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OCTAI, son of Gingis, khan of the Mon-
gols and Tartars, viii. 10.
OOTAVIA, tragedy of Seneca, character-
ized, iv. 86, note.
OCTAvLAN, son of Alberic, and grand-
son of Marozia, becomes pope John
XII., vi. 185.
OCTAviaNUs, name of Augustus, i.208.
ODENATHUs of Palmyra, harasses Sa-
por's army, i. 406; named Augustus
by the senate, 411; bequeaths the
government of the East to Zenobia,
ib. ; family, ii. 20, note ; assassi-
nated by his nephew Maconius, 21.
ODEUM restored by Herodes, i. 183 and
note W.; Gibbon's mistake respect-
ing, corrected, 184, note S.
ODIN, descendants of, i. 360, note; his-
tory of, 377; expedition of examined,
ib. notes; god and warrior how con-
founded, 378, note M.; flight of
from Azoph to Sweden rejected, viii.
273, note.
ODoACER, son of Edecon, assumes the
command of the barbarian confede-
rates in Italy, iv. 297 ; history of,
298; prediction of St. Severinus, ib.;
whether he assumed the title of
king, ib. and note M.; character and
reign, 302; acquires Dalmatia, 303;
vanquishes the Rugians, ib.; re-
signs to Euric all the provinces be-
yond the Alps, 345; thrice defeated
by Theodoric, v. 9; besieged by him
in Ravenna, 10; capitulation and
death, ib.
OFFICERs, Roman Military, their cha-
racter, i. 146; Constantine's regula-
tions respecting, ii. 319.
OGoRs, or Varchonites, conquered by
the Turks, v. 176, and note S.
OHUD, battle of, between the Moslems
and Koreishites, vi. 249.
OIL, distribution of, at Rome, iv. 85.
OLGA, princess of Russia, her conver-
sion to Christianity, vii. 92.
QLIVE, cultivation of the, i. 190.
OLMUTz defended against the Mongols
by Stenberg, viii. 14, note M.
OLYBRIUs, history of, iv. 292; married
to Placidia, daughter of Valentinian,
ib.; proposed as emperor by Ricimer,
ib.; established by the capture of
Rome, 293; death, 294.
OLYMPIAs, wife of Arsaces Tiranus,
iii. 278; confounded by Gibbon with
Pharandsem, ib. note M.


OLYMPIC games at Antioch, iii. 168.
OLYMPIODORUs, his account of the mag-
nificence of Rome, iv. 74.
OLYMPIUs, the P. of exhorts the
Alexandrians to defend their idols,
iii. 418.
OLYMPIUs, an officer of the palace, ex-
cites the suspicions of Honorius
against Stilicho, iv. 60; entices the
latter from his sanctuary and causes
him to be beheaded, 61, sqq.; perse-
cutes and tortures his family and
adherents, 62; his disgrace, adven-
tures, and ignominious death, 95.
OMAN, district of Persia, vi. 198.
OMAR, caliph, conversion to Mahome-
tanism, vi. 240; names Abubeker as
caliph, 270; succeeds him, 271; assas-
sination, ib.; date of, ib. note S.;
his abstinence and humility, 288;
conquests, 289; founds Bassora, 293;
his division of the spoil of Madayn,
295; his journey to receive the capi-
tulation of Jerusalem, 320; inter-
view with the patriarch Sophronius,
321; founds a mosque on the site of
the temple of Solomon, ib. and note.
OMAR II., caliph, character, vi. 380 and
mote M.
OMAYAH of Tayef, contemporary of
Mahomet, preached doctrines similar
to his, vi. 224, note S.
OMMIYAH, family of, elevated to the
caliphate, vi. 277; character of the
princes of that house, 288; reduction
of its dominions by the revolt of Ara-
bia and Persia, 377; unpopular ex-
cept in Syria, 390; fall of 392;
massacre of the Ommiades at Da-
mascus, 393; their dynasty esta-
blished in Spain, 394.
OMNIPOTENCE, how limited by Estius
and Bull, iii. 60, note.
ONAGRI, warlike engines so called, v.
139 and note.
ONEGESIUs, architect of Attila, iv.203.
OPTATUS, brother-in-law of Constan-
tine, murdered by Constantius II.,
ii. 365.
ORACLEs, revived credit of, ii. 266 and
note; that of Apollo at Miletus con-
sulted by Diocletian, ib.; abolished
by Corstantine, iii. 98.
ORCHAN, son of the caliph Othman,
takes Prusa, viii. 23 ; conquest of
Bithynia, ib.; marries Theodora,
daughter of the emperor John Can-


