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OCTAI, son of Gingis, khan of the Mon OLYMPIC games at Antioch, iii. 168.
gols and Tartars, viii. 10.
OLYMPIODORUS, his account of the mag-
OOTAVIA, tragedy of Seneca, character nificence of Rome, iv. 74.
ized, iv. 86, note.
OLYMPIUS, the philosopher, exhorts the
Octavian, son of Alberic, and grand Alexandrians to defend their idols,
son of Marozia, becomes pope John üi, 418.
XII., vi. 185.
OLYMPIUS, an officer of the palace, ex-
OCTAVIANUS, name of Augustus, i. 208. cites the suspicions of Honorius
ODENATHUS of Palmyra, barasses Sa against Stilicho, iv. 60; entices the
por's army, i. 406; named Augustus latter from his sanctuary and causes
by the senate, 411; bequeaths the him to be beheaded, 61, 899.; perse,
government of the East to Zenobia, cutes and tortures his family and
ib.; family, ii. 20, note ; assassi adherents, 62 ; his disgrace, adven-
nated by his nephew Mæonius, 21. tures, and ignominious death, 95.
ODEUM restored by Herodes, i. 183 and Oman, district of Persia, vi. 198.
note W.; Gibbon's mistake respecto | OMAR, caliph, conversion to Mahome-
ing, corrected, 184, note S.
tanism, vi. 240; names Abubeker as
Odin, descendants of, i. 360, note; his caliph, 270; succeeds him, 271; assas -
tory of, 377; expedition of examined, sination, ib.; date of, ib. note S.;
ib. notes ; god and warrior how con his abstinence and humility, 288;
founded, 378, note M.; flight of conquests, 289; founds Bassora, 293;
from Azoph to Sweden rejected, viii. his division of the spoil of Madayn,
295 ; his journey to receive the capi-
ODOACER, son of Edecon, assumes the tulation of Jerusalem, 320; inter-
command of the barbarian confede view with the patriarch Sophronius,
rates in Italy, iv. 297 ; history of, 321; founds a mosque on the site of
298 ; prediction of St. Severinus, ib.; the temple of Solomon, ib. and note.
whether he assumed the title of Omar II., caliph, character, vi. 380 and
king, ib. and note M.; character and note M.
reign, 302; acquires Dalmatia, 303; OMayau of Tayef, contemporary of
vanquishes the Rugians, ib.; re Mahomet, preached doctrines similar
signs to Euric all the provinces be to his, vi, 224, note S.
yond the Alps, 345 ; thrice defeated OMMIYAH, family of, elevated to the
by Theodoric, v. 9; besieged by him caliphate, vi. 277 ; character of the
in Ravenna, 10; capitulation and princes of that house, 288; reduction
of its dominions by the revolt of Ara-
OFFICERS, Roman Military, their cha bia and Persia, 377; unpopular ex-
racter, i. 146; Constantine's regula cept in Syria, 390; fall of, 392 ;
tions respecting, ii. 319.
massacre of the Ommiades at Da-
OGORS, or Varchonites, conquered by mascus, 393; their dynasty esta-
the Turks, v. 176, and note S.
blished in Spain, 394.
OHUD, battle of, between the Moslems OMNIPOTENCE, how limited by Estius
and Koreishites, vi. 249.
and Bull, iri. 60, note.
Oil, distribution of, at Rome, iv. 85. ONAGRI, warlike engines so called, v.
OLGA, princess of Russia, her conver 139 and note.
sion to Christianity, vii. 92.
ONEGESIUS, architect of Attila, iv. 203.
OLIVE, cultivation of the, i. 190.
OPTATUS, brother-in-law of Constan-
OLMUtZ defended against the Mongols tine, murdered by Constantius II.,
by Stenberg, viii. 14, note M.
(LYBRIUS, history of, iv. 292; married ORACLES, revived credit of, ii. 266 and
to Placidia, daughter of Valentinian, note; that of Apollo at Miletus con-
ib. ; proposed as emperor by Ricimer, sulted by Diocletian, ib.; abolished
ib.; established by the capture of by Corstantine, iii. 98.
Rome, 293 ; death, 294.
