« ForrigeFortsett »
the pagan temples, 415; origin of, iv. reduced, ib. ; conquered, converted,
306; industry in making proselytes, and adopted by the Arabs, vi. 352,
310; vows and blind submission, 89.
312 ; punishments, ib. note ; dress and MOPSUESTIA taken by Nicephorus
habitations, 313; diet, 314; manual Phocas, vi. 426.
labour, 315; property in common, í MORALS, purity of those of the early
ib, and note ; riches, 316; solitude, Christians, ii. 182.
317; devotion and visions, 318; two MORAVIANS driven from Hungary, vii.
classes, Cænobites and Anachorets, 45.
319; miracles and worship of, 321; Monea, the, occupied by the Turks,
persecuted and suppressed by Con viii. 181.
stantine V., vi. 144 ; how esteemed Morging-CUP, wedding-gift of the
by the Saracens, 302 and notes. Lombards, iv, 115.
MONOPHYSITE doctrine, vi. 24.
Morosini, a Venetian, made patriarch
MONOPHYSITES, massacre of the in of Constantinople, vii. 222.
Persia, vi. 47.
MOSEILAMA, the false Arabian prophet,
MONOPOLIES under Justinian, v. 67. interview with the prophetess Sedjah,
MONOTHELITE controversy, vi. 41; doc vi. 286 and note S.; defeated by
trine condemned in the sixth general Caled, 287; slain, ib.
Moses, his religion suited a particular
MONTAIGNE, his account of Roman country, ii. 156; did not inculcato
spectacles, ii. 58, note.
the immortality of the soul, 171;
MONTANER, Ramon de, companion and causes of this omission examined, ib.
historian of Roger de Flor and the note M. ; how regarded in the Koran,
Catalans, vii. 384, notes G. and M. vi. 226 ; his military laws compared
Montanists, their rigid adherence to with those of Mahomet, 245.
ancient discipline, ii. 254 ; of Phrygia, Moses of Chorene, his authority erro-
persecution of the by Justinian, vi. neously used by Gibbon, ii. 369,
note M.; character of his Armenian
MONTASSER, caliph, son and parricide history, iv. 168, note.
of Motawakkel, his remorse, vi. 416. MOSHEIM, his character as an eccle-
MONTESQUIEU, his dialogue of Sylla siastical historian, vi. 2, note.
and Eucrates, i. 319, note ; descrip- | MOSLEMAH, brother of the caliph Soli.
tion of Roman military government, man, invests Constantinople, vi. 379;
326; account of the censorship, 383, destruction of his fleet, 380; retreats,
note; remark on taxation in free and 381.
despotic states, ii. 333; misappre Moslim, or Musulman, meaning of that
hension of the English laws, iii. 128 ; term, vi. 222, note S.
theory of the revolutions of Asia, Mostali, caliph of Egypt, his nego-
299, note ; error respecting the ciations with the crusaders, vii. 222.
Goths, 355, note.
Mostasem, last of the Abbasside caliphs,
MONTFAUCON, Father, edition of St. captured and put to death by Hola-
Chrysostom, iv. 136 ; his description gou, khan of the Mongols, viii. 12.
of Rome, viii. 288, note.
MOSTHADI, Abbasside caliph of Bagdad,
Montius, quæstor of the palace, his recognised as true Commander of the
insolence towards Gallus, ii. 391 ; Faithful, vii. 253.
put to death, ib.
MOTASSEM, caliph, his name of 'Octo-
MONTREAL, Chevalier, Italian free nary,' how founded, vi. 413 and note ;
booter, executed by Rienzi, viii. 247, defeats Theophilus at Amorium,
414; destroys that town, 415; dan-
MONUMENTS, Roman, i. 181; mostly gerous example of introducing Turk-
for public use, 184.
ish guards, 416.