tacuzene, 26; treaty with the em-
press Anne respecting the sale of
captives, 27; death, 28.
, ORESTEs, praefect of Egypt, assaulted
by the monks of Nitria, vi. 13.
ORESTEs, the patrician, and commander
of the barbarian confederates, am-
bassador of Attila to Theodosius the
Younger, iv. 209; second embassy,
217; deposes Nepos, 295; history of,
296; makes his son Augustulus em-
peror of the West, ib.; put to death
by Odoacer, 297.
ORIENTALs, their insensibility, i. 218.
ORIGEN, how he escaped temptation, ii.
187 and note ; his account of the
number of Christians, 214; his tes-
timony respecting the martyrs, 245
and 246, note G.; attempts to con-
vert Mamaea, 259; theological cha-
racter and opinions of, vi. 39; works
condemned as heretical by Justinian,
ORLANDo (Rutland or Rolando), death
of, vi. 171, note.
ORLEANs, besieged by Attila, iv. 232;
relieved by Aëtius and Theodoric,
ORMUSD, principle of good, i. 334.
ORMUz, city of, its history, viii. 44,
OROSIUs, account of the defeat of Ra-
dagaisus, iv. 48.
ORTHodoxy and Arianism, their moral
effects contrasted, iii. 369.
ORTHoGRUL, father of the caliph Oth-
man or Osman, his pastoral reign,
viii. 21; death, 22, note S.
ORTOR, hereditary emir of Jerusalem,
vii. 177.
Osmo (Auximum) reduced by Beli-
sarius, v. 152.
Osiris, Egyptian deity, supplanted by
Serapis, iii. 417; identical with Bac-
chus, 418, note S.
Osius, bishop of Cordova, his ascendant
over Constantine the Great, iii. 18
and note; presides in the cottncil
of Nice, 64; supports Athanasius
against Constantius II., 80; a con-
demnation of that prelate extorted
from him, ib.
Osmanlis, correct name of the Otto-
mans, viii. 21.
Osset, or Julia Constantia in Baetica,
miraculous fonts at, iv. 339; site of,
ib, note.


OssiaN's poems composed by a Cale-
donian, i. 141, note; whether correct
in the account of a campaign be-
tween Fingal and the emperor Seve-
rus, 266 and note; his dispute with
a foreign missionary, ii. 213, note.
OSRHoENE reduced by Trajan, i. 143.
OSRHoENE, kingdom of, reduced by the
Romans, i. 342; duration of, 343,
OSTIA, port of, i. 189; described, iv.
97; taken by Alaric, 98; an epis-
copal city, ib, and note S.; present
state of, viii. 210.
OSTRogoths AND WISIGOTHs, first oc-
currence of their names, i. 379, note
S. (v. Goths).
OTAs the satrap, ii. 80.
OTHMAN, secretary of Mahomet, revises
the Koran, vi. 228 and note S.;
elected to the caliphate, 271 ; nomi-
nated by Abd Errahman, 272, note
S.; sect of “the return" sought
his dethronement, ib.; view of
his reign and character, 273 ; re-
bellion of the Charegites, ib. ; death,
OTHMAN, caliph, character and reign,
viii. 21 ; his real name was
ib. note S.; date of his invasion of
the territory of Nicomedia, 22.
Otho I. or GREAT, king of Germany,
genealogy, vi. 178 .# note ; restores
the Western empire, 179; fixes the
imperial crown in the German nation,
ib.; obtains the nomination of the
popes, 182; campaign against and
victory over the Hungarians, vii. 78.
OTHo II., emperor of the West, marries
Theophano, daughter of Romanus II.,
emperor of Constantinople, vi. 104;
punishes pope John XII. and the
revolt of the Romans, 185; accused
of the treacherous murder of the
senators, ib.
OTHo III. narrowly escapes the fury of
the Romans, vi. 186; poisored by
the widow of Crescentius, ib.
OTHo of Freysingen, bishop and his-
torian, leads a body of German cru-
saders through Anatolia, vii. 244,
note S.; nobleness of his family, viii.
205, note. R d
OTHo DE LA Roche, duke of
and Thebes, vii. 384. Athens
OTRANTo, taken and sacked by the
Turks, viii. 185.