ORCHAN, son of the caliph Othman,
OLYMPIAS, wife of Arsaces Tiranus, takes Prusa, viii. 23 ; conquest of
iii. 278; confounded by Gibbon with Bithynia, ib.; marries Theodoru,
Pharandsem, ib. note M.
daugnter of the cmperor John Cana
tacuzene, 26; treaty with the em Ossian's poems composed by a Cale-
press Anne respecting the sa.e of donian, i. 141, note ; whether correct
captives, 27 ; death, 28.
in the account of a campaign be-
ORESTEB, præfect of Egypt, assaulted tween Fingal and the emperor Sere
by the monks of Nitria, vi. 13.
rus, 266 and note ; his dispute with
ORESTES, the patrician, and commander a foreign missionary, ü, 213, note.
of the barbarian confederates, am-
OSRHOENE reduced by Trajan, i. 143.
bassador of Attila to Theodosius the OSRHOENE, kingdom of, reduced by the
Younger, iv. 209; second embassy, Romans, i. 342 ; duration of, 343,
217; deposes Nepos, 295 ; history of, note,
296; makes his son Augustulus em Ostia, port of, i. 189; described, iv.
peror of the West, ib. ; put to death 97; taken by Alaric, 98; an epis-
by Odoacer, 297.
copal city, ib. and note S. ; present
ORIENTALS, their insensibility, i. 218. state of, viii. 210.
ORIGEN, how he escaped temptation, ii. OSTROGOTHS AND VISIGOTHS, first cc-
187 and note ; his account of the currence of their names, i. 379, note
number of Christians, 214; his tes S. (v. Goths).
timony respecting the martyrs, 245 Otas the satrap, ii. 80.
and 246, note G.; attempts to con OTHMAN, secretary of Mahomet, revises
vert Mamæa, 259; theological cha the Koran, vi. 228 and note S.;
racter and opinions of, vi. 39 ; works elected to the caliphate, 271 ; nomi-
condemned as heretical by Justinian, nated by Abd Errahman, 272, note
S.; sect of “the return' sought
ORLANDO (Rutland or Rolando), death his dethronement, ib.; view of
of, vi. 171, note.
his reign and character, 273; re-
OBLEANS, besieged by Attila, iv. 232; bellion of the Charegites, ib. ; death,
relieved by Aëtius and Theodoric, 274.
OTHMAN, caliph, character and reign,
ORMUSD, principle of good, i. 334.
viii. 21 ; his real name was Osman,
Ormuz, city of, its history, viii. 44, ib, note S.; date of his invasion of
the territory of Nicomedia, 22.
OBOSIUS, account of the defeat of Ra OTHO I. or GREAT, king of Germany,
dagaisus, iv. 48.
genealogy, vi. 178 and note ; restores
ORTHODOXY and Arianism, their moral the Western empire, 179; fixes the
effects contrasted, iii. 369.
imperial crown in the German nation,
ORTHOGRUL, father of the caliph Oth ib.; obtains the nomination of the
man or Osman, his pastoral reign, popes, 182; campaign against and
viii. 21; death, 22, note S.
victory over the Hungarians, vii, 78.
ORTOK, hereditary emir of Jerusalem, OTHO II., emperor of the West, marries
Theophano, daughter of Romanus II.,
Osimo (Auximum) reduced by Beli emperor of Constantinople, vi. 104
sarius, v. 152.
punishes pope John XII. and the
OSIRIS, Egyptian deity, supplanted by revolt of the Romans, 185 ; accused
Serapis, iii. 417; identical with Bac of the treacherous murder of the
chus, 418, note S.
Osius, bishop of Cordova, his ascendant OTHO III, narrowly escapes the fury of
over Constantine the Great, ii. 18 the Romans, vi. 186 ; poisored by
and note ; presides in the council the widow of Crescentius, ib.
of Nice, 64; supports Athanasius Orno of Freysingen, bishop and his-
against Constantius II., 80; a con torian, leads a body of German cru-
demnation of that prelate extorted saders through Anatolia, vii, 244,
from him, ib.
note S.; nobleness of his family, viii.
OSMANLIS, correct name of the Otto 205, note.
mans, viii. 21.
OTHO DE LA ROCHE, duke of Athens
Osset, or Julia Constantia in Bætica, and Thebes, vii. 384.
miraculous fonts at, iv. 339 ; site of, OTRANTO, taken and sacked by the
Turks, viii. 185.