Moors, war of Antoninus Pius against MOTAWAKKEL, caliph, son of Motassen,
the, i. 145, note ; manners of the an killed by his Turkish guards, vi. 416.
cient, v. 116, 121; revolt from Jus MOUNTAIN, old man of the, chief of the
tinian, 213; defeat and slay the Assassins, viï. 12.
eunuch Solomon at Tebeste, 214 ; MOUBZOUFLE deposes Isaac Angelus
and his son and usurps the empire, and Romans, vi. 25; date of, 258,
vii. 309 ; defeated by Henry of Flan note S.
ders, 310; flight, 312; alliance with MYGDONIUS, river, its course diverted
Alexius Angelus, 325; blinded by by Sapor, ii. 372.
him, ib.; seized by the Latins, ib. ; his MYTHOLOGY, Pagan, character of the,
singular execution, ib. and note M. i. 166,
Mousa, son of Bajazet, made king of
Anatolia by Timour, viii. 57; reign
and character, 67.
MoxoENE, province of, ii. 87 and notes. Nacolia, battle of between Valens and
MOZARABES of Spain and Africa, vi. Procopius, iii. 242.
370 and note.
NACORAGAN, Persian general in the
MUCAPER assassinates Aurelian, ii. 32. Lazic war, vain boast of, v. 203 ;
MUCII, renowned for their knowledge defeat and flight, ib.; flayed alive by
of the law, v. 274.
MUMMOLUS the patrician, last governor NAHAR-Malcha, canal of the Tigris,
of Burgundy, iv. 381.
how used by Julian, iii. 202.
MUNICIPAL cities, Italian, i. 171 note ŅAISSUS, battle of between Claudius
M.; privileges of, 173.
and the Goths, ii. 7; birthplace of
MUNUZA (or Abu Nosa), rebel Moor, Constantine, 109.
quelled by Abderame, vi. 386. Naples, account of, v. 132; capture of
MURATORI, İtalian annalist, account of, by Belisarius, 133.
and list of his works, viii. 266, note. Naples, kingdom of, a fief of the Holy
MURCI, origin and meaning of that See, vii. 110; monarchy of how com-
term, ii. 324, note.
posed, 114 ; dukes of, ib.; conquered
MURDER punished capitally under by Charles of Anjou, brother of St.
Charlemagne, iv. 368.
MURRA, or Chinese porcelain, iv. 79, NAPOLI DI ROMANIA, or NauPLIA, vii.
Mursa, or Essek, remarkable bridge | NAPHTHA, the basis of the Greek fire,
at, ii. 381 and note ; battle of between vi. 382 and note M.
Constantius and Magnentius, 381; NARBONNE, province of, i. 156; acquired
great slaughter at, 382.
by the Visigoths, iv. 287; conquered
MURSA, Tatar chiefs so called, iii. 301. by the Moslems, vi. 386 and note S.
Musa the Saracen defeats the Greeks Narses, king of Persia, ii. 81 ; defeated
at Utica, vi. 351; takes and by Galerius, 84; embassy to Diocle-
destroys Carthage, ib. and note tian and Galerius, 85; treaty, 86.
S.; finally reduces Africa, 352; Narses, Persian ambassador from Sapor
repulsed from Ceuta, 355 ; cor to Constantius II., ii. 404 ; conciliat.
respondence with count Julian, ib.; ing behaviour, 405.
sends an expedition into Spain, ib.; NARSEs the ennuch, marches to the
lands at Algezire and completes the relief of John the Sanguinary, v.
conquest of Spain, 360; ignomini 148; dissension with Belisarius,
ously punishes his lieutenant, Tarik, 150; recalled to Constantinople, ib..
361; account of his penetrating into appointed to command an expedition
France, ib. and note ; probable origin against Italy, 230; character, ib.; a
of the story, ib. note S.; his ambi Pers-Armenian, ib. note_S.; march
tious projects, 363; disgrace and re from Ravenna towards Rome, 232;
turn to Damascus, ib. ; ignominious defeats Totila at Tagina, 233; enters
punishment and death, 364.
Rome, 235; besieges Cumæ, ib.; de-
Music, much cultivated by the later feats and slays Teias at Mount Lac-
Romans, iv. 82 ; instruments of, ib. tarius, 236; reduces the Ostrogoths
MUSONIAN, prætorian præfect, negoti to submission or exile, ib. ; takes
ates with the Persians, ii. 404.