oil OTTOMAN empire, rise and progress of, gered last in Asia Minor, vi. 37;
is viii. 20; works on, ib. and notes M. instances of in the fifteenth sentury,
a and S.; its true aera, 23; its unity viii. 119 and note.

o: restored, 69; hereditary succession | PAGANs, their increased zeal against
is: and merits of the Ottoman princes, Christianity, ii. 265; growth and
1. i. 72; their obscure origin, ib. superstition among, ib.; abandon the
o OvID, exile of, i. 220, note; ii. 358; study of philosophy, 266; of Rome,

description of the Getae and Sarma-
tians, ib.; character of his epistles
from Pontus, ib. note; his Sarmatians

their joy at the approach of Rada-
gaisus, iv. 47 and note M.; laws
against relaxed after the removal of

* * probably Jazygae, 359. the minister Olympius, 95.
Oxford, university of, first teachers of PAINTING, successfully cultivated by
o Greek at, viii. 117, note. the Italians of the sixth century, v.
OxyBINCHUs, city of, seat of Christian 358.
ra orthodoxy, iv. 308. PALACE of Caracalla and Geta, i. 267,
o note; palaces of Justinian described,
- v. 77.
P. PALA:olog1, genealogy of the, vii. 362,
yo and 363 note S.; extinction of the

2' PACATUs, his panegyric on Theodosius
- the Great, iii. 387.

family of, viii. 180.
PALFologus, Michael, guardian and

. .
o: PAchomius, abbot, number of his fol- colleague of John, emperor of Nice,
o: lowers and monasteries, iv. 307. negociations with the emperor Baldwin
o PACTs, obligation of, v. 312 and note S. II., vii.343; alliance with the Genoese,
o, PAEDERASTY, how punished by the 344; recovers Constantinople, 346
o Scatinian law, v. 322; made capital by and 367; family and character, 362;
o the Christian emperors, ib.; torture dexterous evasion of a fiery ordeal,
added by Justinian, 323; charge of 364; great duke and governor of
o used as an instrument of tyranny, Nice, 365; administration, ib.; as-
* ib. and notes. sumes the title of despot, and then
so PAETUs, AElius, his ‘Tripartite,’ the of emperor, 366; triumphal entry
o: oldest work of Jurisprudence, vi. into Constantinople, 368; blinds and
o 274. banishes his ward John Lascaris,
;4 PAGAN, derivation and revolutions of 369; excommunication by and inter-
o the term, iii. 100, notes; true ety- view with the patriarch Arsenius,
o mology uncertain, ib. note S. 369, 370; conquests, 372; nego-
o PAGANISM, not suppressed by Con- ciations with popes Urban IV. and
- * stantine, iii. 97 and note; edict of Gregory X., and union with the Latin
o Constantius II. against, 98 ; not church, ib.; persecutes the Greeks,
**! enforced,99; lasted during the reigns 374; fortifies Constantinople, 376;
o of the sons of Constantine, ib.; its assists the revolt of Sicily, 378;
o ruin suspended by the division of the surprised by the Tatars, viii. 19.
\!! Christians, 100; its destruction under | PALFologus, Michael II., associated in
o Theodosius the Great described, 406; the empire by his father Andronicus,
o state of at Rome, 407; condemned vii. 390; death, 391. -

by a majority of the senate, 411; PALAEoloGUs, John, son of Andronicus

abandoned by the Roman citizens,
412; M. Beugnot's account, 413,
note M.; restored by Julian, 147;
who attempts to reform it, 149; fall
of under Jovian, 230; final and abso-
lute edict of Theodosius against,422;
long maintained in the rural districts,
ib. note M.; pagan conformers, 424;
obtained civil and military honours
under Theodosius, 425; last vestiges
of paganism, 426 and note M.; lin-

the Younger, takes up arms against
his guardian the emperor Cantacu-
zene, vii. 403; defeat and flight to
the isle of Tenedos, ib.; character
and reign, viii. 35; deposed and im-
prisoned, ib. ; divides the empire
with his eldest son and grandson, 86;
treaty with pope Innocent VI., 81;
visits pope to. W. at Rome, 82;
acknowledges the pope's supremacy
and the double procession of the Holy