OTTOMAN empire, rise and progress of,
viii. 20; works on, ib. and notes M.
and S. ; its true æra, 23; its unity
restored, 69; hereditary succession
and merits of the Ottoman princes,
72; their obscure origin, ib.
OVID, exile of, i. 220, note ; ii. 358;
description of the Getæ and Sarma-
tians, ib.; character of his epistles
from Pontus, ib. note ; his Sarmatians
probably Jazygæ, 359.
OXFORD, university of, first teachers of
Greek at, viii. 117, note.
OXYRINCHUS, city of, seat of Christian
orthodoxy, iv. 308.
Pacatus, his panegyric on Theodosius
the Great, iii. 387.
PACHOMIUS, abbot, number of his fol-
lowers and monasteries, iv. 307.
Pacts, obligation of, v. 312 and note S.
PÆDERASTY, how punished by the
Scatinian law, v. 322; made capital by
the Christian emperors, ib. ; torture
added by Justinian, 323; charge of
used as an instrument of tyranny,
ib. and notes.
Petus, Ælius, his "Tripartite,' the
oldest work of Jurisprudence, vi.
Pagan, derivation and revolutions of
the term, ii. 100, notes ; true ety-
mology uncertain, ib. note S.
PAGANISM, not suppressed by Con-
stantine, iii, 97 and note ; edict of
Constantius II. against, 98; not
enforced, 99 ; lasted during the reigns
of the sons of Constantine, ib. ; its
ruin suspended by the division of the
Christians, 100; its destruction under
Theodosius the Great described, 406;
state of at Rome, 407; condemned
by a majority of the senate, 411;
abandoned by the Roman citizens,
412; M. Beugnot's account, 413,
note M.; restored by Julian, 147;
who attempts to roform it, 149; fall
of under Jovian, 230; final and abso-
lute edict of Theodosius against, 422;
long maintained in the rural districts,
ib. note M. ; pagan conformers, 424;
obtained civil and military bonours
under Theodosius, 425; last vestiges
of paganism, 426 and note M.; lin-
gered last in Asia Minor, vi. 37 ;
instances of in the fifteenth sentury,
viii. 119 and note.
Pagans, their increased seal against
Christianity, ii. 265; growth and
superstition among, ib. ; abandon the
study of philosophy, 266; of Pome,
their joy at the approach of Rada-
gaisus, iv. 47 and note M.; laws
against relaxed after the removal of
the minister Olympius, 95.
PAINTING successfully cultivated by
the Italians of the sixth century, v.
Palace of Caracalla and Geta, i. 267,
note; palaces of Justinian described,
PALÆOLOGI, gencalogy of the, vii. 362,
and 363 note S.; extinction of the
family of, viii. 180.
PALÆOLOGUS, Michael, guardian and
colleague of John, emperor of Nice,
negociations with theemperor Baldwin
II., vii.343; alliance with the Genoese,
344 ; recovers Constantinople, 346
and 367; family and character, 362;
dexterous evasion of a fiery ordeal,
364 ; great duke and governor of
Nice, 365; administration, ib.; as-
sumes the title of despot, and then
of emperor, 366 ; triumphal entry
into Constantinople, 368; blinds and
banishes his ward John Lascaris,
369; excommunication by and inter-
view with the patriarch Arsenius,
369, 370; conquests, 372; nego-
ciations with popes Urban IV. and
Gregory X., and union with the Latin
church, ib.; persecutes the Greeks,
374; fortifies Constantinople, 376;
assists the revolt of Sicily, 378;
surprised by the Tatars, viï. 19.
PALÆOLOGUS, Michael II., associated in
the empire by his father Andronicus,
vii. 390; death, 391.
PALÆOLOGUS, John, son of Andronicus
the Younger, takes up arms against
his guardian the emperor Cantacu-
zene, vii. 403; defeat and fight to
the isle of Tenedos, ib.; character
and reign, viii. 35; deposed and im-
prisoned, ib. ; divides the empire
with his eldest son and grandson, 36;
treaty with pope Innocent VI., 81;
visits pope Urban V. at Rome, 82;
acknowledges the pope's supremacy
and the double procession of the Holy
Ghost, ib.; negociates with John
Hawkwood, 83; arrested for debt at
PALÆOLOGUS, John II., his reign, viii.