Lucca, 237; defeats the Franks and
MUSTAPAA, reputed son of Bajazet, Alemanni under Bucelin at Casi-
history of, viii. 66.
linum, 240; enters Rome with mili-
Mota, battle of between the Moslems
tary pomp, ib.; administers the
kingdom of Italy as first exarch of Nonnosus, the ambassador of Justo
Ravenna, 241 ; vigorous government,
nian, v. 208.
ib.; the Romans complain of his NEHAVEND, decisive victory of the
avarice and oppression, 336; recalled Saracens at over the Persiang, vi.
by Justin, ib. ; insulting message of 296.
the empress Sophia, ib. ; invites the NEMESIANUS, contends in poetry with
Lombards into Italy, ib.; accepts the Numerian, ii. 61, note.
repentance of the Romans, 337; NENNIUS, his account of the Saxon in-
death at Rome, ib.
vasion of Britain, iv. 387 and note,
Narses, the Persian, general of the NEPTHALITES (Epthalites) or White
emperor Maurice, restores Chosroes Huns, defeat and slay Perozes, king
II. to the throne of Persia, v. 373 ; of Persia, v. 85; conquered by the
revolt and death, 391.
Nasiræus, Codex, sacred book of the Nepos, Julius, marries a niece of the
Christians of St. John, vi. 214, note empress Verina, iv. 294 ; succeeds
his uncle Marcellinus in the sove-
NATION8, or Ditch, battle of the between reignty of Dalmatia, ib.; made
Abu Sophian and Mahomet, vi. 250. emperor of the West by Leo the
NATURAL CHILDREN, right of legiti Great, ib.; flies to Dalmatia on the
mating, v. 300; when first conferred, approach of Orestes, 295; assassi-
ib, note G.; incapable of inheriting, nated by Glycerius, ib.
ib, note M.
NEPOTIAN, nephew of Constantine, re-
NAULOBATUS, chief of the Heruli, made volt of, ii. 383; assumes the purple
a consular, i. 401.
at Rome, ib. ; slain, ib.
NAVIGATION, Roman, described, i. 189.
NERO, the last of the Julian line, i.
Navy, Roman, how stationed, i. 154 ; 208; conspiracy against, 210; cha-
Byzantine, vii. 28; its tactics, 29; racterized, 217; wished to abolish
fleet for the reduction of Crete, ib. taxes, 301 ; accused as the incendiary
NAZARENE cburch, ii. 158; trans of Rome, ii. 233; evades the charge
planted to Pella, 159; Gibbon's error by punishing the Christians, ib.;
respecting the date of that event, ib. reasons why he did not accuse the
note M. ; renounces the Mosaic law, Jews, 236.
ib.; the remnant that refuses called Nerva, his character, i. 213; adopts
Ebionites, 160; question as to its Trajan, ib.; his gentle admiristra-
orthodoxy, iii. 48 and note.
tion, ii. 240.
NAZARIUS, his description of divine NESTOR, Russian annalist, account of,
warriors who assisted Constantine, vii. 81 and note G.
NESTORIAN controversy, iv. 342.
Nazianzos, site of, ii. 366, note. NESTORIANS, inconsistency of their
NEANDER, his work on Julian, iii, 134, opinions, vi. 41, note; chiefly coe-
fined to Persia, 46; missions of the
NEBRIDIUA, prætorian præfect in Gaul, 48; among the Tatars, 49 and note
alone opposes Julian's enterprise M. ; their numbers under the caliphs,
against Constantius, üi. 114; Julian 50; modern sects of, 51 ; of Mala-
rescues him from the fury of the bar, their primitive Christianity and
persecution by the Portuguese, 52.
NECTARIUS, successor of Gregory at NESTORIUS, patriarch of Constanti-
Constantinople, his baptism delays nople, his persecuting zeal, vi. 15;
his consecration, iii. 372.
his heresy, 16; condemned by Cyril
NEGED, district of Arabia, vi. 198. patriarch of Alexandria, and by
NEGRA, city of Yemen, Christians of pope Celestine, 17; condemned and
persecuted by Dunaan prince of the degraded by the Council of Ephesus,
Homerites, v. 207 and note M. ; site 19; exiled, 23; persecuted, 24;
of that town, ib, note.
death, ib. ; tradition respecting his
VEGROES, African, their moral and in sepulchre, ib.
tellectual character, iii. 277.