Ghost, ib.; negociates with John

Hawkwood, 83; arrested for debt at
Venice, ib.
PALAEoLogus, John II., his reign, viii.
72; Turkish tribute, ib.; divorces
nis wife and marries the princess of
Trebizond, 91; converts a Jew, ib.;
embarks on the pope's galleys, 95;
triumphal entry of Venice, 97; at-
tends the synods of Ferrara and Flo-
rence, 98, 99; effects a reunion with
the Latin church, 103; treaty with
the pope, ib.; death, 139.
PALEólógus, Manuel, second son of
John, receives the imperial crown,
viii. 35; deposed and imprisoned
with his father, ib.; restoration and
civil wars with his cousin, 36; hu-
miliating treaty with the sultan Ba-
jazet, 37; obtains assistance from
France, ib.; abdicates in favour of
the prince of Selymbria, ib.; restored,
70; alliance with Soliman, son of
Bajazet, ib.; with Mahomet, ib.;
dismisses Mustapha, reputed son
of Bajazet, from custody, 71;
death, 72; his visit to and favour-
able reception at the court of
France, 84; to England, 85; negocia-
tions with pope Martin V., 89; his
double dealing, ib.; private motives,
o ; death, 91; history of his sons,
PALEoLogus, Constantine, receives the
imperial crown at Sparta, viii. 140;
killed in the storm of Constantinople
by the Turks, 171.
PALEoLogus, Andrew, son of Thomas,
despot of the Morea, sells his claim
to the empires of Constantinople and
Trebizond to Charles VIII. of France,
viii. 182 and note.
PALEOLOGUs, Andronicus, son of John,
forms a conspiracy with Sauzes, son
of Amurath I., to murder their
fathers, viii. 35; his punishment,
ib.; raised to the throne on the de-
position of his father, ib.; divides
the empire with his father, 36.
PALEoLogus, Demetrius, attempts to
seize the throne on the death of John
II., viii. 139; despot of the Morea,
history of after the fall of Constanti-
nople, 180; deposed by Mahomet II.,
who marries his daughter, 181; dies
in a convent, 182.
PALEoLogus, George, seizes the navy


of Nicephcrus Botaniates, vi. 117;
defends Durazzo against the Nor-
mans, vii. 121.
PALEoLogus, Thomas, despot of the
Morea, history of after the fall of
Constantinople, viii. 180; takes re-
fuge at Rome, 182; fate of his family,
PALEoLogus, Manuel, son of Thomas,
despot of the Morea, accepts the pro-
tection of Mahomet II., viii. 183.
PALEoLogus, Michael, lieutenant of the
emperor Manuel, his conquests in
Italy, vii. 138.
PALAMAs, Gregory, monk of Athos, his
doctrine concerning the light of
mount Thabor, vii. 405. --
PALANDERs, or horse-transports, vii.
298, 301, note.
PALATINEs, what troops so called, ii
321; how corrupted, ib.
PALERMo, taken by Belisarius by strata-
gem, v. 129.
PALESTINE described, i. 160; Gibbon's
opinion respecting its fertility ex-
amined, ib., notes G. and M.; coll-
quered by Chosroes II., v. 392; po-
ulation of in the time of king
avid, vii. 230, note and note M.
PALESTRINA, or PRENESTE, seat of the
Colonna family, destroyed by pose
Boniface VIII., viii. 222.
PALLADIUM, attempt on by Elagabalus,
i. 281, note; probable account of, iii.
407, note.
PALLADIUs, the notary, commissioned
by Valentinian to inquire into the
state of Africa, iii. 272; his corrup-
tion and treachery, 273.
PALLADIUs, son of the emperor Pe-
tronius Maximus, marries the daugh-
ter of Valentinian III., iv. 255.
PALLAs, his fortune, i. 228, note.
PALMA, A. Corn., lieutenant of Trajan,
conquers part of Arabia, i. 143, no”
S.; subdues Bostra and Petra, Vi.
202, note.
PALMYRA described, ii. 23; besieged
by Aurelian, 24; ruins discovered,
ib. note; surrenders, 25; revolts,
26; destroyed by Aurelian, ib.
PAMBo, the monk, sublime answer to
Melania, iv. 316, note. -
PAMPHRonius, Roman patrician, his
embassy to Constantinople, v. 346.
PANDECTs, or Digest of Justinian, com;
pilation of, v. 283; etymology 9