72; Turkish tribute, ib.; divorces
nis wife and marries the princess of
Trebizond, 91; converts a Jew, ib.;
embarks on the pope's galleys, 95 ;
triumphal entry of Venice, 97; at-
tends the synods of Ferrara and Flo-
rence, 98, 99; effects a reunion with
the Latin church, 103; treaty with
the pope, ib. ; death, 139.
PALÆOLOGUS, Manuel, second son of
John, receives the imperial crown,
viii. 35; deposed and imprisoned
with his father, ib.; restoration and
civil wars with his cousin, 36; hu-
miliating treaty with the sultan Ba-
jazet, 37; obtains assistance from
France, ib.; abdicates in favour of
the prince of Selymbria, ib.; restored,
70; alliance with Soliman, son of
Bajazet, ib.; with Mahomet, ib.;
dismisses Mustapha, reputed son
of Bajazet, from custody, 71 ;
death, 72 ; his visit to and favour-
able reception at the court of
France, 84; to England, 85; negocia-
tions with pope Martin V., 89; his
double dealing, ib. ; private motives,
90; death, 91; history of his sons,
PALÆOLOGUS, Constantine, receives the
imperial crown at Sparta, viii. 140;
killed in the storm of Constantinople
by the Turks, 171.
PALÆOLOGUS, Andrew, son of Thomas,
despot of the Morea, sells his claim
to the empires of Constantinople and
Trebizond to Charles VIII. of France,
viii. 182 and note.
PALÆOLOGUS, Andronicus, son of John,
forms a conspiracy with Sauzes, son
of Amurath I., to murder their
fathers, viii. 35; his punishment,
ib. ; raised to the throne on the de-
position of his father, ib.; divides
the empire with his father, 36.
PALÆOLOGUS, Demetrius, attempts to
seize the throne on the death of John
II., viii. 139 ; despot of the Morea,
history of after the fall of Constanti-
nople, 180; deposed by Mahomet II.,
who marries his daughter, 181; dies
in a convent, 182.
PALÆOLOGUS, George, reizes the pavy
of Nicephorus Botaniates, ri
defends Durazzo against the Nar.
mans, vii, 121.
PALÆOLOGUS, Thomas, despot of the
Morea, history of after the fall of
Constantinople, viii. 180 ; takes re-
fuge at Rome, 182; fate of his family,
PALÆOLOGUS, Manuel, son of Thomas,
despot of the Morea, accepts the pro-
tection of Mahomet II., viï. 183.
PALÆOLOGUS, Michael, lieutenant of the
emperor Manuel, his conquests in
Italy, vii. 138.
Palazas, Gregory, monk of Athos, his
doctrine concerning the light of
mount Thabor, vii. 405.
PALANDERS, or horse-transports, vii.
298, 301, note.
PALATINES, what troops so called, ii.
321 ; how corrupted, 1.
PALERMO, taken by Belisarius by strata-
PALESTINE described, i. 160; Gibbon's
opinion respecting its fertility ex-
amined, ib., notes G. and M.; con-
quered by Chosroes II., v. 392 ; po-
pulation of in the time of king
David, vii. 230, note and note M.
PALESTRINA, or PRÆNESTE, seat of the
Colonna family, destroyed by pope
Boniface VIII., viii. 222.
PALLADIUM, attempt on by Elagabalus,
i. 281, note; probable account of, iii.
PALLADIUS, the notary, commissioned
by Valentinian to inquire into the
state of Africa, iii. 272; his corrup-
tion and treachery, 273.
PALLADIUS, son of the emperor Pe
tronius Maximus, marrics the daugh-
ter of Valentinian III., iv. 255.
Pallas, his fortune, i. 228, note.
Palma, A. Corn., lieutenant of Trajan,
conquers part of Arabia, i. 143, note
S.; subdues Bostra and Petra, vi.
PALMYRA described, ii. 23; besieged
by Aurelian, 24; ruins discovered,
ib. note; surrenders, 25; revolts,
26; destroyed by Aurelian, ib.
Pambo, the monk, sublime answer to
Melania, iv. 316, note.
PAMPHRONIUS, Roman patrician, his
embassy to Constantinople, v. 346.
PANDECTS, or Digest of Justinian, com.
pilation of, v. 283; etymology of
the word pandects, ib, note ; merits
and defects of the, 284; antinomies
of with the Cod., 285 ; emblemata
or forgeries of, ib. and note ; only one
MS. of, 286 and note; story of its
discovery, 287 and note M.; colla-
tions and editions, ib. and note S.