NETHERLANDS, number of protestants
Negus of Abyssinia, his reception of i
executed in the, ii. 285,
NEvitta, general of Julian's cavalry, NICETAS, expedition against Phocas, v.
ii. 115; made a judge at Chalcedon, 388; marries a daughter of Hera-
126 ; consul, 130.
bh Newton, Sir Isaac, his theological cri Nicetas, Greek senator and historian,
ticisms, vi. 9, note; his average term his adventures during the sack of
of a reign, vi. 132.
Constantinople by the Latins, vil.
NICE burnt by the Goths, i. 399; ap 315; his birth and promotion, 317,
pointed for the election of an em note.
peror, iii. 232; council of, 39, 56 ; NICETIUS, bishop of Trèves, exhorta-
its canons, vi. 46, note; second coun tion to Justinian, vi. 41.
cil of pronounces in favour of the NICHOLAS I., pope, constituted judge
worship of images, 164; becomes the between Photius and Ignatius,
capital of the Seljukian dynasty of patriarchs of Constantinople, vii.
Roum, vii. 170; besieged by the 280.
crusaders, 211; surrenders to Alex NICHOLAS III., pope, transfers the
ius Comnenus, 212; empire of esta kingdom of the Sicilies from the
blished by Theodore Lascaris, 326 ; house of Anjou to that of Aragon,
groundless panic at respecting the vii. 379.
Tatars, viii. 20; taken by the Turks NICHOLAS V., pope, his origin, cha-
under Orchan, 23.
racter, and zeal in encouraging learn-
NICEPHORIUM, or Callinicum, town of, ing, viii. 116; founds the Vatican
library, ib.; foretells the fall of
NICEPHORUB I., great treasurer, deposes Constantinople, 153; restores and
Irene and ascends the throne of adorns Rome, 257; crowns the
Constantinople, vi. 87; character and Emperor Frederick Ill, of Austria,
reign, 88 and notes M. and S.; sends 258.
an embassy to Charlemagne, 180; NICHOLAS III., marquis of Este, viii.
reception of his ambassadors by Ha 98 and note.
run al Rashid, 405; conquered by NICOMEDIA taken by the Goths, i. 398;
that caliph, 406 ; slain in an expedi burnt, 399; residence of Maximian
tion against the Bulgarians, vii. 67 ; and Diocletian, ii. 91; embellished
his skull made into a cup, ib.
by the latter, ib. ; church of, de-
NICEPHORUS II., Phocas, emperor of stroyed, 269; taken by the Turks
Constantinople, his character,vi. 104; under Orchan, viii. 23.
intrigue with Theophano, widow of NICOPOLIS besieged by the Goths, i.
Romanus II., ib.; assumes the dia 382; belonged to Paula, pupil of
dem, 105 ; murdered by John Zi Jerom, iv. 75; battle of, between
misces, 106; reduced Crete, 424 ; Sigismond, king of Hungary, and
eastern conquests, 425; mostly tran the sultan Bajazet, viii. 32.
NIEBUHR, father of the historian, his
NICEPHORUS III., Botaniates, emperor work on Arabia the best, vi. 203,
of Constantinople, revolts from Mi note M.
chael VII. and assumes the purple, | NIEBUHR, on the census, i. 171, note
vi. 115; Michael VII. ablicates in M.; his opinion on the Philopatris,
his favour, 116.
ii. 55, note.
Charge NICEPHORUS Bryennius, revolts from NIGER, Pescennius, governor of Syria,
Michael VII. and
the his character, i. 247; assumes the
purple, vi. 115 ; rejected by the Con imperial dignity, 248; vanquished
stantinopolitans, 10.; vanquished by by Severus, 255; Gibbon corrected,
ib, note W.; death, 257.