the word pandects, ib. note ; merits
and defects of the, 284; antinomies
of with the Code, 285; emblemata
or forgeries of, ib. and note ; only one
MS. of, 286 and note; story of its
discovery, 287 and note M.; colla-
tions and editions, ib. and note S.
PAN.HYPERSEBASTos, title invented by
Alexius Comnenus, vii. 18.
PANNONIA, or Hungary, described, i.
158; conquest of, 248; reduced by
Charlemagne, vi. 175.
PANNONIANs, their character, i. 248.
BANSOPHIA, v. Irene.
PANTHEoN at Rome, consecrated as a
Christian church by pope Boniface
IV., iii. 416 and note; viii. 274 and
note; plundered of its bronze tiles
by the emperor Constans, 275.
PANTOMIMEs, Roman, described, iv. 87;
extensive knowledge required of, ib.
PAPENcordt, Dr. Felix, his Life of
Rienzi, viii. 229, note M.
PAPER, manufacture of from linen in-
troduced from Samarcand, vi. 300;
imported into Samarcand from China,
ib. note; paper MSS., ancient in the
Escurial, ib.
PAPINLAN, praetorian praefect, i. 261 ;
his noble conduct and execution,
271; Gibbon corrected, ib. note W.;
his superior wisdom and authority as
a jurist, v. 279.
PAPIRIUS compiled the first code or
digest, v. 259, note and note S.
PARA, son of Arsaces Tiranus, shares
the throne of Iberia with Aspacuras,
iii. 279; his adventures, 280, sqq.;
assassinated by count Trajan, 281.
PARAbol ANI, or visitors of the sick, at
Alexandria, iii. 32; account of, vi.
12, note.
PARADISE, or Persian garden, v. 107,
note; Mahomet's described, vi. 236.
PARIs in the time of Julian, ii. 424;
origin of its present name, 425, note;
Roman therma at, probable remains
of Julian's palace, iii. 107, note ;
saved from the Huns by St. Gene-
viève, iv. 232.
PARRICIDE, singular punishment of
among the Romans, v. 316 and note;
first at Rome, 317, note.
PARSEEs, modern, their views, i. 335,
PARTHIA subdued by Trajan, i. 143;


by Artaxerxes, 331; its government
resembled feudalism, 339; wars witn
Rome recapitulated, 340.
PARTHOLANUs, the giant, i. 353, note.
PASCAL, niece of, saved by a prickle of
the holy crown, vii. 342 and note.
PASCHAL II., pope, his civil war with
the Romans, viii. 192.
PASCHAL CHRONICLE, its merits, v. 397,
note; when composed, ib.
PASITIGRIs, or Shat-el-Arab, iii. 194,
and perpetuity of peculiar to the Ro-
mans, v. 291; exception, ib. note M.;
gradual limitations of, 292.
PATRAs, siege of by the Slavonians and
Saracens, vii. 8.
PATRICLAN of Rome, title of equivalen;
to exarch of Ravenna, vi. 158; after
the revolt of Italy bestowed on
Charles Martel and his posterity, ib.
PATRICIANs, Roman, ii. 308; nearly
extinct in A.U.C. 800, 309 and note,
title revived by Constantine, 309;
but with an altered meaning, 310
under the Greek empire, vi. 157.
PATRICIATE, Roman, restoration and
abolition of, viii. 201, and note S.
PATRICK, tutelar saint of Ireland, name
of whence derived, iv. 300, note.
PATRIPASSIANs, iii. 47, note M.; Sa-
bellians so called, 56, note.
PAUL, St., his Epistle to the Romans,
ii. 196, note M.
PAUL of Samosata, story of, ii. 262;
degraded from the episcopal cha-
racter by a council of bishops, 263;
the sentence enforced by Aurelian,
ib.; protected by Zenobia, ib. and
note M. ; Constantine's edict against
his followers, iii. 41.
PAUL, orthodox bishop of Constanti-
nople, contest with Macedonius, iii.
90; persecutions and death, ib.
PAUL of Cilicia defends the mole of
Hadrian against Totila, v. 227.
PAUL, the civilian, juridical authority
conferred on by Theodosius II., v.
PAUL, the hermit, Jerome's legend of,
ii. 244, note.
PAUL of Tanis, patriarch of Alexandria,
expelled on a charge of murder, vi.
60; bribes for his return, ib.
PAULA, spiritual pupil of Jerom, her
illustrious descent, iv. 71; proprie-

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