workmen under
Aurelian, ii. 30; observations on, ib
MIRACLEs of the primitive church, ii.
178; period of their duration, 180;
a belief in often converted Pagans,


181; difference of in the Apostolic
and post-Apostolic times, ib. note M.;
those of Christ and his apostles not
observed by the pagan writers, 218.
MIRCHOND, his History of the East, vi.
368, note.
MIRRANEs of Persia, engagement with
Belisarius, v. 100.
MISCREANT, origin of that word, vii.
212, note.
MISENUM, a naval station, i. 154, note;
marines of, 250.
MisithEUs, minister of Gordian, i. 325;
genuineness of that name examined,
ib. note S.; death, 326.
MisnAH, the, denounced death against
apostates, iii. 155, note.
“MisopogoN,” Julian's, on what occa-
sion written, iii. 185.
MissionARIES,Christian, promoted trade
in the East, v. 61.
MissoRIUM, Adolphus’ great dish of
gold, history of, iv. 116.
MITHRA, what, i. 335.
MITHRAs, worship of, ii. 265, note.
MITHRIDATEs, massacre by, i. 173.
MoAwly AH, son of Abu Sophian, as-
sumes the title of caliph, and wages
war with Ali, vi. 275; conquers him,
276; early history of, 277; reign, ib.;
conspiracy against at Medina, 278,
and note S.; address in proclaiming
his son Yezid as his successor, ib.;
undertakes the siege of Constantino-
ple, 375; makes a degrading treaty
with the Greeks, 376.
MoctadeR, caliph, his splendid recep-
tion of a Greek ambassador, vi. 306;
his alarm at the approach of the
Carmathians, 419.
MoDAIN, AL, winter residence of the
Sassanides, iii.
MoDAR, a Goth
Romans, iii.
MoDESTINUs, juridical authority con-
ferred on by Theodosius II., v. 279.
MoESIA described, i. 159; defended
from the Sarmatians by Theodosius,
iii. 288.
MoEz, Fatimite caliph, his proof of his
pedigree, vi. 281.
Mogul, Great, of Hindostan, viii. 3
and note M.
Moguls, v. Mongols.
Moguls, Great, dominion of, viii. 66.
MogunTIACUM (Mentz) surprised by
Rando, a German chief, iii, 259,

e, deserts to the

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MoRAWKAs, a noble Egyptian, embassy
of Mahomet to, vi. 332; treaty with
Amrou, ib.
Moko, a slave of the Topa princes, be-
comes the founder and head of the
Geougen, iv. 43.
MoxARCHY defined, i. 196; hereditary,
its advantages, 304.
MoNASTICISM, early traces of, ii. 188;
origin and progress of, iv. 305, sqq.;
causes of its dissemination, 310.
MoRDARs, dynasty of the overthrown
by Caled, vi. 291 and notes M. and S.
Money, its effects, i. 356; value of
under Constantine the Great re-
duced to sterling, ii. 338, notes; de-
basement of the Roman in the fifth
century, iv. 268 and note.
MoNGOLs, or Moguls, how connected
with the Tatars, iii.294 and notes; de-
scribed, 302, note S.; their barbarous
maxims of war, iv. 201; method of
disposing of their captives, 202; a
distinct race from the Turks, viii. 1,
note S.; seats of the, ib. 2; intro-
duction of letters among, 5, note M.;
sources of their history, ib. and 6,
notes; sovereigns of the, 10; con-
quest of northern and southern
China, 10, 11 ; of Persia and the
empire of the caliphs, 12; of Ar-
menia and Anatolia, 13; of Kipzak,
Russia, Poland, Hungary, &c., 14;
general alarm at their progress, 15;
the pope attempts to convert them,
ib.; conquest of Siberia, 16; man-
ners of their khans, ib.; they adopt
the laws and fashions of China, 18;
expelled from that country, ib.;
division of their empire, ib.; invade
Bulgaria and Thrace, 19; abstained
from attacking the Greeks and
Franks, 20; decline of the Mongol
khans of Persia, ib.
Mosks, their legends respecting the
primitive martyrs, ii. 244; specimen
of, 246, note; of Egypt, shelter Atha-
nasius, iii,85; their zealindestroying

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