NICEPHORUS, son of Constantine Co Nika sedition at Constantinople, v. 51;
pronymus, conspires, with his four
brothers, against Leo IV. and his NILE, navigation improved by Probus,
son Constantine, vi. 85; tragic fate, ii. 51; rise of the, iii. 421 and note;
vi. 331, note; canal to the Red Sea,
NICEPHORUB, patriarch and chronicler, 339 and note S.; statue of the, disa
account of, v. 391, note.
covered at Rome, viii. 286.
2 c 2
NINE, reverence of the Tatars for that
number, viii. 44, note.
NINEVEH, battle on the site of, between
the Romans under Heraclius and the
Persians, v. 408.
NINUs, date of his accession, i, 331,
NISIbis, capture of, i. 403 and note M.
Nisibis, negociations respecting, ii. 86;
described, 372; third siege of by
Sapor, ib.; raised, 373; surrendered
to the Persians by Jovian, iii. 219;
who expels the citizens, 124.
Nitria, slaughter of the monks at,
under Valens, iii. 253; monasteries
of, iv. 307.
Nizam, vizir of the sultans Alp Arslan
and Malek Shah, his learning and
virtues, vii. 166; assassinated, 167
and note M.
Noah, a prophet, vi, 225.
NOBATÆ, or Nubians, Diocletian's
treaty with, ii. 77.
NOBILISSIMUS, title invented for Hanni-
balianus, ii. 355.
Noga, Mongol chief, marries the
natural daughter of Michael Palæo-
logus, viii. 19.
NOGARET, William of, minister of
Philip the Fair of France, seizes and
imprisons pope Boniface VIII, at
Anagni, viii. 215.
Nogent, near Soissons, field of battle
between Clovis and Syagrius, iv.
Nola besieged by Alaric, iv. 110.
NONNOSUS, embassy of from Justinian
to the Negus of Abyssinia, v. 207;
journey and reception, 208.
NORICUM described, i. 158.
NORMANs, their expeditions stimulated
by the conquests of Charlemagne,
vi. 177; occasion of their invading
Italy, vii. 102 and note M.; their
language, ib, note; serve against the
Saracens in Sicily, 105; conquer
Apulia, ib.; their character, 106;
tyranny in Apulia, 107; Italian
conquests, 114 ; conquest of Sicily,
117; extinction of the, 145.
NOTORIA, official despatch received by
the emperors from the frumentarii,
Notitia, when published, ii. 303, notes.
NOUREDDIN, sultan of Aleppo, his re-
capture of Damascus and other con-
quests, vii. 250: character, ib. and
note; attempts upon and conquest
of Egypt, 251-253; deposes the
Fatimite caliphs, 17.
NovaTIANS, Constantine's edict in
favour of the, üi. 42; of Paphlagonia
vanquish the legions sent against
them by Macedonius, bishop of
Novels of Justinian, account of, v.
NOVGOROD, Russian capital, vii. 84.
NUBIA, whether conquered by Trajan,
i. 143, note S.; converted to Christi-
anity, vi, 63; becomes Mahometan,
NUMERALS called Arabic or Indian,
used by the Greeks and Latins, vi.
378, note; borrowed by the Arabs
from the latter, ib.
NUMERIAN, son of Carus, ü, 53; em-
peror with Carinus, 56; retreats
from Persia, ib. ; character, 61;
Numidia, limits of under Augustus, i.
162; Christians condemned to the
mines of, ii. 245, note.
NUSHIRVAN, v. Chosroes.
NYMPHÆUM, residence of the emperors
of Nice, vii. 367 and note.
Oak, synod of the, iv. 154 ; condemins
and deposes Chrysostom, 155.
Oasis of Libya described, iv. 142, note ;
vi. 23, note and note M.
Oath by the head of the emperor, iv.
97 and note.
OBEDIENCE, passive, of the Christians,
favourably regarded by Constantine,
OBEIDOLLAH, governor of Cufa, insults
the dying Hosein, vi. 280.
OBELISK of the temple of the Sun,
transferred to Rome by Constantius
II., ii. 400; whether now extant,
401, note; several transported to
Rome by Augustus and his succes-
OBLATIONS, origin of, ii. 197.
OBLIGATIONS, Roman law respecting,
OCKLEY, author of the History of the
Saracens, his literary merits and up-
worthy fate, vi. 377, note.