PANHYPERSEBASTOS, title invented by
Alexius Comnenus, vii. 18.
PANNONIA, or Hungary, described, i.
158 ; conquest of, 248; reduced by
Charlemagne, vi. 175.
PANNONIANS, their character, i. 248.
PANSOPHIA, v. Irene.
PANTHEON at Rome, consecrated as a
Christian church by pope Boniface
IV., iii. 416 and note ; viii. 274 and
note; plundered of its bronze tiles
by the emperor Constans, 275.
PANTOMIMES, Roman, described, iv. 87;
extensive knowledge required of, ib.
PAPENCORDT, Dr. Felix, his Life of
Rienzi, viii. 229, note M.
PAPER, manufacture of from linen in-
troduced from Samarcand, vi. 300 ;
imported into Samarcand from China,
ib, note ; paper MSS., ancient in the
PAPINIAN, prætorian præfect, i, 261 ;
his noble conduct and execution,
271; Gibbon corrected, ib, note W.;
his superior wisdom and authority as
a jurist, v. 279.
PAPIRIUS compiled the first code or
digest, v. 259, note and note S.
Para, son of Arsaces Tiranus, shares
the throne of Iberia with Aspacuras,
iii. 279; his adventures, 280, 899.;
assassinated by count Trajan, 281.
PARABOLANI, or visitors of the sick, at
Alexandria, iii. 32 ; account of, vi.
PARADISE, or Persian garden, v. 107,
note; Mahomet's described, vi. 236.
Paris in the time of Julian, ii. 424 ;
origin of its present name, 425, note;
Roman thermæ at, probable remains
of Julian's palace, iii. 107, note ;
saved from the Huns by St. Gene-
viève, iv. 232.
L'ARRICIDE, singular punishment of
among the Romans, v. 316 and note;
first at Rome, 317, note.
Parsees, modern, their views, i. 335,
PARTHIA subdued by Trajan, i. 143;
by Artaxerxes, 331 ; its government
resembled feudalism, 339; wars with
Rome recapitulated, 340.
PARTHOLANUS, the giant, i. 353, note.
Pascal, niece of, saved by a prickle of
the holy crown, vii. 342 and note.
PascHAL II., pope, his civil war with
the Romans, viii. 192.
PASCHAL CHRONICLE, its merits, v: 397,
note ; when composed, ib.
PASITIGRIS, or Shat-el-Arab, iii. 194,
PATERNAL AUTHORITY, absoluteness
and perpetuity of peculiar to the Ro-
mans, V. 291; exception, ib. note M.;
gradual limitations of, 292.
Patras, siege of by the Slavonians and
Saracens, vii. 8.
PATRICIAN of Rome, title of equivalen
to exarch of Ravenna, vi. 158 ; after
the revolt of Italy bestowed on
Charles Martel and his posterity, ib.
PATRICIANS, Roman, ii. 308; nearly
extinct in A.U.C. 800, 309 and note ,
title revived by Constantine, 309 ;
but with an altered meaning, 310
under the Greek empire, vi. 157.
PATRICIATE, Roman, restoration and
abolition of, viii. 201, and note S.
PATRICK, tutelar saint of Ireland, name
of whence derived, iv. 300, note.
PATRIPASSIANS, iii. 47, note M.; Sa-
bellians so called, 56, note.
Paul, St., his Epistle to the Romans,
ii. 196, note M.
Paul of Samosata, story of, ii. 262 ;
degraded from the episcopal cha-
racter by a council of bishops, 263 ;
the sentence enforced by Aurelian,
ib.; protected by Zenobia, ib. and
note M. ; Constantine's edict against
his followers, iii. 41.
Paul, orthodox bishop of Constanti-
nople, contest with Macedonius, iii.
90; persecutions and death, ib.
Paul of Cilicia defends the mole of
Hadrian against Totila, v. 227.
Paul, the civilian, juridical authority
conferred on by Theodosius II., v.
Paul, the hermit, Jerome's legend of,
ii. 244, note.
Paul of Tanis, patriarch of Alexandria,
expelled on a charge of murder, vi.
60 ; bribes for his return, ib.
Paula, spiritual pupil of Jerom, her
illustrious descent, iv. 71; proprio